Search results for: the-hla-system-in-clinical-transplantation

The HLA System in Clinical Transplantation

Author : Bjarte G. Solheim
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With this book we· want to address young graduate students, clini cians involved in transplantation, and technicians in transplantation immunology laboratories. The volume should give a comprehensive but basic, up to date introduction to the structure, function, and clinical importance of the HLA system. We believe that there is a need for such a survey, and think that the present level of our knowledge is an optimal occasion for publication. A significant number of ques tions have now been resolved, and our knowledge has reached a level of sophistication that provides the basis for additional questions and answers. Although the emphasis of this book is on the role of HLA anti gens in clinical transplantation, their involvement in other clinical contexts is also discussed. The main focus is on the human MHC an tigenic system, but MHC systems in other species are described as they contribute to our understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of HLA antigens. Some important issues related to laboratory techniques are also covered. The contributors have a close affiliation to the field of transplan tation immunology. A majority have even been playing important roles in unraveling the HLA system and its functions. We believe this has contributed significantly to the quality and clinical and practical relevance of the book. As editors, we drew up the principal guidelines and took care that the chapters can be read as separate entities, although this invariably results in some overlapping.

The HLA System in Clinical Transplantation

Author : Bjarte Gees Solheim
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With this book we· want to address young graduate students, clini cians involved in transplantation, and technicians in transplantation immunology laboratories. The volume should give a comprehensive but basic, up to date introduction to the structure, function, and clinical importance of the HLA system. We believe that there is a need for such a survey, and think that the present level of our knowledge is an optimal occasion for publication. A significant number of ques tions have now been resolved, and our knowledge has reached a level of sophistication that provides the basis for additional questions and answers. Although the emphasis of this book is on the role of HLA anti gens in clinical transplantation, their involvement in other clinical contexts is also discussed. The main focus is on the human MHC an tigenic system, but MHC systems in other species are described as they contribute to our understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of HLA antigens. Some important issues related to laboratory techniques are also covered. The contributors have a close affiliation to the field of transplan tation immunology. A majority have even been playing important roles in unraveling the HLA system and its functions. We believe this has contributed significantly to the quality and clinical and practical relevance of the book. As editors, we drew up the principal guidelines and took care that the chapters can be read as separate entities, although this invariably results in some overlapping.

HLA and Disease Associations

Author : J.L. Tiwari
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The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) or tissue types are the products of a rapidly developing field of knowledge within the last 20 years. In the early stages of the research many investigators suspected the existence of a complex series of transplantation antigens, but it was widely believed that these antigens would not be well-defined even in this century. Yet in the last two decades as many as 124 different HLA antigens determined by at least 7 very closely linked genes located on the short arm of chromosome 6 have been identified and subsequently agreed upon by an international nomenclature committee. 1 Extensive international collaboration fueled by the potential clinical application of these antigens to clinical transplantation has advanced the field rapidly. There were nine inter national histocompatibility workshops held during this period. Although iden tification of HLA antigens was of primary clinical importance in transplantation 2 and of great basic interest in human genetics and anthropology, a rather un expected bonus has been the determination that HLA antigens are associated with disease susceptibility to a greater extent than any other known genetic marker in man. In the past, many genetic polymorphisms have been suspected to be associated with diseases. The most extensively studied markers are blood groups, enzymes, and serum proteins. A comprehensive account of published studies, totalling approximately 1,000, of these markers is available in a book by Mourant et al.

Histocompatibility Testing

Author : Jeffrey L Bidwell
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This invaluable book provides comprehensive coverage of contemporary serological, cellular and molecular methodologies in histocompatibility testing, and their application to human organ transplantation and transfusion. The contributors are internationally respected authorities in histocompatibility and immunogenetics, and are closely involved in the development or application of state-of-the-art technologies. The first three sections of the book are primarily intended for use as a bench manual for histocompatibility testers, immunologists and immunogeneticists; the fourth and fifth sections, on selection of donors and statistical methods, will further assist medical practitioners involved in clinical transplantation and its outcome. The final section of the book reviews the genetics and clinical relevance of minor histocompatibility antigens. Contents: Foreword:HLA Polymorphism: Origin and Maintenance (W F Bodmer)Introduction:Immune Recognition and the MHC (P Travers)Antibody-Based Histocompatibility Testing:HLA Typing by Alloantibodies and Monoclonal Antibodies (G M Th Schreuder)Screening for HLA-Specific Antibodies (C Brown & C Navarrete)Detection of Soluble HLA (V Rebmann & H Grosse-Wilde)Crossmatching by Lymphocytotoxicity and Flow Cytometry (S Martin & A Harmer)DNA-Based Histocompatibility Testing:PCR-SSP Typing (M Bunce)PCR-SSOP Typing (D Middleton)Sequencing-Based Typing (J Ross)DNA Conformational Analysis (J R Argüello & J A Madrigal)Microsatellite Typing (A Cambon-Thomsen et al.)On-Line HLA Sequence Alignments (G J Laundy & J L Bidwell)Cell-Based Histocompatibility Testing:Cell-Based Histocompatibility Testing (E Kaminski)Donor Selection:Allocation of Solid Organs for Transplantation (P A Dyer & S Sheldon)Selection of Haemopoietic Stem Cell Donors for Transplantation (A Green)Selection of Platelet Donors and Provision of HLA-Matched Platelets (J Harrison & C Navarrete)Statistical Methods:Population Genetics of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex (R F Schipper et al.)Survival Analysis in Solid Organ Transplantation (P A Dyer)Survival Analysis in Bone Marrow Transplantation (S Richards)HLA and Disease Association: Statistical Considerations(J H Barrett et al.)Minor Histocompatibility Antigens:Minor Histocompatibility Antigens (E Simpson) Readership: Researchers in immunology, histopathology, cell biology and genetics, surgeons and workers in blood transfusion. Keywords:Immunology;Genetics;Immunogenetics;Transplantation;Histocompatibility;Tissue Typing;Human Leucocyte Antigens, HLA;Major Histocompatibility Complex, MHC;Laboratory Methods

