Search results for: vibrio-cholerae

Vibrio Cholerae

Author : Aleksandra E. Sikora
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This volume looks at the importance of V. cholerae as an infection agent, and explores the latest techniques used to study it. The chapters in this book cover topics such as the biology of V. cholerae; laboratory maintenance and culturing; various animals models developed to explain pathogenesis and factors for environmental survival; and holistic approaches that include proteomics, metabolomics, and high-throughput screening. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and authoritative, Vibrio cholerae: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for both novice microbiologists who want to focus their studies on V. cholerae, and experienced researchers and teachers who want to improve their knowledge and skills in this growing field.

Cholera and the Ecology of Vibrio cholerae

Author : B.S. Drasar
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Only in recent years has it been revealed that V. cholerae is a normal inhabitant of esturine and riverine waters. This means that even if the disease can be eliminated from human population by vaccines etc. the vibrio will continue to survive independently in the environment. It is likely that the environment is the source of epidemic strains. This is the first book to focus on the implication of these discoveries.

Analysis of Coordinate Virulence Gene Regulation in Vibrio Cholerae by the Transcription Activator Toxt

Author : Rosa Rong-Ying Yu
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C DI GMP Signaling in Vibrio Cholerae

Author : Sinem Beyhan Pelvan
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Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Vibrio Cholerae

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Vibrio Cholerae and Cholera

Author : F. A. Blake
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Presents the latest molecular studies of virulence, colonization, gene regulation, and the O1 antigen. Gives an in-depth and analytical approach to the epidemiology of cholera that includes outbreak investigations, case-control studies, and surveillance functions. Describes the molecular approach to epidemiologic problems and questions. Tracks the global spread of cholera by genetically defining individual strains. Addresses possible intervention and prevention strategies, including the latest vaccines, and their public health relevance.

Environmental Regulation of Biofilm Formation in Vibrio Cholerae

Author : Kivanc Bilecen
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The Physiological Effects of Deoxycholic Acid on Vibrio Cholerae

Author : Sandra Ann Smith
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Annotated Bibliography on Classical Vibrio Cholerae

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Characterization of SipA a Protein Important for Stress Responses in Vibrio Cholerae

Author : Jessica Saul-McBeth
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Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, a diarrheal disease that occurs most often in developing countries. Although V. cholerae is an important pathogen, and its genome has been sequenced, there are many hypothetical genes and putative regulators that remain uncharacterized. Previous studies aimed to determine the function of an uncharacterized two-component system (TCS), VC1638/39 and the global transcriptional response of V. cholerae to antimicrobial peptide (AMP) stress. The results of this work led to our current investigation of an interesting hypothetical gene VCA0732, renamed sipA (stress-inducible-protein A). Transcriptomic studies revealed that sipA was highly induced by antimicrobial peptide stress and its expression was dependent on the VC1638/39 TCS. Therefore, my studies aimed to further investigate the function of SipA in V. cholerae. SipA has two orthologs in E. coli (YgiW) and S. Typhimurium (YdeI), and we first examined whether SipA shared any of the known functions of these proteins. We found that a mutant of sipA is sensitive to cadmium chloride and hydrogen peroxide stress, similar to what was observed for its orthologs. In addition, SipA is also periplasmically localized. One striking difference is that YgiW and YdeI are required for survival during AMP exposure, while SipA initially was found not to be important. However, subsequent studies showed that SipA is required for survival in V. cholerae strains that do not have a functional lipid A modification system, suggesting that it does play a role in AMP resistance. Interestingly, we found that SipA physically interacts with both AMPs and OmpA in the periplasm. This suggests a possible mechanism of action for SipA, where it may function to bind AMPs that access the periplasm and shuttle them to OmpA for delivery out of the cell. In addition, we found that in the absence of sipA, increased amounts of AMPs are loaded into outer membrane vesicles. Therefore, we theorize that there are multiple layers of AMP-resistance mechanisms in V. cholerae. The first layer is the presence of a lipid A modification system that prevents AMP entry. In the absence of this system, SipA and OmpA act together to coordinate removal of AMPs that enter the periplasm. Finally, in the absence of sipA, AMPs are likely nonspecifically loaded into vesicles for removal from the cell. Collectively, the results presented in this dissertation support the hypothesis that sipA is a gene important for resistance to AMPs and other stresses in V. cholerae. Through characterizing the function of SipA, we were able to identify an additional layer of stress resistance that was previously uncharacterized.

