Search results for: why-leaders-lie

Why Leaders Lie

Author : John J. Mearsheimer
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Presents an analysis of the lying behavior of political leaders, discussing the reasons why it occurs, the different types of lies, and the costs and benefits to the public and other countries that result from it, with examples from the recent past.

Why Leaders Lie The Truth About Lying in International Politics

Author : John J. Mearsheimer
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For more than two decades, John J. Mearsheimer has been regarded as one of the foremost realist thinkers on foreign policy. Clear and incisive as well as a fearlessly honest analyst, his coauthored 2007 New York Times bestseller, The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, aroused a firestorm with its unflinching look at the making of America's Middle East policy. Now he takes a look at another controversial but understudied aspect of international relations: lying.In Why Leaders Lie, Mearsheimer provides the first systematic analysis of lying as a tool of statecraft, identifying the varieties, the reasons, and the potential costs and benefits. Drawing on a wealth of examples, he argues that leaders often lie for good strategic reasons, so a blanket condemnation is unrealistic and unwise. Yet there are other kinds of deception besides lying, including concealment and spinning. Perhaps no distinction is more important than that between lying to another state and lying to one's own people. Mearsheimer was amazed to discover how unusual interstate lying has been; given the atmosphere of distrust among the great powers, he found that outright deceit is difficult to pull off and thus rarely worth the effort. Moreover, it sometimes backfires when it does occur. Khrushchev lied about the size of the Soviet missile force, sparking an American build-up. Eisenhower was caught lying about U-2 spy flights in 1960, which scuttled an upcoming summit with Krushchev. Leaders are more likely to mislead their own publics than other states, sometimes with damaging consequences. Though the reasons may be noble--Franklin Roosevelt, for example, lied to the American people about German U-boats attacking the destroyer USS Greer in 1940, to build a case for war against Hitler-they can easily lead to disaster, as with the Bush administration's falsehoods about Iraq's weapons of mass destruction.There has never been a sharp analysis of international lying. Now a leading expert provides a richly informed and powerfully argued work that will change our understanding of why leaders lie.

Liddell Hart and the Weight of History

Author : John J. Mearsheimer
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This troubling book offers a striking illustration of how history can be used and abused--how a gifted individual can create their own self-serving version of the past.

Conventional Deterrence

Author : John J. Mearsheimer
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Conventional Deterrence is a book about the origins of war. Why do nations faced with the prospect of large-scale conventional war opt for or against an offensive strategy? John J. Mearsheimer examines a number of crises that led to major conventional wars to explain why deterrence failed. He focuses first on Allied and German decision making in the years 1939–1940, analyzing why the Allies did not strike first against Germany after declaring war and, conversely, why the Germans did attack the West. Turning to the Middle East, he examines the differences in Israeli and Egyptian strategic doctrines prior to the start of the major conventional conflicts in that region. Mearsheimer then critically assays the relative strengths and weaknesses of NATO and the Warsaw Pact to determine the prospects for conventional deterrence in any future crisis. He is also concerned with examining such relatively technical issues as the impact of precision-guided munitions (PGM) on conventional deterrence and the debate over maneuver versus attrition warfare.Mearsheimer pays considerable attention to questions of military strategy and tactics. Challenging the claim that conventional detrrence is largely a function of the numerical balance of forces, he also takes issue with the school of thought that ascribes deterrence failures to the dominance of "offensive" weaponry. In addition to examining the military consideration underlying deterrence, he also analyzes the interaction between those military factors and the broader political considerations that move a nation to war.

International Politics and Inner Worlds

Author : Kurt Jacobsen
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This book takes radical aim at the conventional conduct of international relations analysis. It reexamines the role of ideas, the usefulness of psychoanalysis, the rage for and at rational choice, the influence of the public on foreign policy, counterinsurgency evangelism, and development orthodoxies at the national and genetic levels. Drawing a bead on conceptual blind spots prevalent both inside and outside the academy, the book urges scholars to reflect on how inner worlds shape the actions of their subjects—and their own research analyses, as well.