Acquisition Analysis and Use of Clinical Transplant Data

Author : Rainer Janßen
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Computer applications in medical care have been greatly increasing during the last ten years. Combined with other electronic devices, computers can produce images which represent human organ sections. Such a way to get informations on patient organs widely improves di agnosis and surgery efficiency. But we can go through a new step by generating three dimensional models of these organs and by displaying them. Most of research in this area focuses on the visualization process. But, in order to efficiently exploit the data collected and processed by the computer, we need to create a high-level three-dimensional model of the organ to be displayed. An interactive approach to get such a model is described in this paper as the way to use it for the study of kidney anatomy. I. 20 and 30 data visualization in medical care Classical X-ray radiographs give us a projection of human body inner parts, with an enhancement of high-density elements. But they cannot give us a complete view of organs, such as in cross-sections. Recent imaging techniques solve this problem, usually by computing those sections from a set of projections along different directions. Physicians can then get a full examination of organs by using such equipments as X-ray scanners or those producing Mag netic Resonance, ultrasonic or radionuclide images. The information collected on the organ (density, acoustic property, etc.

Clinical Transplantation

Author : G.R. Catto
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This volume has been written specifically for the practising clinician. All aspects of clinical transplantation have expanded enormously in recent years, but many of the doctors involved have received little or no tuition in immunology as medical students. The various chapters, written by physicians, surgeons, pathologists and immunologists present many of the currently important issues in transplantation and demonstrate that a basic undertaking of immunology is now essential in many areas of clinical practice. Perhaps this book will not only produce an increasing awareness of immunological technique but also and, more importantly, stimulate an abiding interest in this clinically relevant topic. Graeme R. Catto Aberdeen Royal Infirmary vii Series Editor's Note The modern clinician is expected to be the fount of all wisdom concerning conventional diagnosis and management relevant to his sphere of practice. In addition, he or she has the daunting task of comprehending and keeping pace with advances in basic science relevant to the pathogenesis of disease and ways in which these processes can be regulated or prevented. Immunology has grown from the era of antitoxins and serum sickness to a state where the study of many diverse cells and molecules has become integrated into a coherent scientific discipline with major implications for many common and crippling diseases prevalent throughout the world.

Transplantation Immunology

Author : Philip Hornick
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Leading clinicians and scientists in solid organ transplantation review the current status of the field and describe cutting-edge techniques for detecting the immune response to the allografted organ. The authors present the latest techniques for HLA typing, detecting HLA antibodies, and monitoring T-cell response, and examine more specialized methods utilizing proteomics, laser dissection microscopy, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The area of tolerance induction and reprogramming of the immune system is also covered, along with a discussion of up-to-date methods of organ preservation, of today's optimal immunosuppressive drug regimens, as well as the difficulty of mimicking chronic rejection in experimental models. Introductory chapters provide a theoretical update on current practices in renal, liver, islet, and lung transplantation and on the pathways of antigen presentation and chronic rejection.

The HLA System

Author : John Lee
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This volume documents our growing understanding of the human major histocompatibility complex. The application of this information is ever more important as the limits of transplantation continue to be reduced, including the recent success of bone marrow transplantation between unrelated but closely matched individuals. In addition, the need to transfuse platelets in the face of immunologic barriers continues to challenge transfusion services. Thus, the serologic information summarized in this volume is essential for optimal patient care. At the same time, recombinant DNA technology has led to a revolution in our understanding of many aspects of basic biology. Among the advances has been the initial characterization of the structure of some HLA loci. While this will ultimately improve clinical services, constant reference to serologic data is essential so that the powerful new techniques can be applied in the most effective ways. The timing of the First Red Cross International Histocompatibility Workshop is fortunate as it brings together experts from around the world to address the state of the art. We are all grateful to Dr. John Lee and his colleagues for organizing the workshop, and for bringing together in this volume the material to be presented in Beijing during October 17-23, 1990. Leon W. Hoyer, M.D.

Transplant Immunology

Author : Xiang Li
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With all the issues of acceptance or rejection of a transplanted organ, immunology is a core subject for all translantation clinicians. This introduction to immunology in transplantation, written by experts from the AST immunology group, includes an overview of the immune system, up to the minute chapters on emerging and new technologies and coverage of immunosupressive drugs and protocols. A companion website allows readers to download the images featured in the book.

Pediatric Stem Cell Transplantation

Author : Paulette Mehta
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This textbook examines stem cell transplatation in pediatric patients.