Search results for: topics-in-vaccine-adjuvant-research

Topics in Vaccine Adjuvant Research

Author : Dale R. Spriggs
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Topics in Vaccine Adjuvant Research provides a concise, focused review of the immunological basis of adjuvant activity. The first section of the book contains several chapters that discuss key issues in cellular immunology, such as antigen processing and presentation, cytokine regulation of immune responses, and mucosal immunology. The second section consists of brief chapters on the mechanism of action of several adjuvants, including IL-2, nonionic block polymers, and cholera toxin. The major goals of this book are to define what is known about the mechanisms of adjuvant activity, show how research in cellular immunology can be used to help understand adjuvant action, and define possible areas where adjuvants might be useful probes for dissecting basic immunological processes. Immunologists, microbiologists, and infectious disease researchers will find this book an invaluable addition to their reference library.

Vaccine Adjuvants

Author : Gwyn Davies
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Spanning from discoveries in fundamental immunology to industrial and commercial concerns, the study of vaccine adjuvants has developed into an exciting area of work with great, vital potential in innovating techniques in which adjuvants may steer the immune system towards the responses required by unmet vaccination needs. In Vaccine Adjuvants: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field provide clear and concise guidance on how to go about assessing the activity of adjuvant products. Rather than describing individual adjuvants, the volume strives to include detailed, practical information on measuring the responses produced by adjuvants in order to be relevant to the widest array of experiments. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and versatile, Vaccine Adjuvants: Methods and Protocols will enable those already pursuing vaccine adjuvant research, while also serving to stimulate discussion on how to best standardize adjuvant testing in order to facilitate meaningful comparisons, and above all, to aid in the prediction of which new products will most effectively and safely help to solve the current challenges in vaccination.

Proceedings of 16th Euro Global Summit and Expo on Vaccines Vaccination 2017

Author : ConferenceSeries
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June 19-21, 2017 Paris, France Key Topics : Human Vaccines - Infectious & Non Infectious Diseases, Vaccine Research & Development, Cancer Vaccines, Childhood Vaccines, HIV Vaccines, Vaccine Adjuvants & Delivery Technologies, Vaccine Safety & Efficacy, Vaccination for pregnant women, Immunization for Older Adults, Human Preventive & Therapeutic Vaccines, Plant-based Vaccines, Tuberculosis Vaccines, DNA Vaccines, HPV Vaccines, Vaccines against Viral & Bacterial Diseases, Vaccines against Vector-borne Diseases, Mucosal Vaccines, Veterinary vaccines, Hepatitis Vaccines, Fish Vaccines, Travel Immunization,

The Vaccine Book

Author : Barry R. Bloom
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The Vaccine Book, Second Edition provides comprehensive information on the current and future state of vaccines. It reveals the scientific opportunities and potential impact of vaccines, including economic and ethical challenges, problems encountered when producing vaccines, how clinical vaccine trials are designed, and how to introduce vaccines into widespread use. Although vaccines are now available for many diseases, there are still challenges ahead for major diseases, such as AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. This book is designed for students, researchers, public health officials, and all others interested in increasing their understanding of vaccines. It answers common questions regarding the use of vaccines in the context of a rapidly expanding anti-vaccine environment. This new edition is completely updated and revised with new and unique topics, including new vaccines, problems of declining immunization rates, trust in vaccines, the vaccine hesitancy, and the social value of vaccines for the community vs. the individual child’s risk. Provides insights into diseases that could be prevented, along with the challenges facing research scientists in the world of vaccines Gives new ideas about future vaccines and concepts Introduces new vaccines and concepts Gives ideas about challenges facing public and private industrial investors in the vaccine area Discusses the problem of declining immunization rates and vaccine hesitancy

Vaccine Adjuvants

Author : Derek T. O'Hagan
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Annotation Derek T. O'Hagan and a team of expert vaccinologists and pharmacologists thoroughly describe the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of a wide range of alternative vaccine adjuvants for use in preclinical studies. Each chapter carefully reviews a single adjuvant, and suggests why a specific adjuvant might be preferred for a given antigen, depending on what type of immune response is desired. Alternate adjuvant choices are also presented so that researchers can choose those most efficacious for their specific purpose. Comprehensive and highly practical, Vaccine Adjuvants: Preparation Methods and Research Protocols provides an effective guide to making and using vaccine adjuvants. By closely following directions from the book, today's researchers will be able optimally to induce specific immune responses against different types of antigens and to selectively manipulate the immune response in a favorable way.

