Search results for: wind-energy-deployment-and-the-relevance-of-rare-earths

Wind Energy Deployment and the Relevance of Rare Earths

Author : Anja Brumme
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The worldwide deployment of wind power plants is soaring. Yet the availability of their construction materials could be a potential bottleneck. As rare earth elements represent the most critical materials, Anja Brumme provides a market analysis of rare earths, ascertaining that geological scarcity is not the main problem. Instead, the author identifies four kinds of market failure: market power, co-production, by-production and negative externalities. It becomes apparent that the market for rare earth metals is in a state of severe disequilibrium. Subsequently, her estimate of future rare earth demand patterns based on the wind power industry by 2050 reveals that the current level of supply is unlikely to be sufficient in the long run. To allow for a more elaborate analysis, the author suggests two options of including a rare earth side condition in an integrated assessment model.

Climate Finance Theory And Practice

Author : Markandya Anil
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How is the struggle against climate change financed? Climate Finance: Theory and Practice gives an overview of the key debates that have emerged in the field of climate finance, including those concerned with efficiency, equity, justice, and contribution to the public good between developed and developing countries. With the collaboration of internationally renowned experts in the field of climate finance, the authors of this book highlight the importance of climate finance, showing the theoretical aspects that influence it, and some practices that are currently being implemented or have been proposed to finance mitigation and adaptation policies in the developed and developing world.

Rare Earth Element Biochemistry Characterization and Applications of Lanthanide Binding Biomolecules

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This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Methods in Enzymology series

Rare Earths Industry

Author : Ismar Borges De Lima
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Rare Earths elements are composed of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table. Scandium and yttrium have similar properties, with mineral assemblages, and are therefore referred alike in the literature. Although abundant in the planet surface, the Rare Earths are not found in concentrated forms, thus making them economically valued as they are so challenging to obtain. Rare Earths Industry: Technological, Economic and Environmental Implications provides an interdisciplinary orientation to the topic of Rare Earths with a focus on technical, scientific, academic, economic, and environmental issues. Part I of book deals with the Rare Earths Reserves and Mining, Part II focuses on Rare Earths Processes and High-Tech Product Development, and Part III deals with Rare Earths Recycling Opportunities and Challenges. The chapters provide updated information and priceless analysis of the theme, and they seek to present the latest techniques, approaches, processes and technologies that can reduce the costs of compliance with environmental concerns in a way it is possible to anticipate and mitigate emerging problems. Discusses the influence of policy on Rare Earth Elements to help raise interest in developing strategies for management resource development and exploitation Global contributions will address solutions in countries that are high RE producers, including China, Brazil, Australia, and South China End of chapter critical summaries outline the technological, economic and environmental implications of rare earths reserves, exploration and market Provides a concise, but meaningful, geopolitical analysis of the current worldwide scenario and importance of rare earths exploration for governments, corporate groups, and local stakeholders

Geoscience for the Public Good and Global Development

Author : Gregory R. Wessel
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The Role of Rare Earth Elements in Wind Energy and Electric Mobility

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As the focus on climate change increases, several countries are implementing green strategies and rapidly switching to clean energy technologies. This is leading to an increase in demand for materials used to manufacture key components of such technologies, and the European Commission has already identified several of these components as critical raw materials, which raises concerns about the security of supply. Examples of critical raw materials are the rare earth elements, which are needed for the manufacturing of permanent magnets for wind turbine generators and electric vehicle motors, as well as for several applications in other fields. These elements are currently supplied mainly from China, and with demand increasing at a rapid pace there are fears of supply bottlenecks amid geopolitical tensions. On the other hand, following the rare earth crisis of the early 2010s, increased efforts have been made in terms of geological exploration and the development of alternative technologies, which may mitigate supply risks. This report aims to provide information, data and forecasts that can guide the discussion and put it into context.

The Ecological Modernization Capacity of Japan and Germany

Author : Lutz Mez
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Cognitive-strategic capabilities of a country are decisive for overcoming the strong path dependence in climate-related policies and to achieve ecological and economic modernization. This is the result of a unique comparison approach focusing on four highly intertwined policy areas (Automobiles, Nuclear Energy, Renewables and Rare Earth) in Japan and Germany. Both countries have in principle sufficient economic, technological and institutional capacities for an ecological transformation, but they are lacking an integrated policy strategy to mobilize and organize the existing capacities in favor of structural changes. The focused four policy areas are analyzed in depth and compared by experts from political science.

Deployment of Rare Earth Materials in Microware Devices RF Transmitters and Laser Systems

Author : A. R. Jha, Ph.D.
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Deployment of Rare Earth Materials in Microware Devices, RF Transmitters, and Laser Systems describes the deployment of rare earth materials that offer significant improvement in the RF performance, reliability, weight, and size of microwave devices, RF transmitters, and laser systems. RF components, microware transmitters, laser systems, and special timing devices are described, with an emphasis on improvement in the performance parameters.

Routledge Handbook of Energy Democracy

Author : Andrea M. Feldpausch-Parker
File Size : 56.57 MB
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This handbook offers a comprehensive transdisciplinary examination of the research and practices that constitute the emerging research agenda in energy democracy. With protests over fossil fuels and controversies over nuclear and renewable energy technologies, democratic ideals have contributed to an emerging social movement. Energy democracy captures this movement and addresses the issues of energy access, ownership, and participation at a time when there are expanding social, political, environmental, and economic demands on energy systems. This volume defines energy democracy as both a social movement and an academic area of study and examines it through a social science and humanities lens, explaining key concepts and reflecting state-of-the-art research. The collection is comprised of six parts: 1 Scalar Dimensions of Power and Governance in Energy Democracy 2 Discourses of Energy Democracy 3 Grassroots and Critical Modes of Action 4 Democratic and Participatory Principles 5 Energy Resource Tensions 6 Energy Democracies in Practice The vision of this handbook is explicitly transdisciplinary and global, including contributions from interdisciplinary international scholars and practitioners. The Routledge Handbook of Energy Democracy will be the premier source for all students and researchers interested in the field of energy, including policy, politics, transitions, access, justice, and public participation.

Raw Materials for Future Energy Supply

Author : Friedrich-W. Wellmer
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This is the first book that analyses the future raw materials supply from the demand side of a society that chiefly relies on renewable energies, which is of great significance for us all. It addresses primary and secondary resources and substitution, not only from technical but also socioeconomic and ethical points of view. The “Energiewende” (Energy Transition) will change our consumption of natural resources significantly. When in future our energy requirements will be covered mostly by wind, solar power and biomass, we will need less coal, oil and natural gas. However, the consumption of minerals, especially metallic resources, will increase to build wind generators, solar panels or energy storage facilities. Besides e.g. copper, nickel or cobalt, rare earth elements and other high-tech elements will be increasingly used. With regard to primary metals, Germany is 100 % import dependent; only secondary material is produced within Germany. Though sufficient geological primary resources exist worldwide, their availability on the market is crucial. The future supply of the market is dependent on the development of prices, the transparency of the market and the question of social and ethical standards in the raw materials industry, as well as the social license to operate, which especially applies to mining. The book offers a valuable resource for everyone interested in the future raw material supply of our way of life, which will involve more and more renewable energies.