Search results for: toxicologic-assessment-of-jet-propulsion-fuel-8

Toxicologic Assessment of Jet Propulsion Fuel 8

Author : National Research Council
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This report provides a critical review of toxicologic, epidemiologic, and other relevant data on jet-propulsion fuel 8, a type of fuel in wide use by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and an evaluation of the scientific basis of DOD’s interim permissible exposure level of 350 mg/m3

Toxicologic Assessment of Jet propulsion Fuel 8

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Toxicologic Assessment of Jet Propulsion Fuel 8

Author : National Research Council
File Size : 27.8 MB
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This report provides a critical review of toxicologic, epidemiologic, and other relevant data on jet-propulsion fuel 8, a type of fuel in wide use by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and an evaluation of the scientific basis of DOD's interim permissible exposure level of 350 mg/m3

Jet Fuel Toxicology

Author : Mark L. Witten
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Currently serving as a resource for the National Center for Toxological Research in their work with the Gulf Coast oil spill, this book presents current research conducted primarily by the airforce on the toxic effects of JP-8 jet fuel on the pulmonary, immune, dermal, and nervous systems. In all, the book considers 13 toxicology studies

Toxicology of the Skin

Author : Nancy A. Monteiro-Riviere
File Size : 41.85 MB
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This key volume of the Target Organ Toxicology Series provides a fresh and modern approach to the subject of skin toxicology from the perspective of how the skin forms a barrier that protects the body from the external environment and how chemicals and drugs interact with the barrier properties of the skin. Any defects or perturbations to this barr

Immunotoxicology and Immunopharmacology Third Edition

Author : Robert V. House
File Size : 32.31 MB
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Continuing the tradition set by the first and second editions, each a bestseller in its own right, the third edition of Immunotoxicology and Immunopharmacology provides reviews of environmental agents, updated to reflect the latest information on how these agents influence immune system function and health. For the first time in the book's history, an entire section covers the phylogeny and ontogeny of the immune system, spanning levels of biological complexity from earthworms to marine mammals.

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals

Author : National Research Council
File Size : 33.32 MB
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Extremely hazardous substances (EHSs)² can be released accidentally as a result of chemical spills, industrial explosions, fires, or accidents involving railroad cars and trucks transporting EHSs. Workers and residents in communities surrounding industrial facilities where EHSs are manufactured, used, or stored and in communities along the nation's railways and highways are potentially at risk of being exposed to airborne EHSs during accidental releases or intentional releases by terrorists. Pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified approximately 400 EHSs on the basis of acute lethality data in rodents. As part of its efforts to develop acute exposure guideline levels for EHSs, EPA and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in 1991 requested that the National Research Council (NRC) develop guidelines for establishing such levels. In response to that request, the NRC published Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances in 1993. Subsequently, Standard Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances was published in 2001, providing updated procedures, methodologies, and other guidelines used by the National Advisory Committee (NAC) on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances and the Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) in developing the AEGL values. In 1998, EPA and DOD requested that the NRC independently review the AEGLs developed by NAC. In response to that request, the NRC organized within its Committee on Toxicology (COT) the Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels, which prepared this report. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals is the tenth volume of the series and documents for N,N-dimethylformamide, jet propellant fuels 5 and 8, methyl ethyl ketone, perchloromethyl mercaptan, phosphorus oxychloride, phosphorus trichloride, and sulfuryl chloride.

Gulf War and Health

Author : Institute of Medicine
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The third in a series of congressionally mandated reports on Gulf War veterans’ health, this volume evaluates the long-term, human health effects associated with exposure to selected environmental agents, pollutants, and synthetic chemical compounds believed to have been present during the Gulf War. The committee specifically evaluated the literature on hydrogen sulfide, combustion products, hydrazine and red fuming nitric acid. Both the epidemiologic and toxicologic literature were reviewed.

OMICS

Author : Debmalya Barh
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With the advent of new technologies and acquired knowledge, the number of fields in omics and their applications in diverse areas are rapidly increasing in the postgenomics era. Such emerging fields—including pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics, regulomics, spliceomics, metagenomics, and environomics—present budding solutions to combat global challenges in biomedicine, agriculture, and the environment. OMICS: Applications in Biomedical, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences provides valuable insights into the applications of modern omics technologies to real-world problems in the life sciences. Filling a gap in the literature, it offers a broad, multidisciplinary view of current and emerging applications of omics in a single volume. Written by highly experienced active researchers, each chapter describes a particular area of omics and the associated technologies and applications. Topics covered include: Proteomics, epigenomics, and pharmacogenomics Toxicogenomics and the assessment of environmental pollutants Applications of plant metabolomics Nutrigenomics and its therapeutic applications Microalgal omics and omics approaches in biofuel production Next-generation sequencing and omics technology for transgenic plant analysis Omics approaches in crop improvement Engineering dark-operative chlorophyll synthesis Computational regulomics Omics techniques for the analysis of RNA splicing New fields, including metagenomics, glycomics, and miRNA Breast cancer biomarkers for early detection Environomics strategies for environmental sustainability This timely book explores a wide range of omics application areas in the biomedical, agricultural, and environmental sciences. Throughout, it highlights working solutions as well as open problems and future challenges. Demonstrating the diversity of omics, it introduces readers to state-of-the-art developments and trends in omics-driven research.

