Search results for: wind-climate-in-cities

Wind Climate in Cities

Author : Jack E. Cermak
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If one surveys the development of wind engineering, one comes to the conclusion that the challenge of urban climatology is one of the most important remaining tasks for the wind engineers. But what distinguishes wind engineering in urban areas from conventional wind engineering? Principally, the fact that the effects studied are usually unique to a particular situation, requiring consideration of the surroundings of the buildings. In the past, modelling criteria have been developed that make it possible to solve environmental problems with great confidence, and studies validated the models: at least in a neutrally stratified atmosphere. The approach adopted in the book is that of applied fluid mechanics, since this forms the basis for the evaluation of the urban wind field. Variables for air quality or loads are problem specific, or even random, and methods for studying them are based on risk analysis, which is also presented. Criteria are developed for a systematic approach to urban wind engineering problems, including parameter studies. The five sections of the book are: Fundamentals of urban boundary layer and dispersion; Forces on complex structures in built-up areas; Air pollution in cities; Numerical solution techniques; and Posters. A subject index is included.

International Workshop on CFD for Wind Climate in Cities

Author : International Wind Engineering Forum
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Urban Wind Environment

Author : Chao Yuan
File Size : 38.55 MB
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In the context of urbanization and compact urban living, conventional experience-based planning and design often cannot adequately address the serious environmental issues, such as thermal comfort and air quality. The ultimate goal of this book is to facilitate a paradigm shift from the conventional experience-based ways to a more scientific, evidence-based process of decision making in both urban planning and architectural design stage. This book introduces novel yet practical modelling and mapping methods, and provides scientific understandings of the urban typologies and wind environment from the urban to building scale through real examples and case studies. The tools provided in this book aid a systematic implementation of environmental information from urban planning to building design by making wind information more accessible to both urban planners and architects, and significantly increasing the impact of urban climate information on the practical urban planning and design. This book is a useful reference book to architectural postgraduates, design practitioners and planners, urban climate researchers, as well as policy makers for developing future livable and sustainable cities.

Ventilating Cities

Author : Shinsuke Kato
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The majority of the world’s population live in environments with artificially weakened wind as buildings in urban areas form wind-breaks and reduce wind speeds. Anthropogenic heat is also generated and during the summer dense urban areas suffer from the urban heat island effect, a known urban climate problem. This book discusses how to evaluate the urban wind environment, including ventilation performance and thermal comfort. This book is organized in two parts; Wind Environment and the Urban Environment and Criteria for Assessing Breeze Environments. It includes chapters on sea breeze in urban areas; thermal adaptation and the effect of wind on thermal comfort; health risk of exposures; pollutant transport in dense urban areas; legal regulations for urban ventilation and new criteria for assessing the local wind environment. Keywords: urban wind environments, urban heat island, urban climate, land use change, thermal comfort, risk assessment, urban air pollution, urban ventilation

Selected Papers Presented at the International Workshop on CFD for Wind Climate in Cities

Author : Shūzō Murakami
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Climate Change and Cities

Author : Cynthia Rosenzweig
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The Urban Climate Change Research Network's Second Assessment Report on Climate Change in Cities (ARC3.2) is the second in a series of global, science-based reports to examine climate risk, adaptation, and mitigation efforts in cities. The book explicitly seeks to explore the implications of changing climatic conditions on critical urban physical and social infrastructure sectors and intersectoral concerns. The primary purpose of ARC3.2 is to inform the development and implementation of effective urban climate change policies, leveraging ongoing and planned investments for populations in cities of developing, emerging, and developed countries. This volume, like its predecessor, will be invaluable for a range of audiences involved with climate change and cities: mayors, city officials and policymakers; urban planners; policymakers charged with developing climate change mitigation and adaptation programs; and a broad spectrum of researchers and advanced students in the environmental sciences.

Selected Papers Presented at the International Workshop on CFD for Wind Climate in Cities

Author : Shuzo Murakami
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Sustainability in Energy and Buildings

Author : John Littlewood
File Size : 58.31 MB
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This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th KES International Conference on Sustainability and Energy in Buildings 2019 (SEB19) held in Budapest, 4th -5th July 2019 organised by KES International in partnership with Cardiff Metropolitan University, Wales, UK. SEB-19 invited contributions on a range of topics related to sustainable buildings and explored innovative themes regarding sustainable energy systems. The aim of the conference was to bring together researchers, and government and industry professionals to discuss the future of energy in buildings, neighbourhoods and cities from a theoretical, practical, implementation and simulation perspective. The conference formed an exciting chance to present, interact, and learn about the latest research and practical developments on the subject. The conference attracted submissions from around the world. Submissions for the Full-Paper Track were subjected to a blind peer-review process. Only the best of these were selected for presentation at the conference and publication in these proceedings. It is intended that this volume provides a useful and informative snapshot of recent research developments in the important and vibrant area of Sustainability in Energy and Buildings.