The Schistosomiasis Vaccine It Is Time to Stand Up

Author : Rashika El Ridi
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Schistosomiasis is a severe parasitic disease, endemic in 74 developing countries with up to 600 million people, including many children, infected and 800 million at risk of contracting the disease following infection with Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium or S. japonicum. Disease burden is estimated to exceed 70 million disability-adjusted life-years, and leads to remarkably high YLD (years lived with disability) rates. Even more importantly, people with schistosomiasis are highly susceptible to malaria, tuberculosis and hepatic and acquired immunodeficiency viruses. There is only one drug, praziquantel, currently available for treatment and it has high efficacy, low cost, and limited side effects. However, only 13% of the target population has received the drug, and those treated are at continuous risk of reinfection necessitating repeated drug administration and the emergence of drug resistant parasites is a constant threat. There currently is no vaccine. While the target of >40% protection has been achieved with some molecules such as excretory-secretory proteins including calpain, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and cysteine peptidases, very recent articles reiterate the findings published during the last 2 decades of the last century, contradicting the established data of the pioneers of schistosome biology. A consensus should be reached without delay, in order to propose collaborative independent experiments and proceed ahead to pre- and clinical trials with efficacious candidate vaccine molecules. The proposed plan aims to finally reach an objective and fruitful agreement , via inviting established and young researchers from the United States, Brazil, China, Australia, and Europe who are working with different vaccine antigens, adjuvants, and approaches for immunization against S. mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. japonicum. It is hoped that the forum will end with a very few candidate antigens and a consensus approach regarding target immune responses, thus leading to encouraging the World Health Organization and other international foundations to sponsor the development and implementation of the urgently required, yet still elusive, vaccine for preventing and eliminating the transmission of schistosomiasis.

Translational Research in Environmental and Occupational Stress

Author : Shashi Bala Singh
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Cutting edge technologies can propel a simple finding in basic science to a concept that can be of immense value to the society. While applying novel techniques to unravel the mysteries of biological processes, an offshoot of applied branch emerged. This field, which is now widely referred to as Translational Research utilizes basic science findings and translates these findings into innovative concepts for the benefit of mankind. This branch of science has evolved into a multidisciplinary juggernaut encompassing all known fields of science as varied as biomedicine, environment, law, economics, sociology, etc. With the ever increasing interest in this branch and the dreams and aspirations that this field can bring, basic science researchers are now taking a bold step into this new realm, merging different fields of knowledge to come up with novel inventions. This book "Translational research in environmental and occupational stress" provides and insight into the research that led to discoveries, inventions and development of novel technologies which will have a tremendous impact on the future of mankind.

Development and Assessment of New Adjuvants for Better Vaccines Final Report

Author : Baca-Estrada, Maria
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Influenza Virus Vaccines and Immunotherapies

Author : Arun Kumar
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Influenza virus infections lead to thousands of deaths worldwide annually and billions of dollars economic burden. Despite continuing advances in our understanding of the immune evasion mechanism, the disease remains one of the foremost threat for human being. Traditional vaccines (attenuated and inactivated) mainly provide protection by inducing virus neutralizing antibodies, targeting ever changing surface antigens: Haemagultinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). Due to genetic shift and immune selection pressure, prevalence of circulating influenza virus subtypes changes every year. Therefore, mismatch between circulating strain and vaccine strain can critically affect the success rate of these conventional flu vaccines, and requires continuous monitoring of circulating influenza virus subtypes and change in the vaccine formulations accordingly. The collective limitations of existing flu vaccines urgently call for the development of a novel universal vaccines that might provide the required protective immunity to a range of influenza virus subtypes. New approaches are being investigated mainly targeting conserved regions of flu proteins. Some of these approaches include universally conserved epitopes of HA, nucleoprotein (NP), capsid protein (M1) and ion channel protein (M2) that induced strong immune responses in animal models. Some attention and progress appears to be focused on vaccines based on the M2 ectodomain (M2e) employing a variety of constructs, adjuvants and delivery systems, including M2e-hepatitis B core antigen, flagellin constructs, and virus-like particles (VLP). Animal studies with these M2e candidate vaccines demonstrated that these vaccine candidates can prevent severe illness and death but not infection, which may pose difficulties in both the evaluation of clinical efficacy and approval by the regulatory authorities. VLP vaccines appear to be promising, but still are mostly limited to animal studies. The discovery and development of new and improved vaccines have been greatly facilitated by the application of new technologies. The use of nucleic acid-based vaccines, to combine the benefits of in-situ expression of antigens with the safety of inactivated and subunit vaccines, has been a key advancement. Upon their discovery more than 20 years ago, nucleic acid vaccines promised to be a safe and effective mean to mimic immunization with a live organism vaccine, particularly for induction of T cell immunity. In addition, the manufacturing of nucleic acid-based vaccines offered the potential to be relatively simple, inexpensive and generic. Reverse Vaccinology and in-silico designing of vaccines are very innovative approaches and being considered as future of vaccines. Furthermore, various immuno-therapeutic agents also being developed to treat and minimize immuno-pathological damage in patients suffering from life threatening complications. For the treatment of such pathological conditions, various novel approaches such as administration of immune suppressive cytokines, blocking co-stimulatory signals or activating co-inhibitory signal of T cell activation, are being tested both in lab and clinics. The Research Topic on influenza virus vaccine and therapeutics will give an insight in to the current status and future scope of these new innovative approaches and technologies. Moreover, these new methods will also serve as a reference tool for the development of future vaccines against several other pathogens.