Review of the Toxicologic and Radiologic Risks to Military Personnel from Exposures to Depleted Uranium During and After Combat

Author : National Research Council
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Since the 1980s, the U.S. military has used depleted uranium in munitions and in protective armor on tanks. Depleted uranium is a toxic heavy metal and is weakly radioactive. Concerns have been raised about the adverse health effects from exposure to depleted uranium that is aerosolized during combat. Some think it may be responsible for illnesses in exposed veterans and civilians. These concerns led the Army to commission a book, Depleted Uranium Aerosol Doses and Risks: Summary of U.S. Assessments, referred to as the Capstone Report that evaluates the health risks associated with depleted uranium exposure. This National Research Council book reviews the toxicologic, radiologic, epidemiologic, and toxicokinetic data on depleted uranium, and assesses the Army's estimates of health risks to personnel exposed during and after combat. The book recommends that the Army re-evaluate the basis for some of its predictions about health outcomes at low levels of exposure, but, overall, the Capstone Report was judged to provide a reasonable characterization of the exposure and risks from depleted uranium.

Review of the Army s Technical Guides on Assessing and Managing Chemical Hazards to Deployed Personnel

Author : National Research Council
File Size : 55.77 MB
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To guide mission planning, military decision makers need information on the health risks of potential exposures to individual soldiers and their potential impact on mission operations. To help with the assessment of chemical hazards, the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine developed three technical guides for characterizing chemicals in terms of their risks to the mission and to the health of the force. The report reviews these guides for their scientific validity and conformance with current risk-assessment practices. The report finds that the military exposure guidelines are appropriate (with some modification) for providing force health protection, but that for assessing mission risk, a new set of exposure guidelines is needed that predict concentrations at which health effects would degrade the performance of enough soldiers to hinder mission accomplishment.

Encyclopedia of Cancer and Society

Author : Graham A. Colditz
File Size : 42.74 MB
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The Encyclopedia of Cancer and Society is the first multivolume resource to define the issues that surround cancer and its effects on society. With more than 750 entries, these three volumes help students, practitioners, and researchers navigate through the terminology and concepts to better understand how cancer affects us way beyond the medical conditions that are regrettably more than obvious. The scope of the Encyclopedia encompasses the relative individual and societal aspects of cancer, from the latest research from the National Cancer Institute to studies on alternative diet and nutrition treatments.

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
File Size : 74.86 MB
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Extremely hazardous substances can be released accidentally as a result of chemical spills, industrial explosions, fires, or accidents involving railroad cars and trucks transporting EHSs. Workers and residents in communities surrounding industrial facilities where these substances are manufactured, used, or stored and in communities along the nation's railways and highways are potentially at risk of being exposed to airborne EHSs during accidental releases or intentional releases by terrorists. Pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified approximately 400 EHSs on the basis of acute lethality data in rodents. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Volume 20 reviews and updates the technical support document on acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for selected chloroformates. This update focuses on establishing AEGL-3 values for n-propyl chloroformate and isopropyl chloroformate, but will also consider whether any new data are available that would affect the proposed values for the other 10 chloroformates. AEGLs represent threshold exposure limits (exposure levels below which adverse health effects are not likely to occur) for the general public and are applicable to emergency exposures ranging from 10 minutes (min) to 8 h. Three levels - AEGL-1, AEGL-2, and AEGL-3 - are developed for each of five exposure periods (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 4 h, and 8 h) and are distinguished by varying degrees of severity of toxic effects. This report will inform planning, response, and prevention in the community, the workplace, transportation, the military, and the remediation of Superfund sites.

Assessing the Effects of the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill on Human Health

Author : Institute of Medicine
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From the origin of the leak, to the amount of oil released into the environment, to the spill's duration, the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill poses unique challenges to human health. The risks associated with extensive, prolonged use of dispersants, with oil fumes, and with particulate matter from controlled burns are also uncertain. There have been concerns about the extent to which hazards, such as physical and chemical exposures and social and economic disruptions, will impact the overall health of people who live and work near the area of the oil spill. Although studies of previous oil spills provide some basis for identifying and mitigating the human health effects of these exposures, the existing data are insufficient to fully understand and predict the overall impact of hazards from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the health of workers, volunteers, residents, visitors, and special populations. Assessing the Effects of the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill on Human Health identifies populations at increased risks for adverse health effects and explores effective communication strategies to convey health information to these at-risk populations. The book also discusses the need for appropriate surveillance systems to monitor the spill's potential short- and long-term health effects on affected communities and individuals. Assessing the Effects of the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill on Human Health is a useful resource that can help policy makers, public health officials, academics, community advocates, scientists, and members of the public collaborate to create a monitoring and surveillance system that results in "actionable" information and that identifies emerging health risks in specific populations.