Risk Assessment of Choleragenic Vibrio Cholerae 01 and 0139 in Warm water Shrimp in International Trade

Author : World Health Organization
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Choleragenic Vibrio cholerae 01 and 0139 are the causative agent of cholera, a water-and-food-borne disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. This report focuses on the risk of acquiring cholera from warm-water shrimps in international trade. Shrimp is a very important export product from many developing countries but outbreaks of cholera in these countries can have devastating effects on the international markets for their food products. This volume looks at different approaches for assigning the risk associated with choleragenic V. Cholerae in warm-water shrimp in international trade. Qualitative and quantitative approaches to assessing risk were developed and compared and risk estimates were made using the available and relevant data. --Publisher's description.

Risk Assessment of Choleragenic Vibrio Cholerae 01 and 0139 in Warm water Shrimp in International Trade

Author : World Health Organization
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Choleragenic Vibrio cholerae 01 and 0139 are the causative agents of cholera a water- and food- borne disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. This report focuses on the risk of acquiring cholera from warm-water shrimp in international trade. Shrimp is a very important export product for many developing countries but outbreaks of cholera in these countries can have devastating effects on the international markets for their food products. This volume looks at different approaches for assessing the risk associated with choleragenic V. cholerae in warm-water shrimp in international trade. Qualitative and quantitative approaches to assessing risk were developed and compared and risk estimates were made using the available and relevant data. This volume and others in this Microbiological Risk Assessment Series contain information that is useful to both risk assessors and risk managers the Codex Alimentarius Commission governments and food regulatory agencies scientists food producers and industries and other people or institutions with an interest in Vibrio spp., in seafoods, their impact on public health and food trade, and the use of microbiological risk assessment in developing control strategies.

Molecular Characterization of Rtx Toxin of Vibrio Cholerae Causing Epidemics

Author : Ka-Hang Chow
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This dissertation, "Molecular Characterization of RTX Toxin of Vibrio Cholerae Causing Epidemics" by Ka-hang, Chow, 周嘉恆, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. DOI: 10.5353/th_b4257589 Subjects: Vibrio cholerae Vibrio cholerae - Genetic aspects Vibrio cholerae - Epidemiology - China - Hong Kong

Molecular Mechanisms of

Author : Arunava Bandyopadhaya
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Cholera remains a devastating bacterial cause of human morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The diseases is produced by a gram-negative, motile Vibrio cholerae that colonizes in the human intestine and secretes a potent cholera toxin, which ultimately stimulates cellular adenylate cyclase to cause massive intestinal fluid loss leading to profuse watery diarrhea. Live-attenuated V. cholerae vaccines harboring deletions of cholera toxin have great promise for reducing the global burden of cholera. However, development of live vaccines has been hampered by the tendency of such strains to induce reactogenic diarrhea in human subjects. The molecular bases of reactogenicity are unknown. In this dissertation, we have illustrated the molecular mechanisms of host-V. cholerae interaction as well reactogenic mechanism of V. cholerae vaccines. The basic concepts of host-pathogen interaction provide new avenues for translational approach to develop the efficient human vaccine and novel therapeutics.

