Search results for: the-radiating-atmosphere

Radiation in the Atmosphere

Author : Wilford Zdunkowski
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This book presents the theory and applications of radiative transfer in the atmosphere. It is written for graduate students and researchers in the fields of meteorology and related sciences. The book begins with important basic definitions of the radiative transfer theory. It presents the hydrodynamic derivation of the radiative transfer equation and the principles of variance. The authors examine in detail various quasi-exact solutions of the radiative transfer equation and give a thorough treatment of the radiative perturbation theory. A rigorous treatment of Mie scattering is given, including Rayleigh scattering as a special case, and the important efficiency factors for extinction, scattering and absorption are derived. The fundamentals of remote sensing applications of radiative transfer are presented. Problems of varying degrees of difficulty are included at the end of each chapter, so readers can further their understanding of the materials covered in the book.

Radiation in a Cloudy Atmosphere

Author : E.M. Feigelson
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Radiative heat transfer is a fundamental factor in the energetics of the terrestrial atmosphere: the system consisting of the atmosphere and the underlying layer is heated by the Sun, and this heating is compensated, on the average, by thermal radia tion. Only over a period of 1-3 days from some specified initial moment can the dynamic processes in the atmosphere be considered to be adiabatic. Global dynamic processes of long duration are regulated by the actual influxes of heat, one of the main ones being the radiative influx. Radiation must be taken into account in long-term, weather forecasting and when considering the global circulation of the atmosphere, the theory of climate, etc. Thus it is necessary to know the albedo of the system, the amount of solar radiation transmitted by the atmosphere, the absorptivity of the atmosphere vis-a-vis solar radiation, and also the effective radiation flux, the divergence of which represents the radiative cooling or heating. All these quantities have to be integrated over the wavelength spectrum of the solar or thermal radiation, and they must be ascertained as functions of the determining factors. The relation ships between the indicated radiation characteristics, the optical quantities directly determining them, the optically active compo nents of the atmosphere, and the meteorological fields will be discussed in this book.

Proceedings of the Fourth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Science Team Meeting

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Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation

Author : Craig F. Bohren
File Size : 70.15 MB
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Meeting the need for teaching material suitable for students of atmospheric science and courses on atmospheric radiation, this textbook covers the fundamentals of emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared and beyond. Much of the contents applies to planetary atmosphere, with graded discussions providing a thorough treatment of subjects, including single scattering by particles at different levels of complexity. The discussion of the simple multiple scattering theory introduces concepts in more advanced theories, such that the more complicated two-stream theory allows readers to progress beyond the pile-of-plates theory. The authors are physicists teaching at the largest meteorology department in the US at Penn State. The problems given in the text come from students, colleagues, and correspondents, and the figures designed especially for this book facilitate comprehension. Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of atmospheric science. * Free solutions manual available for lecturers at www.wiley-vch.de/supplements/

Atmospheric Radiation

Author : Frank W. Very
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Short Wave Solar Radiation in the Earth s Atmosphere

Author : Irina N. Melnikova
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Based on data from an experiment which ran for ten years, this book summarizes the results of the Atmospheric Physics Department of the St. Petersburg University and the Main Geophysical Observatory. The processed data now forms a rich dataset of spectral values of radiative characteristics under different atmospheric conditions. The analysis of this database clearly shows that the solar radiative absorption in a dusty and cloudy atmosphere is significantly higher than assumed to date. Both graduate students of atmospheric sciences as well as scientists and researchers in the field of meteorology and climatology will find a wealth of new data and information in this monograph.

Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

Author : Christos S. Zerefos
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Following the rapid developments in the UV-B measurement techniques and the rapidly growing research in the field in the late 80's and early 90's, we organized a large gathering of distinguished experts in a NATO Advanced Study Institute, held in Halkidiki, Greece on October, 2-11. 1995. The Institute was organized so as to include state of the art lectures on most aspects of solar ultraviolet radiation and its effects. This was achieved by extended lectures and discussions given in five sessions by 27 lecturers and a demonstration of filed measurements and calibration techniques at the end of the Institute. The ASI began with the sun and fundamentals on solar radiative emissions and their variability in time and continued with the interaction of solar Ultraviolet with the atmosphere through the complex scattering processes and photochemical reactions involved. Particular emphasis was given to changes in atmospheric composition imposed by different manifestations of the solar activity cycle. as well as on the modelling of radiative transfer through the atmosphere and the ocean under variable environmental conditions. Overviews on the ozone issue. its monitoring and variability were extensively discussed with emphasis on the observed acceleration of ozone decline in the early 90's. This acceleration had as a consequence, significant increases in UV-B radiation observed at a few world-wide distributed stations.

An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation

Author : Liou
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An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation

The radiation regime and architecture of plant stands

Author : Юхан Росс
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Role of phytometric investigation in the studies of plant stand architecture and radiation regime. Principal phytometric characteristics of stands. Phytometrical methods. Statistical characteristics of a stand. Spatial distribution of phytoelements in stands. Foliage area orientation in stands. Plant and architecture photosynthesis and productivity. Radiation field in a plant stand and the problem of its mathematical modelling. Incident radiation. Optical properties of phytoelements. Penatration of direct solar radiation into a plant stand. Penetration of difuse sky radiation into plant stand. Scattering of radiation inside plant stands. total radiation field in plant stands. Semiempirical formulae for total radiation fluxes. Albedo of plant stand. Calculation of long-wave radiation in a stad. Net radiation in plant stands.

The Radiation Chemistry of Coal in Various Atmospheres

Author : Allan Weinstein
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