Deceit on the Road to War

Author : John M. Schuessler
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In Deceit on the Road to War, John M. Schuessler examines how U.S. presidents have deceived the American public about fundamental decisions of war and peace. Deception has been deliberate, he suggests, as presidents have sought to shift blame for war onto others in some cases and oversell its benefits in others. Such deceit is a natural outgrowth of the democratic process, in Schuessler’s view, because elected leaders have powerful incentives to maximize domestic support for war and retain considerable ability to manipulate domestic audiences. They can exploit information and propaganda advantages to frame issues in misleading ways, cherry-pick supporting evidence, suppress damaging revelations, and otherwise skew the public debate to their benefit. These tactics are particularly effective before the outbreak of war, when the information gap between leaders and the public is greatest. When resorting to deception, leaders take a calculated risk that the outcome of war will be favorable, expecting the public to adopt a forgiving attitude after victory is secured. The three cases featured in the book—Franklin Roosevelt and World War II, Lyndon Johnson and the Vietnam War, and George W. Bush and the Iraq War—test these claims. Schuessler concludes that democracies are not as constrained in their ability to go to war as we might believe and that deception cannot be ruled out in all cases as contrary to the national interest.

Mindwise

Author : Nicholas Epley
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You are a mind reader, born with an extraordinary ability to understand what others think, feel, believe, want, and know. It’s a sixth sense you use every day, in every personal and professional relationship you have. At its best, this ability allows you to achieve the most important goal in almost any life: connecting, deeply and intimately and honestly, to other human beings. At its worst, it is a source of misunderstanding and unnecessary conflict, leading to damaged relationships and broken dreams. How good are you at knowing the minds of others? How well can you guess what others think of you, know who really likes you, or tell when someone is lying? How well do you really understand the minds of those closest to you, from your spouse to your kids to your best friends? Do you really know what your coworkers, employees, competitors, or clients want? In this illuminating exploration of one of the great mysteries of the human mind, University of Chicago psychologist Nicholas Epley introduces us to what scientists have learned about our ability to understand the most complicated puzzle on the planet—other people—and the surprising mistakes we so routinely make. Why are we sometimes blind to the minds of others, treating them like objects or animals? Why do we sometimes talk to our cars, or the stars, as if there is a mind that can hear us? Why do we so routinely believe that others think, feel, and want what we do when, in fact, they do not? And why do we believe we understand our spouses, family, and friends so much better than we actually do? Mindwise will not turn other people into open books, but it will give you the wisdom to revolutionize how you think about them—and yourself.

Routledge Handbook of Media Conflict and Security

Author : Piers Robinson
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This Handbook links the growing body of media and conflict research with the field of security studies. The academic sub-field of media and conflict has developed and expanded greatly over the past two decades. Operating across a diverse range of academic disciplines, academics are studying the impact the media has on governments pursuing war, responses to humanitarian crises and violent political struggles, and the role of the media as a facilitator of, and a threat to, both peace building and conflict prevention. This handbook seeks to consolidate existing knowledge by linking the body of conflict and media studies with work in security studies. The handbook is arranged into five parts: Theory and Principles. Media, the State and War Media and Human Security Media and Policymaking within the Security State New Issues in Security and Conflict and Future Directions For scholars of security studies, this handbook will provide a key point of reference for state of the art scholarship concerning the media-security nexus; for scholars of communication and media studies, the handbook will provide a comprehensive mapping of the media-conflict field.