Vibrio Cholerae

Author : Shah M. Faruque
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The last decade has witnessed the unravelling of remarkable new insights into the biology of Vibrio cholerae. These include the discovery of the filamentous phage that encodes cholera toxin, the existence of two chromosomes in V. cholerae, and the sequencing of the whole genome of the V. cholerae O1 strain N16961. These pioneering works have led to an inevitable escalation in the amount of data generated. This book distills the essence of this mighty deluge of information, providing a timely review of the genomics and molecular biology of this important human pathogen. Written by leading V. cholerae experts, the chapters review the most important cutting-edge genetic facets of V. cholerae including its genomic organization, population genetics, molecular epidemiology, and synchronized regulation of gene expression. Other topics include the molecular basis for enhanced transmissibility of cholera during epidemics, survival of the pathogen in the environment, and above all the evolution of the species to attain increased fitness both as a pathogen and an environmental organism. This book is essential reading for everyone with an interest in Vibrio. It is recommended reading for scientists working in microbial pathogenesis, microbial genomics, and antimicrobial research.

Molecular Epidemiology of Vibrio Cholerae in Iraq

Author : Tahreer Hadi Al-Naddawi
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Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which produces an enterotoxin that causes sever diarrhea which characterized by copious, painless, watery stool. Recent developments in DNA analysis techniques have introduced and have permitted studies of the epidemiology of V.cholerae on a larger global perspective. These techniques include RFLPS in different genes, plasmid profile, southern blot analysis, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE), DNA sequencing methods, and PCR. Till now, no study have been performed in Iraq concerning the genetic variation in clinical and environmental isolates of V. cholerae isolated during the past outbreaks periods that occurred in different parts of Iraq from 2007 to 2009. This book provides several methods, including traditional and genetic methods for detection of susceptibility, virulence factors, and molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae isolated from patients and environment in Iraq.

Characterization and Transcriptional Control of the Vibrio Cholerae ToxT Gene

Author : Darren E. Higgins
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Molecular Epidemiology of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli and Vibrio Cholerae in Hong Kong

Author : Wing-Cheong Yam
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This dissertation, "Molecular Epidemiology of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli and Vibrio Cholerae in Hong Kong" by Wing-cheong, Yam, 任永昌, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. DOI: 10.5353/th_b3123243 Subjects: Vibrio cholerae Escherichia coli - Epidemiology - China - Hong Kong Vibrio cholerae - Epidemiology - China - Hong Kong Diarrhea, Infantile - China - Hong Kong

Characterization of the Vibrio Cholerae Phage Shock Protein Response

Author : Cara Marie DeAngelis
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Cholera is a severe intestinal infection characterized by voluminous, watery diarrhea that can be fatal within hours. It is caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae of serogroups O1 and O139. While rare in the United States and other industrialized nations, cholera is endemic in more than 50 countries. In both its aquatic and intestinal life cycles, V. cholerae encounters various stressful conditions, such as fluctuating pH, bacteriophage predation, and exposure to antimicrobial peptides that may disrupt the cell envelope. The phage shock protein (Psp) system is a stress response pathway that senses and responds to inner membrane damage. The genetic components of the Psp system are present in several clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria, including V. cholerae. However, most of the current knowledge about the Psp response stems from in vitro studies in Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica. In fact, the Psp response in V. cholerae has remained completely uncharacterized. In this dissertation, it is demonstrated that V. cholerae does have a functional Psp response system. The overexpression of GspD (EpsD), the type II secretion system secretin, induces the Psp response, whereas other V. cholerae secretins do not. In addition, several environmental conditions were identified as inducers of this stress response. Experiments on the genetic regulation and induction of the Psp system in V. cholerae suggest that the key regulatory elements are conserved with those of other Gram-negative bacteria. While a psp null strain is fully capable of colonizing the infant mouse intestine, it exhibits a colonization defect in a zebrafish model, indicating that this response may be important for disease transmission in the environment. Overall, these studies provide an initial understanding of a stress response pathway that has not been previously investigated in V. cholerae.

Proteins of Type II Secretion System in Vibrio Cholerae

Author : Harry Sung Lee
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