The Climate of Cities

Author : James T. Peterson
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Urban Microclimate Modelling for Comfort and Energy Studies

Author : Massimo Palme
File Size : 43.62 MB
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​​This book discusses urban microclimate and heat-related risks in urban areas, brought on by the combination of global climate change effects and local modification of climate determined by extensive urbanization such as the ‘Urban heat island’ phenomenon. This matter is relevant to almost all urbanized areas in the world, where the increase of urban population and air temperature is expected to endanger both the overall health of the population and the energy supply for the functioning of urban systems. The book details the inter-relationship between urban morphology, microclimate and building energy performance and presents a multidisciplinary approach that brings together Urban Climatology, Engineering and Architectural knowledge to support the development of reliable models and tools for research and practice. This book is a useful tool for architects and building energy modelers, urban planners and geographers who need a practical guide to realize basic urban microclimate simulation for use in both academic research and planning practice.

Ventilating Cities

Author : Shinsuke Kato
File Size : 20.99 MB
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The majority of the world’s population live in environments with artificially weakened wind as buildings in urban areas form wind-breaks and reduce wind speeds. Anthropogenic heat is also generated and during the summer dense urban areas suffer from the urban heat island effect, a known urban climate problem. This book discusses how to evaluate the urban wind environment, including ventilation performance and thermal comfort. This book is organized in two parts; Wind Environment and the Urban Environment and Criteria for Assessing Breeze Environments. It includes chapters on sea breeze in urban areas; thermal adaptation and the effect of wind on thermal comfort; health risk of exposures; pollutant transport in dense urban areas; legal regulations for urban ventilation and new criteria for assessing the local wind environment. Keywords: urban wind environments, urban heat island, urban climate, land use change, thermal comfort, risk assessment, urban air pollution, urban ventilation

Geography of Climate Change

Author : Richard John Aspinall
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Climate change is one of the inescapable themes of current times. Climate change confronts society in issues as diverse as domestic and international political debate and negotiation, discussion in the media and public opinion, land management choices and decisions, and concerns about environmental, social and economic priorities now and for the future. Climate change also spans spatial, temporal and organisational scales, and has strong links with nature-society relationships, environmental dynamics, and vulnerability. Understanding the full range of possible consequences of climate change is essential for informed decision making and debate. This book provides a collection of chapters that span environmental, social and economic aspects of climate change. Together the chapters provide a diverse and contrasting series that highlights the need to analyze, review and debate climate change and its possible impacts and consequences from multiple perspectives. The book also is intended to promote discussion and debate of a more integrated, inclusive and open approach to climate change and demonstrates the value of geography in addressing climate change issues. This book was originally published as a special issue of Annals of the Association of American Geographers.

Cooling the Cities

Author : Matheos Santamouris
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The power consumption due to air-conditioning of buildings becomes particularly significant in an urban environment because the temperature of the air of dense urban districts is higher than in the suburbs. This phenomenon, as well as the increase in the standards of living and other factors namely heatwaves, contribute to the growth of the traditionally low demand for artificial air-conditioning in Europe. Case studies make it possible to measure the heat island effect (the accumulation of heat in cities), to characterize the additional electricity consumption of the buildings in an urban environment, and to give an overall picture of the practices, techniques and materials which can help to cool the cities. Priority is given to the practices which avoid the need for artificial air-conditioning by taking into account the environment, the use of vegetation and " cool " materials for the construction of pavements and buildings. For the remaining needs for air-conditioning, the present systems of air-conditioning can also become more energy efficient. Case studies conducted in Seville made it possible to measure the dispersion of the needs for air-conditioning around their average value for the various zones of the city. One of the case studies evaluates the benefit associated with the systematic plantation of trees and other plants in Athens. Another case study relates to Paris and estimates the importance of centralized solutions for air-conditioning in an urban environment. This book results from a study launched by the European Commission and is written by authors from three European countries very concerned by heatwaves and their effects downtown : Greece (Athens), Spain (Seville) and France (Paris). All of them are professors or researchers in very high level laboratories (Group Building Environmental Studies in Athens University, Energy Laboratory in Ecole des Mines de Paris and in Seville University).