American Political Culture An Encyclopedia 3 volumes

Author : Mark J. Rozell
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This all-encompassing encyclopedia provides a broad perspective on U.S. politics, culture, and society, but also goes beyond the facts to consider the myths, ideals, and values that help shape and define the nation. • Offers approximately 225 entries covering U.S. politics, culture, society, and beliefs • Includes an introductory overview of the forces that have shaped and continue to shape American political culture and a concluding essay that gathers key thematic threads and looks toward the future • Covers the myriad ways in which American political culture influences other aspects of American society • Examines how cultural symbols and beliefs are manipulated to advance political interests and establish government authority • Connects new issues such as social media and sexual politics with the political culture

The Unknowers

Author : Linsey McGoey
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Deliberate ignorance has been known as the ‘Ostrich Instruction’ in law courts since the 1860s. It illustrates a recurring pattern in history in which figureheads for major companies, political leaders and industry bigwigs plead ignorance to avoid culpability. So why do so many figures at the top still get away with it when disasters on their watch damage so many people’s lives? Does the idea that knowledge is power still apply in today’s post-truth world? A bold, wide-ranging exploration of the relationship between ignorance and power in the modern age, from debates over colonial power and economic rent-seeking in the 18th and 19th centuries to the legal defences of today, The Unknowers shows that strategic ignorance has not only long been an inherent part of modern power and big business, but also that true power lies in the ability to convince others of where the boundary between ignorance and knowledge lies.

The Way to Immortality

Author : Bei Hai
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Inside the second-hand phone Chen Hao bought, there was actually a Heavenly Court's welfare group, various great gods crazily sent red packets, and a Heavenly Court store that had all sorts of martial skills, pills, pets, weapons, and magical equipment! Thus, the ordinary university student, Chen Hao, embarked on the bizarre path of cultivation.

Leaders Ought to Know

Author : Phillip Van Hooser
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Globally acclaimed leadership development expert, Phillip Van Hooser, teaches the ground rules of common sense leadership There are just some things every leader ought to know – like how to earn an employee’s respect, how to be truthful and be taken seriously as a leader. Leaders should also realize and recognize the negative habits and counter-productive behaviors that can be their downfall. Certain to be one of your top books on personal leadership development, Leaders Ought To Know will get all leaders -- new leaders, mid-level or executive managers -- familiar with the ground rules of leadership. Kick start your company's leadership development program with this common sense guide from Phillip Van Hooser, a top leadership development expert -- learn how to do more of the right things while avoiding the common leadership mistakes that trip up so many.

The Garden of Leaders

Author : Paul Woodruff
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The Garden of Leaders explores two related questions: What is leadership? And what sort of education could prepare young people to be leaders? Paul Woodruff argues that higher education--particularly but not exclusively in the liberal arts--should set its main focus on cultivating leadership in students. Woodruff advances a new view of liberal arts education that places leadership at the root of everything it does, so that students will be prepared to lead in their lives and careers--and not necessarily in management roles. Woodruff views the contemporary university as sorely lacking an emphasis on leadership, and presents three core sets of recommendations for how they can and should foster it. First, Woodruff posits co-curricular groups, activities, and projects as essential activities for students to gain confidence and leadership skills. Administrations should encourage students to engage in activities outside the classroom, convert coached sports teams into student-led clubs as far as possible, and discourage social organizations that are segregated by race or sex. Second, Woodruff advocates for a different curriculum for all undergraduates, no matter their major-arguing that they need to be taught leadership in the forms of key skills including communication (including good writing, listening, and speaking), as well as exposure to key material in history literature, social science, and ethics. Students should be asked to consider the hardest ethical dilemmas that leaders face, toggling between Machiavelli and great ethical thinkers such as Confucius and Socrates. Third, Woodruff calls for the teaching methods used by instructors to re-orient themselves around the question of leadership, particularly by emphasizing teamwork. Professors should respect their students' independence, avoid tyrannical teaching, and remember that all teachers teach ethics simply by the examples they set in dealing with students. Whether in engineering, music, or classics, The Garden of Leaders advances leadership as a core value that should be at the heart of the educational enterprise-contending that while a college campus can be many things, it should at the very least be a ground upon which new leaders can grow.