Trained Immunity based Vaccines

Author : Jose Luis Subiza
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Dr. Jose Luis Subiza is the founder and CEO of Inmunotek SL. The other Topic Editors declare no competing interests with regard to the Research Topic subject.

Development of Novel Vaccines

Author : Alexander von Gabain
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“Development of novel vaccines” gives an overview of the tasks in basic research leading to the final product – the vaccine and its applications, belonging to the most complex biologics in the pharmaceutical field. Distinct from most textbooks in the vaccine arena, the current issue focuses on the translational aspect, namely, how research results can be transformed into life-saving medical interventions. Each chapter of the book deals with one important paradigm for the development of novel vaccines, along the value chain towards the final vaccine, and furthermore, with the inevitable tools required for this process. Contributions are prepared by teams of scientists, all of whom are experts in the field, most of them anchored in biomedical organizations devoted to translational culture, thereby lighting the certain topics from different views. This volume is a must read for researchers engaged in vaccine development and who really want to see their research results to become a product.

Vaccine Design

Author : Michael F. Powell
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When my interest was first drawn to the phenomenon of vaccination for virus diseases in the late 1930s, the state of the art and the science of vaccine design was not far advanced beyond the time of Jenner at the end of the 18th century and of Pasteur a century later. In the 1930s it was still believed that for the induction of immunity to a virus-caused disease the experience of infection was required, but not for a toxin-caused disease such as diphtheria or tetanus, for which a chemically detoxified antigen was effective for immu nization. This prompted the question as to whether it might be possible to produce a similar effect for virus diseases using nonreplicating antigens. When in the 1930s and 1940s it was found possible to propagate influenza viruses in the chick embryo, protective effects could be induced without the need to experience infection by the use of a sufficient dose of a noninfectious influenza virus preparation. Later in the 1940s, it became possible to propagate polio and other viruses in cultures of human and monkey tissue and to immunize against other virus diseases in the same way. Later, with the advent of the era of molecular biology and genetic engineering, antigens and vaccines could be produced in new and creative ways, using either replicating or nonreplicating forms of the appropriate antigens for inducing a dose-related protective state.

Vaccination Against Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals

Author : John P. Bannantine
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The two most prominent mycobacterial diseases in animals include bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis and Johne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Erradication of both diseases has been hampered by a variety of factors. In many countries, the persistence of tuberculosis in cattle has been attributed to reservoirs of M. bovis in wildlife species. Brushtail possums, deer and badgers are notable examples of wildlife reservoirs for M. bovis. The difficulties in eliminating the wildlife reservoir for M. bovis further suggest the need for vaccination of farmed livestock. Vaccination of wildlife species has also been attempted with mixed results. Delivery of the vaccine to wildlife species appears to be a chief obstacle. Vaccination itself leads to complications for diagnostics. For example, when cattle are vaccinated with both BCG and a commercial Johne’s vaccine there is a biased toward the avian tuberculin skin test reaction. Despite these issues, BCG seems to be the clear standard for vaccination against M. bovis, yet many laboratories are investigating ways to improve on BCG. For Johne’s disease, the available commercial vaccines consist of whole-cell preparations in one form or another. But with the ability to generate directed knockouts of specific genes, a number of defined mutants have been constructed in a few laboratories. These should be tested and directly compared with each other and alongside commercial vaccine formulations to determine not only which vaccine is most protective, but which animal model is best for predicting protection in the target host. To this end, there has been a nation-wide, multi-institutional effort to test the best live, attenuated vaccine against Johne's disease in cattle, sheep and goats. This vaccine trial has spanned six years and was conducted in three phases. The first phase examined attenuation in bovine macrophages, the second phase was colonization of spleen and liver in mice and the third phase was protection from bacterial challenge in goats. Many new ideas and retrospective approaches have emerged from this unprecedented effort. These aspects will be captured in this Research Topic. In this Research Topic, we will seek articles on these above topics, but other issues surrounding vaccination of animals against mycobacteria will also be explored. These include immune parameters, correlates of protection, adjuvants and other vaccine formulations, etc.

