The Mathematical Century

The 30 Greatest Problems of the Last 100 Years


Author: Piergiorgio Odifreddi

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691128054

Category: Mathematics

Page: 204

View: 5481

The twentieth century was a time of unprecedented development in mathematics, as well as in all sciences: more theorems were proved and results found in a hundred years than in all of previous history. In The Mathematical Century, Piergiorgio Odifreddi distills this unwieldy mass of knowledge into a fascinating and authoritative overview of the subject. He concentrates on thirty highlights of pure and applied mathematics. Each tells the story of an exciting problem, from its historical origins to its modern solution, in lively prose free of technical details. Odifreddi opens by discussing the four main philosophical foundations of mathematics of the nineteenth century and ends by describing the four most important open mathematical problems of the twenty-first century. In presenting the thirty problems at the heart of the book he devotes equal attention to pure and applied mathematics, with applications ranging from physics and computer science to biology and economics. Special attention is dedicated to the famous "23 problems" outlined by David Hilbert in his address to the International Congress of Mathematicians in 1900 as a research program for the new century, and to the work of the winners of the Fields Medal, the equivalent of a Nobel prize in mathematics. This eminently readable book will be treasured not only by students and their teachers but also by all those who seek to make sense of the elusive macrocosm of twentieth-century mathematics.

Perfect Rigor

A Genius and the Mathematical Breakthrough of the Century


Author: Masha Gessen

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 0547427565

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 256

View: 494

A gripping and tragic tale that sheds rare light on the unique burden of genius In 2006, an eccentric Russian mathematician named Grigori Perelman solved the Poincare Conjecture, an extremely complex topological problem that had eluded the best minds for over a century. A prize of one million dollars was offered to anyone who could unravel it, but Perelman declined the winnings, and in doing so inspired journalist Masha Gessen to tell his story. Drawing on interviews with Perelman’s teachers, classmates, coaches, teammates, and colleagues in Russia and the United States—and informed by her own background as a math whiz raised in Russia—Gessen uncovered a mind of unrivaled computational power, one that enabled Perelman to pursue mathematical concepts to their logical (sometimes distant) end. But she also discovered that this very strength turned out to be Perelman's undoing and the reason for his withdrawal, first from the world of mathematics and then, increasingly, from the world in general.

The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam

A Sourcebook


Author: Victor J. Katz

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691114859

Category: Mathematics

Page: 685

View: 4627

In recent decades it has become obvious that mathematics has always been a worldwide activity. But this is the first book to provide a substantial collection of English translations of key mathematical texts from the five most important ancient and medieval non-Western mathematical cultures, and to put them into full historical and mathematical context. The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam gives English readers a firsthand understanding and appreciation of these cultures' important contributions to world mathematics. The five section authors--Annette Imhausen (Egypt), Eleanor Robson (Mesopotamia), Joseph Dauben (China), Kim Plofker (India), and J. Lennart Berggren (Islam)--are experts in their fields. Each author has selected key texts and in many cases provided new translations. The authors have also written substantial section introductions that give an overview of each mathematical culture and explanatory notes that put each selection into context. This authoritative commentary allows readers to understand the sometimes unfamiliar mathematics of these civilizations and the purpose and significance of each text. Addressing a critical gap in the mathematics literature in English, this book is an essential resource for anyone with at least an undergraduate degree in mathematics who wants to learn about non-Western mathematical developments and how they helped shape and enrich world mathematics. The book is also an indispensable guide for mathematics teachers who want to use non-Western mathematical ideas in the classroom.

The Mathematical Work of Charles Babbage


Author: J. M. Dubbey,John Michael Dubbey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521524766

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 1249

This book describes Babbage's work on the design and implementation of the difference and analytical engines.

A Century of Mathematics

Through the Eyes of the Monthly


Author: John Ewing

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780883854570

Category: History

Page: 335

View: 9769

This is the story of American mathematics during the past century. It contains articles and excerpts from a century of the American Mathematical Monthly, giving the reader an opportunity to skim all one hundred volumes of this popular mathematics magazine without actually opening them. It samples mathematics year by year and decade by decade. The reader can glimpse the mathematical community at the turn of the century, the controversy about Einstein and relativity, the debates about formalism in logic, the immigration of mathematicians from Europe, and the frantic effort to organize as the war began. More recent articles deal with the advent of computers and the changes they brought, and with some of the triumphs of modern research.

A Century of Mathematics in America


Author: Richard Askey

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821801307

Category: Mathematics

Page: 585

View: 8448

The first section of the book deals with some of the influential mathematics departments in the United States. Functioning as centers of research and training, these departments played a major role in shaping the mathematical life in this country. The second section deals with an extraordinary conference held at Princeton in 1946 to commemorate the university's bicentennial. The influence of women in American mathematics, the burgeoning of differential geometry in the last 50 years, and discussions of the work of von Karman and Weiner are among other topics covered.