Extreme Weather and Climate

Author : C. Donald Ahrens
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EXTREME WEATHER & CLIMATE is a unique textbook solution for the fast-growing market of non-majors science courses focused on extreme weather. With strong foundational coverage of the science of meteorology, EXTREME WEATHER & CLIMATE introduces the causes and impacts of extreme weather events and conditions. Students learn the science of meteorology in context of important and often familiar weather events such as Hurricane Katrina and they'll explore how forecast changes in climate may influence frequency and/or intensity of future extreme weather events. An exciting array of photos and illustrations brings the intensity of weather and its sometimes devastating impact to every chapter. Written by a respected and unique author team, this book blends coverage found in Don Ahrens market-leading texts with insights and technology support contributed by co-author Perry Samson. Professor Samson has developed an Extreme Weather course at the University of Michigan that is the fastest-growing science course at the university. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

National Security and Human Health Implications of Climate Change

Author : Harindra Joseph Fernando
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Climate change has been identified as one of the greatest threats to humanity of all times. In addition to producing adverse environmental conditions such as rising sea level, drought, crop failure, vector-borne diseases, extreme events, degradation of water/air quality and heat waves, climate change is also considered a threat multiplier that leads to local and international conflicts and armed interventions. Urban areas may bear the brunt of climate change, as they are the centers of human habitation, anthropogenic stressors and environmental degradation, and the ensuing health impacts are of grave societal concern. The papers in this volume span a suite of climate change repercussions, paying particular attention to national security and human health aspects. It is an outcome of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop held during April 28-30, 2011 in Dubrovnik, Croatia, sponsored by the NATO Science for Peace and Security Program. The contributions cut across the elements of modeling, natural, political and social sciences, engineering, politics, military intervention, urban planning, industrial activities, epidemiology and healthcare.

Climate Change Adaptation in New York City

Author : New York City Panel on Climate Change
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This volume is the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2010 Report. It contains the executive summary, chapters of the report, including the conclusions and recommendations, and three NPCC workbooks as appendices. The NPCC has prepared a set of climate change projections for the New York City region and has examined how climate change has the potential to both positively and negatively affect the critical infrastructure of New York City. It has suggested approaches to create an effective adaptation program for critical infrastructure, including ways to assess risks, prioritize strategies, and examine how standards and regulations may need to be adjusted in a changing climate.