Pukka s Promise

Author : Ted Kerasote
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This guide by the author of Merle’s Door is “beneficial for anyone who wants to ensure that their dogs will be healthy and well” (Seattle Post-Intelligencer). From the bestselling author who offers “the most utterly compelling translation of dog to human I have ever seen” (Jeffrey Masson), this is a joyful chronicle of a dog and a groundbreaking answer to the question: How can we give our dogs the happiest, healthiest lives? When Ted Kerasote was ready for a new dog after losing his beloved Merle—who died too soon, as all our dogs do—he knew he wanted to give his puppy Pukka the longest life possible. But how to do that? So much has changed in the way we feed, vaccinate, train, and live with our dogs from even a decade ago. In an adventure that echoes The Omnivore’s Dilemma with a canine spin, Kerasote tackles these subjects, questioning our conventional wisdom and emerging with vital new information that will surprise even the most knowledgeable dog lovers. Can a purebred be as healthy as a mixed breed? How many vaccines are too many? Should we rethink spaying and neutering? Is raw food really healthier than kibble, and should your dog be chewing more bones? Traveling the world and interviewing breeders, veterinarians, and leaders of the animal-welfare movement, Kerasote pulls together the latest research to help us rethink the everyday choices we make for our companions. And as he did in Merle’s Door, Kerasote interweaves fascinating science with the charming stories of raising Pukka among his dog friends in their small Wyoming village. Funny, revelatory, and full of the delights of falling in love with a dog, Pukka’s Promise will help redefine the potential of our animal partners.

Bacterial Endotoxic Lipopolysaccharides

Author : David C. Morrison
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Bacterial Endotoxic Lipopolysaccharides provides an up-to-date, two-volume review of the latest information regarding bacterial lipopolysaccharide structure and activities. These volumes cover the biochemistry, pharmacology, and pathophysiologic properties of endotoxins. The volumes also thoroughly discuss the strengths and weaknesses of new therapies for septic shock that are based on an immunological attack on endotoxins and the cytokines induced by endotoxins. All scientists involved in endotoxin research, clinical infectious disease specialists, and medical students interested in the pathogenesis of septic shock will find Bacterial Endotoxic Lipopolysaccharides invaluable as a reference resource.

Interaction of Nanomaterials With the Immune System Role in Nanosafety and Nanomedicine