Philosophy of Mathematics and Mathematical Practice in the Seventeenth Century


Author: Paolo Mancosu

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195359152

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 1868

The seventeenth century saw dramatic advances in mathematical theory and practice. With the recovery of many of the classical Greek mathematical texts, new techniques were introduced, and within 100 years, the rules of analytic geometry, geometry of indivisibles, arithmetic of infinites, and calculus were developed. Although many technical studies have been devoted to these innovations, Mancosu provides the first comprehensive account of the relationship between mathematical advances of the seventeenth century and the philosophy of mathematics of the period. Starting with the Renaissance debates on the certainty of mathematics, Mancosu leads the reader through the foundational issues raised by the emergence of these new mathematical techniques, including the influence of the Aristotelian conception of science in Cavalieri and Guldin, the foundational relevance of Descartes' Geometrie, the relation between geometrical and epistemological theories of the infinite, and the Leibnizian calculus and the opposition to infinitesimalist procedures. In the process Mancosu draws a sophisticated picture of the subtle dependencies between technical development and philosophical reflection in seventeenth century mathematics.

Applied Mathematics Entering the 21st Century

Invited Talks from the ICIAM 2003 Congress


Author: James M. Hill,Ross Moore

Publisher: SIAM

ISBN: 9780898715590

Category: Mathematics

Page: 413

View: 6391

Included in this volume are the Invited Talks given at the 5th International Congress of Industrial and Applied Mathematics. The authors of these papers are all acknowledged masters of their fields, having been chosen through a rigorous selection process by a distinguished International Program Committee. This volume presents an overview of contemporary applications of mathematics, with the coverage ranging from the rhythms of the nervous system, to optimal transportation, elasto-plasticity, computational drug design, hydrodynamic and meteorological modeling, and valuation in financial markets. Many papers are direct products of the computer revolution: grid generation, multi-scale modeling, high-dimensional numerical integration, nonlinear optimization, accurate floating-point computations and advanced iterative methods. Other papers demonstrate the close dependence on developments in mathematics itself, and the increasing importance of statistics. Additional topics relate to the study of properties of fluids and fluid-flows, or add to our understanding of Partial Differential Equations.

Mathematics of the 19th Century

Geometry, Analytic Function Theory


Author: Andrei N. Kolmogorov,Adolf-Andrei P. Yushkevich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764350482

Category: Mathematics

Page: 291

View: 6527

The general principles by which the editors and authors of the present edition have been guided were explained in the preface to the first volume of Mathemat ics of the 19th Century, which contains chapters on the history of mathematical logic, algebra, number theory, and probability theory (Nauka, Moscow 1978; En glish translation by Birkhiiuser Verlag, Basel-Boston-Berlin 1992). Circumstances beyond the control of the editors necessitated certain changes in the sequence of historical exposition of individual disciplines. The second volume contains two chapters: history of geometry and history of analytic function theory (including elliptic and Abelian functions); the size of the two chapters naturally entailed di viding them into sections. The history of differential and integral calculus, as well as computational mathematics, which we had planned to include in the second volume, will form part of the third volume. We remind our readers that the appendix of each volume contains a list of the most important literature and an index of names. The names of journals are given in abbreviated form and the volume and year of publication are indicated; if the actual year of publication differs from the nominal year, the latter is given in parentheses. The book History of Mathematics from Ancient Times to the Early Nineteenth Century [in Russian], which was published in the years 1970-1972, is cited in abbreviated form as HM (with volume and page number indicated). The first volume of the present series is cited as Bk. 1 (with page numbers).

Mainstream Mathematical Economics in the 20th Century


Author: PierCarlo Nicola

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540670841

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 521

View: 6719

To write everything about nothing, or to write nothing about everything: this is the problem. (Anonym, circa 1996-97) The first idea to write a book on M athematical Economics, more or less ordered in a historical sequence, occurred to me in 1995, when I was asked, by Istituto delta Enciclopedia Italiana, to write the entry "Storia dell'economia 1 2 matematica" , for the collective work "Storia deI XX Secolo". I thought that it would be interesting to elaborate on the text presented to the editors, to turn it into a book aiming at giving a panorama of what, in my opinion, are the main 20th century contributions to mathematical eco nomics. Of course, only a narrow set of the contributions made by economic theorists could be included, both for space limitations and necessity, because 3 of the limited competence of any single author. For instance, I have paid very limited attention to what is now called Macroeconomics, and also to Game Theory, which actually has grown so much as to acquire scientific in dependence as a living branch of applied mathematics. For the same reason, I have also left completely untouched such fields as Mathematical Finance, Public Economics, Theory of Taxation, etc. I have always based my presentation on published material only, assuming that what is contained in working papers still waits to be confirmed, possibly in the first years of the 21th century.