Urban Form Wind Comfort and Sustainability

Author : Hyungkyoo Kim
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In 1985, spurred by the residents' strong interest in the quality of the built environment and in securing comfort in public open spaces, San Francisco became the first city in North America to adopt a downtown plan, supplemented by a planning code, on ground-level wind currents to mitigate the effects of adverse wind. Since then, the plan has mandated that new developments in the downtown and four additional areas in the Rincon Hill, South of Market, Van Ness, and South Beach neighborhoods, all associated with high density or development potential and substantial outdoor activities, be designed or adopt wind-baffling measures so as to not cause ground-level wind current in excess of 7 mph in places for seating and 11 mph in those for walking for no more than ten percent of the time year round, between 7 am and 6 pm, to minimize potential discomfort generated by excessive ground-level wind currents; and 26 mph for no more than one hour per year to secure pedestrian safety. This research examines whether San Francisco's plan on ground-level wind currents made the city's public open spaces more comfortable and what is the impact on use of sustainable transportation modes. More specifically, it studies (1) whether the plan changed San Francisco's urban form so as to provide a more wind-comfortable environment; (2) whether the wind speed criteria stipulated in the plan effective determinants of outdoor comfort in San Francisco; and (3) whether the plan achieves a wind comfort level that would increase the residents' willingness to use sustainable transportation modes. Two types of methods were adopted in this research: wind tunnel tests and field studies. The wind tunnel tests, carried out in 2013 at the Center for Environmental Design Research (CEDR), use a boundary layer wind tunnel in which the wind movement in a selected urban area is simulated through use of a scale model of the area's built form. The field study, carried out from July 2012 to December 2012, consisted of pedestrian survey combined with on-site collection of microclimate data, such as wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation. The two methods are effective in addressing the relationships that the sub-research questions seek to examine and the nature of the variables that need to be measured. They also successfully incorporate a mixed-method approach that amalgamates qualitative methods such as observation, interview, and mapping with quantitative statistical analyses. This research presents the following findings. First, San Francisco's wind planning has changed the city's urban form so as to provide a more wind comfortable environment. Through a series of simulations using the boundary layer wind tunnel and comparing the wind speed ratios at 318 locations in the selected sites of Yerba Buena, Van Ness, Civic Center, and Mission Bay North in the 1985 and 2013 urban form conditions, it was discovered that the overall mean wind speed ratio dropped by 22 percent from 0.279 in 1985 to 0.218 in 2013. It means that the urban forms of the four sites have been changed so that the expected actual ground-level wind speeds have decreased by the same rate. However, there still exist a number of excessively windy places in San Francisco that are associated with specific urban form conditions, including direct exposure of street orientation to the west wind, high-rise building façades that directly meet the ground, and continuous street walls. Second, through on-site surveys and microclimate measurements, it was discovered that wind speed significantly affects people's perceived outdoor comfort and that 11 mph is an effective criterion that determines outdoor thermal comfort in San Francisco. Significant differences are found in the frequency distributions of people's responses to all of the four comfort measures, which are thermal sensation, wind sensation, wind preference, and overall comfort. Also, the net effects of equivalent wind speed on the comfort measures are strong when the speed is less than 11 mph but become weaker when the speed is 11 mph or higher, meaning that there exists a difference in how much wind determines comfort between the two wind conditions. However, a wide range of dimensions on how people perceive wind and comfort exists, including adaptation, surrender, and avoid, which makes it difficult to judge the effectiveness easily. Third, the research findings suggest that San Francisco's wind planning does not achieve a wind comfort level that would increase people's willingness to use sustainable transportation modes. It was found that higher wind levels discourage people to wait at transit stop with no shelter, to bike, to walk outside, or to sit outside. Also, significant differences with regard to people's willingness to use sustainable transportation modes exist between when the equivalent wind speed is less than 11 mph and when it is 11 mph or higher. However, the net effects of equivalent wind speed in both wind conditions were not statistically significant, indicating that the criterion does not successfully determine whether people are comfortable enough to be willing to use sustainable transportation modes. Although the criterion was not originally developed to consider the use of sustainable transportation modes, it can be suggested that the criterion can be revised. A wide range of solutions must be studies for cities in varied climate regions. Cities and regions should not only study and develop their own climate-based ways to make a more climate-responsive city but also vigorously evaluate their effectiveness. Collaboration and cooperation between urban design, urban climatology, and many other relevant fields of expertise is crucial in future research and practice.

Technological Advancements in Construction

Author : Angela Mottaeva
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The book consists of original research papers in the field of Technological Advancements in Construction. It covers such topics as non-destructive testing, structural health monitoring, innovative composite materials, strengthening and rehabilitation of buildings and structures, seismic resilience of structures, thermal protection of buildings, construction and operation of buildings and structures in extreme climatic conditions, structural dynamics and vibration control, and green construction. The book contains latest information on structural mechanics of composite materials and structures, theoretical and computational modeling of new materials and structures, experimental and numerical analysis in building rehabilitation and strengthening, analytical, numerical and experimental methodologies for the analysis of multilayered structures, and advanced methods for seismic performance evaluation of building structures. The book includes original research and application papers of high academic level, where significant scientific novelty is clearly demonstrated. The book presents a valuable tool for researchers and construction professionals.

Adapting Buildings and Cities for Climate Change

Author : David Crichton
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From the bestselling author of Ecohouse, this fully revised edition of Adapting Buildings and Cities for Climate Change provides unique insights into how we can protect our buildings, cities, infra-structures and lifestyles against risks associated with extreme weather and related social, economic and energy events. Three new chapters present evidence of escalating rates of environmental change. The authors explore the growing urgency for mitigation and adaptation responses that deal with the resulting challenges. Theoretical information sits alongside practical design guidelines, so architects, designers and planners can not only see clearly what problems they face, but also find the solutions they need, in order to respond to power and water supply needs. Considers use of materials, structures, site issues and planning in order to provide design solutions. Examines recent climate events in the US and UK and looks at how architecture was successful or not in preventing building damage. Adapting Buildings and Cities for Climate Change is an essential source, not just for architects, engineers and planners facing the challenges of designing our building for a changing climate, but also for everyone involved in their production and use.

Sustainable Cities

Author : Graham Haughton
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This book tackles two issues: sustainable environmental development and urban development. It brings together the insights of environmental science, the social science and management.