Why Leaders Fight

Author : Michael C. Horowitz
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The history of political events is made by people. From wars to elections to political protests, the choices we make, our actions, how we behave, dictate events. Not all individuals have the same impact on our world and our lives. Some peoples' choices alter the pathways that history takes. In particular, national chief executives play a large role in forging the destinies of the countries they lead. Why Leaders Fight is about those world leaders and how their beliefs, world views, and tolerance for risk and military conflict are shaped by their life experiences before they enter office - military, family, occupation, and more. Using in-depth research on important leaders and the largest set of data on leader backgrounds ever gathered, the authors of Why Leaders Fight show that - within the constraints of domestic political institutions and the international system - who ends up in office plays a critical role in determining when and why countries go to war.

Finding Our Way to the Truth

Author : Sarah Ciavarri
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In Finding Our Way to the Truth, Sarah Ciavarri explores lies of a particularly insidious sort--lies masquerading as truths. These lies can be so engrained in how we were raised, the culture we live in, and the type of thinking that has kept us safe that we don't notice how they inform our decisions and affect the way we lead, work, parent, and live. The lies Ciavarri examines aren't the obvious ones. They are sneaky--lies that can be benign, even helpful, such as "I should finish what I start," "People must like me," and "I'm responsible for it all." But these lies can keep us from owning our ideas and strengths, following a dream, confronting dysfunction, or enjoying deeper, more honest relationships. They can replace a sense of well-being and hope with regret and resentment. Ciavarri tells engaging personal stories to help readers recognize seven common lies that leaders often tell themselves. She then demonstrates a three-step process for unmasking each lie: pay attention, examine, and apply the learning. We do better when we stop listening to the lies. God wants better for us, and we were created for better. Finding Our Way to the Truth shows us the way.

Lying in State

Author : Eric Alterman
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This definitive history of presidential lying reveals how our standards for truthfulness have eroded -- and why Trump's lies are especially dangerous. If there's one thing we know about Donald Trump, it's that he lies. But he's by no means the first president to do so. In Lying in State, Eric Alterman asks how we ended up with such a pathologically dishonest commander in chief, showing that, from early on, the United States has persistently expanded its power and hegemony on the basis of presidential lies. He also reveals the cumulative effect of this deception-each lie a president tells makes it more acceptable for subsequent presidents to lie-and the media's complicity in spreading misinformation. Donald Trump, then, represents not an aberration but the culmination of an age-old trend. Full of vivid historical examples and trenchant analysis, Lying in State is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand how we arrived in this age of alternative facts.

When Presidents Lie

Author : Eric Alterman
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Assesses the impact of governmental and presidential lies on American culture, revealing how such lies become ever more complex and how such deception creates problems far more serious than those lied about in the beginning.

The Religious Test Why We Must Question the Beliefs of Our Leaders

Author : Damon Linker
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Discusses the Constitutional concept of there being “no religious test” for candidates aspiring to political office and the author's opposing view that various elements of religious belief, including atheism, are incompatible with high office in a democracy.

The Alphabet of Leadership

Author : Maxwell Ubah
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Todays leadership challenges cannot be solved with yesterdays knowledge, assumptions, and understanding. Old paradigms and models will have to give way to new paradigms and models for todays leaders to lead their constituentsand the organisations they leadto greatness. Using a revolutionary concept, the 4P concept, and a simple formula that leadership = relationships results The Alphabet of Leadership is a comprehensive field guide for todays leaders to navigate todays business complexities and the murky waters of hypercompetition and achieve breakthrough results. Covering twenty-six chapters with real-life examples, anecdotes, lessons and concepts, this book covers the essential topics facing todays leaders such as: The leadership attitude that guarantees greatness The six essentials every leader must communicate to create a high-performance team Making tough decisions Engaging constituents to achieve breakthrough results Growing team members Motivating staff to achieve high performance Executing with excellence Holding people accountable Dealing with eagles, peacocks, ducks and vultures in performance management Trust improves the bottom line Four ways leaders create sustainable value Wonders happen in an atmosphere of positive stretch and fair rewards And lots more. Irrespective of where you find yourself in your leadership journey, you will find rich nuggets in the following pages to help you improve on your personal leadership effectiveness and the overall performance of your team. If you need easy, practical and proven leadership concepts that works, then this book is for you!

The Talisman

Author : Walter Scott
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