Search results for: trade-and-tax-policy-inflation-and-exchange-rates

Trade and Tax Policy Inflation and Exchange Rates

Author : Assaf Razin
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Ass a f R a z i nand Hans-Jiirgen Vosgerau The eight chapters of this volume have been grouped into two parts. Part A of contains chapters which are mainly monetary in character, whereas real aspects international economics are treated in Part B. It goes without saying that this is only a device for structuring the field. In substance most chapters reveal the close connections between real and monetary aspects. Part A on "Inflation, Exchange Rates, and Macro-Economic Adjustment in the Global Economy" consists of four papers. In recent years, an inflation targeting framework for monetary policy has been adopted by New Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom, Finland, Sweden, Australia, and Spain (in chronological order). The use of inflation targeting can be viewed as a further step in the evolution of monetary policy techniques adopted by central banks. A common feature of the countries that have adopted inflation targets is the relatively poor inflation record over the last 30 years compared with other industrial countries such as Germany, Switzerland, Japan and the United States. Because of their relatively good inflation record, this latter group of countries has not explicitly adopted inflation targeting. With, or without, explicit inflation targeting the monetary policy credibility hinges on the independence of the central bank. Alex Cukierman addresses the issue of central bank independence by surveying alternative ways to characterize independence.

Trade and Tax Policy Inflation and Exchange Rates

Author : Assaf Razin
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Fiscal Dimensions of Trade Policy

Author : International Monetary Fund
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This paper assembles findings on the use of trade taxes, examines the main contributing factors, and reviews the fiscal aspects of trade policy as they relate to both efficiency and macroeconomic stabilization. It demonstrates why trade taxes would generally not be part of an optimal tax package, and describes the conditions under which they could be used and what their structure would be. The paper also reviews the channels of the effects of trade taxes under fixed and flexible exchange rates, and concludes that the distortions and welfare loss that they create put them at a disadvantage vis-à-vis other fiscal and exchange rate policies.

Exchange Rates Local Currency Pricing and International Tax Policies

Author : Sihao Chen
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Empirical evidence suggests that for many countries, retail prices of traded goods are sticky in national currencies. Movements in exchange rates then cause deviations from the law of one price, and exchange rate ëmisalignmentí, which cannot be corrected by monetary policy alone. This paper shows that a state contingent international tax policy can be combined with monetary policy to eliminate exchange rate misalignment and sustain a fully efficient welfare outcome. But this monetary-fiscal mix cannot be decentralized with non-cooperative determination of monetary and fiscal policy. Non-cooperative use of taxes and subsidies introduces strategic spillovers which opens up a fundamental conflict between the goals of output gap and inflation stabilization and those of terms of trade manipulation in an open economy. The implementation of an efficient monetary-fiscal mix requires effective cooperation in fiscal policy, while leaving monetary policy to be determined non-cooperatively. In addition, while an efficient outcome requires state contingent taxes and subsidies to eliminate exchange rate misalignment, it is still necessary to have flexible exchange rates and independent monetary policy.

Monetary Policy Taxation and International Investment Strategy

Author : Victor A. Canto
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Written especially for portfolio managers, financial analysts, and corporate economists, this volume considers the practical implications of government economic policies. The contributors illustrate how incentives and disincentives affect economic behavior and the performance of the economy through an in-depth discussion of monetary, fiscal, and international economic issues. In addition, the authors present a unique top-down approach that enables the reader to trace the impact of government policies through the economy and thereby discover the investment strategies most likely to be successful within a given policy context. The first section of the book focuses on monetary issues and explores issues related to inflation, likely government intervention mechanisms to control inflation, variants of the monetarist model, interpreting the demand curve, and the development of a portfolio strategy designed to take advantage of anticipated changes in financial variables. The next group of chapters looks at supply-side economics and analyzes the effects of the economic incentives and constraints imposed by government. Particular attention is paid to the effects of taxation policies on equity values, economic growth, and savings. In the third section, the contributors present a supply-side view of selected international economic issues including the relationship between tax rate reductions and foreign exchange rates and the trade balance. The concluding section examines the portfolio strategies that can be derived from the analyses presented in previous chapters. An indispensable resource for finance executives, this book will also be of significant value to graduate students in economics, financial management, and business programs.

Real Exchange Rate Targeting in Developing Countries

Author : Peter Montiel
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What Happens when Countries Peg Their Exchange Rates

Author : Sergio Rebelo
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There is a well-known set of empirical regularities that describe the experience of countries that peg their exchange rate as part of a macroeconomic adjustment program. Following the peg economies tend to experience an increase in GDP, a large expansion of production in the non-tradable sector, a contraction in tradables production, a current account deterioration, an increase in the real wage, a reduction in unemployment, a sharp appreciation in the relative price of non-tradables and a boom in the real estate market. This paper discusses how the changes in the expected behavior of fiscal policy that tend to be associated with the peg can contribute to explaining these facts.

Introductory Macroeconomics

Author : Michael Veseth
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Introductory Macroeconomics, Second Edition deals with national economic issues, such as unemployment, inflation, the aggregate demand-aggregate supply model of macroeconomics, government economic policy, exchange, rates, international trade, and finance. The book examines national economic problems, economic goals, the role markets play in the economy, price control, unemployment, and inflation. By using the Phillips curve trade-off, the text notes that inflation increases the demand for labor. In the long term, according to the long-run Phillips curve, increased inflation does not actually lessen unemployment levels (known as the natural unemployment rate hypothesis). The text also examines whether minimum wage laws are necessary (to fight poverty, prevent exploitation) or cause poverty (in which the imposition of minimum wage results in lower demand for unskilled labor). The book notes that politics and unions favor minimum wage laws. The poor, uneducated, and unskilled laborers are left out. The text also tackles goals and trade-offs: for example, that economic growth suffers from both inflation and unemployment, or the trade-off that preventing unemployment only results in worse inflation problems. Economists, sociologists, professors in economics, or policy makers involved in economic and social development will find the text valuable.

Monetary Policy for a Volatile Global Economy

Author : William S. Haraf
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This volume focuses on the crucial relationships between domestic and international economic developments and on their implications for monetary, fiscal, and exchange rate policies. The volume includes Richard N.Cooper on challenges to the international monetary system, Hali Edison and Michael Melvin on the choice of an exchange rate system, Gottfried Haberler on international and European monetary systems, Alan C.Stockman on exchange rates and the current account, Guido Tabellini on export of an inflation tax; and Thomas D.Willett and Clas Wihlborg on international capital flows and the dollar. It is a companion volume to Monetary Policy for a Changing Financial Environment.

Sino Mexican Trade Relations

Author : Yi Liu
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This book undertakes two main tasks. First, it provides an overview of Sino-Mexican trade and economic relations since the normalization of diplomatic relations in the 1980s. Second, it presents a re-evaluation of Mexico’s trade policies with China, from the import substitution industrialization (ISI) period in the early 1990s to the strengthening of economic and trade relations in recent years. Both aspects are addressed within a unified framework by documenting historical events and conducting empirical analyses throughout Mexico’s economic development, which has been characterized by both growth and stagnation. The book analyzes the Sino-Mexican trade conflicts and cooperation by examining cases of antidumping (AD) and flows of international trade, and by addressing the current obstacles.