Combined Exposures to Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide in Army Operations

Author : National Research Council
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To determine whether the air quality inside armored-vehicle cabins can meet exposure guidelines under deployment conditions, the Army assessed possible synergistic toxic effects from potentially harmful substances. This book, the final of two reports on the subject from the National Research Council, addresses whether the approach discussed in the technical context section of the Army's proposed guidance is appropriate, or whether an alternative assessment method should be developed. Combined Exposures to Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide in Army Operations provides several conclusions and recommendations, including the use of alternative instrumentation for monitoring gas, conducting experiments on human subjects, and seeking advice from additional groups involved with personnel training and field deployment.

Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants

Author : National Research Council
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NASA maintains an active interest in the environmental conditions associated with living and working in spacecraft and identifying hazards that might adversely affect the health and well-being of crew members. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the spacecraft environment, some water and air contamination is inevitable. Several hundred chemical species are likely to be found in the closed environment of the spacecraft, and as the frequency, complexity, and duration of human space flight increase, identifying and understanding significant health hazards will become more complicated and more critical for the success of the missions. To protect space crews from contaminants in potable and hygiene water, NASA requested that the National Research Council NRC provide guidance on how to develop water exposure guidelines and subsequently review NASA's development of the exposure guidelines for specific chemicals. This book presents spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) for antimony, benzene, ethylene glycol, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, and propylene glycol.

Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants

Author : National Research Council
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U.S. Navy personnel who work on submarines are in an enclosed and isolated environment for days or weeks at a time when at sea. Unlike a typical work environment, they are potentially exposed to air contaminants 24 hours a day. To protect workers from potential adverse health effects due to those conditions, the U.S. Navy has established exposure guidance levels for a number of contaminants. The Navy asked a subcommittee of the National Research Council (NRC) to review, and develop when necessary, exposure guidance levels for specific contaminants. This volume, the third in a series, recommends 1-hour and 24-hour emergency exposure guidance levels (EEGLs) and 90-day continuous exposure guidance levels (CEGLs) for acetaldehyde, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen sulfide, and propylene glycol dinitrate.

Managing Health Effects of Beryllium Exposure

Author : National Research Council
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Beryllium is a lightweight metal that is used for its exceptional strength and high heat-absorbing capability. Beryllium and its alloys can be found in many important technologies in the defense and aeronautics industries, such as nuclear devices, satellite systems, radar systems, and aircraft bushings and bearings. Pulmonary disease associated with exposure to beryllium has been recognized and studied since the early 1940s, and an occupational guideline for limiting exposure to beryllium has been in place since 1949. Over the last few decades, much has been learned about chronic beryllium disease and factors that contribute to its occurrence in exposed people. Despite reduced workplace exposure, chronic beryllium disease continues to occur. Those developments have led to debates about the adequacy of the long-standing occupational exposure limit for protecting worker health. This book, requested by the U.S. Air Force to help to determine the steps necessary to protect its workforce from the effects of beryllium used in military aerospace applications, reviews the scientific literature on beryllium and outlines an exposure and disease management program for its protecting workers.

Review of the Department of Defense Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program Report

Author : National Research Council
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Soldiers deployed during the 1991 Persian Gulf War were exposed to high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and other airborne pollutants. Their exposures were largely the result of daily windblown dust, dust storms, and smoke from oil fires. On returning from deployment, many veterans complained of persistent respiratory symptoms. With the renewed activity in the Middle East over the last few years, deployed military personnel are again exposed to dust storms and daily windblown dust in addition to other types of PM, such as diesel exhaust and particles from open-pit burning. On the basis of the high concentrations observed and concerns about the potential health effects, DOD designed and implemented a study to characterize and quantify the PM in the ambient environment at 15 sites in the Middle East. The endeavor is known as the DOD Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program (EPMSP). The U.S. Army asked the National Research Council to review the EPMSP report. In response, the present evaluation considers the potential acute and chronic health implications on the basis of information presented in the report. It also considers epidemiologic and health-surveillance data collected by the USACHPPM, to assess potential health implications for deployed personnel, and recommends methods for reducing or characterizing health risks.

Nineteenth Interim Report of the Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

Author : Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels
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The present report is the committee's 19th interim report. It summarizes the committee's conclusions and recommendations for improving NAC's AEGL documents for the following chemicals and chemical classes: acrylonitrile, benzonitrile, boron tribromide, BZ (3-quinuclidinyl benzilate), chloroarsenicals, chloroformates, bis-chloromethylether, chloromethylether, chlorosilanes (26 selected compounds), cyanogen, ethyl mercaptan, hexafluoroacetone, lewisites, mercury vapor, nitric acid, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen tetroxide, oleum, phenyl mercaptan, propargyl alcohol, selenium hexafluoride, silane, sulfer trioxide, sulfuric acid, tear gas, tert-octyl mercaptan, tetramethoxy silane, thionyl chloride, trimethoxysilane, trimethylbenzenes (1,2,4-; 1,2,5-;and 1,3,5-TMB), and vinyl chloride.