Author : Paola Italiani
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The immune system has the double role of maintaining tissue integrity and homeostasis and of protecting the organism from possible dangers, from invading pathogens to environmentally-borne dangerous chemicals. New chemicals recognisable by the immune system are engineered nanomaterials/ nanoparticles, new agents in our environment that are becoming common due to their presence in many products, from constructions and building material (e.g., solar cells, pigments and paints, tilesand masonry materials) to daily products (e.g., food packaging, cosmetics, and cigarettes). Human beings can be accidentally exposed to engineered nanomaterials when these are released from products containing them or during production in workplaces. Furthermore, intentional exposure occurs in medicine, as engineered nanoparticles are used as tools for improving delivery of drugs and vaccines, vaccine adjuvants and contrast agents in therapeutic, preventive and diagnostic strategies. Nanoparticles that come in contact with the immune system after unintentional exposure need to be eliminated from the organism as they represent a potential threat. In this case, however, due to their peculiar characteristics of size, shape, surface charge and persistence, nanoparticles may elicit undesirable reactions and have detrimental effects on the immune system, such as cytotoxicity, inflammation, anaphylaxis, immunosuppression. Conversely, nanomedicines need to escape immune recognition/elimination and must persist in the organism long enough for reaching their target and exerting their beneficial effects. Immune cells and molecules at the body surface (airway and digestive mucosae, skin) are the first that come in contact with nanomaterials upon accidental exposure, while immune effectors in blood are those that more easily come in contact with nanomedical products. Thus, evaluating the interaction of the immune system with nanoparticles/nanomaterials is a topic of key importance both in nanotoxicology and in nanomedicine. Immuno-nanosafety studies consider both accidental exposure to nanoparticles, which may occur by skin contact, ingestion or inhalation (at doses and with a frequency that are not known), and medical exposure, which takes place with a defined administration schedule (route, dose, frequency). Many studies focus on the interaction between the immune system and nanoparticles that, for medical purposes, have been specifically modified to stimulate immunity or to avoid immune recognition, as in the case of vaccine carriers/adjuvants or drug delivery systems, respectively. The aims of this Research Topic is to provide an overview of recent strategies: 1.for assessing the immunosafety of engineered nanomaterials/nanoparticles, in particular in terms of activation of inflammatory responses, such as complement activation and allergic reactions, based on the nanomaterial intrinsic characteristics and on the possible carry-over of bioactive contaminants such as LPS. Production of new nanoparticles taking into account their effects on immune responses, in order to avoid undesirable effects on one hand, and to design particles with desirable effects for medical applications on the other hand; 2.for designing more effective nanomedicines by either avoiding or exploiting their interaction with the immune systems, with particular focus on cancer diagnosis and therapy, and vaccination. This collection of articles gives a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of the interaction of nanoparticles with the immune system from the two perspectives of safety and medical use, and aims at providing immunologists with the relevant knowledge for designing improved strategies for immunologically safe nanomaterial applications.

Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research

Author : Institute of Medicine
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The latest of a series of publications based on workshops sponsored by the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, this book's focus on emerging technologies for nutrition research arose from a concern among scientists at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine that traditional nutrition research, using standard techniques, centered more on complex issues of the maintenance or enhancement of performance, and might not be sufficiently substantive either to measure changes in performance or to predict the effects on performance of stresses soldiers commonly experience in operational environments. The committee's task was to identify and evaluate new technologies to determine whether they could help resolve important issues in military nutrition research. The book contains the committee's summary and recommendations as well as individually authored chapters based on presentations at a 1995 workshop. Other chapters cover techniques of body composition assessment, tracer techniques for the study of metabolism, ambulatory techniques for the determination of energy expenditure, molecular and cellular approaches to nutrition, the assessment of immune function, and functional and behavioral measures of nutritional status.

Making and Using Antibodies

Author : Gary C. Howard
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Antibodies protect us from a wide range of infectious diseases and cancers and have become an indispensable tool in science-both for conventional immune response research as well as other areas related to protein identification analysis. This second edition of Making and Using Antibodies: A Practical Handbook provides clear guidance on all aspects

Why Vaccines to HIV HCV and Malaria Have So Far Failed Challenges to Developing Vaccines against Immunoregulating Pathogens

Author : Shuo Li
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Despite continuous progress in the development of anti-viral and anti-bacterial/parasite drugs, the high cost of medicines and the potential for re-infection, especially in high risk groups, suggest that protective vaccines to some of the most dangerous persistent infections are still highly desirable. There are no vaccines available for HIV, HCV and Malaria, and all attempts to make a broadly effective vaccine have failed so far. In this Research Topic we look into why vaccines have failed over the years, and what we have learn from these attempts. Rather than only showing positive results, this issue aims to reflect on failed efforts in vaccine development. Coming to understand our limitations will have theoretical and practical implications for the future development of vaccines to these major global disease burdens.

Combination Vaccines

Author : Ronald W. Ellis
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A diverse team of leading experts comprehensively review the complex biology of a wide variety of vaccine combinations, as well as the technical, clinical, and regulatory aspects of their development. Topics covered range from the use of immunological correlates of efficacy, rather than efficacy per se, for the evaluation and licensure of vaccine combinations, to preserving a stable immunogenic mixture in appropriate containers according to accepted regulatory standards. Discussed in detail are the trivalent influenza vaccine, the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, the MMR vaccine, the DTP vaccine and its combinations, and the quadrivalent rotavirus vaccine, all of which serve as models for the development of future combinations. Combination Vaccines: Development, Clinical Research, and Approval illuminates all the scientific, clinical, regulatory, and health care issues involved in the research, development, and human use of combination vaccines.