Search results for: the-gender-factory

The Gender Factory

Author : S.F. Berk
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tion addressed by this analysis centers on the reciprocal relation between 1 household domestic and market work efforts. It should be obvious by now that this chapter is not concerned ex plicitly with the contributions of individual members to household or mar ket activity, nor does it examine the mechanisms by which work tasks or time is apportioned among them. To reiterate, households per se are the unit of analysis; the division of labor within, with respect to either household or market activities, is ignored. In this chapter, one must pre tend that the social relations within the household productive unit, which critically shape both the nature of work and its allocation, are hidden from view. To return to the earlier metaphor, households establish a to tal household "pie," made up of all the market and domestic chores that they will undertake and the time required for them. Only after that "pie" is created can it be sliced and the pieces doled out to individual members. 2 The household and market pie defined and described here can be roughly conceptualized as the total productive capacity of the household, or as the result of a pooling of individual talents and resources. Indeed, were a measure of the time available for leisure incorporated into the measure of the pie, the household's full income (budget) constraint (i. e. , the total productive potential of the household) could be described.

The Gender Factory

Author : rah Fenstermaker Berk
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Theory on Gender

Author : Paula England
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How do various social theories explain gender inequality? Are these theories infused with masculinist biases that need to be redressed with insights from feminist theory? To address these questions, this collection of original essays features prominent sociologists discussing the strengths and the limitations of the theoretical traditions within which they have worked. Among the theoretical perspectives included are those of Marxism, world system theory, macrostructural theories, rational choice theory, neofunctionalism, psychoanalysis, ethno-methodology, expectation states theory, poststructuralist symbolic interactionism, and network theory. Each of the chapter-length essays of the first two sections provides an overview of the theory, explains its implications for gender inequality, reviews empirical research, and comments upon sexist biases or other limitations of the perspective. The final section contains chapters on feminist debates over methodology, critical commentaries on the preceding papers by four feminist scholars, and replies by the original authors.

Languages of Labor and Gender

Author : Kathleen Canning
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Kathleen Canning explores the changing meanings of women's work in Germany during the transformation from agrarian to industrial state from the mid-nineteenth century through 1914. Canning places gender at the heart of the transitions from workshop to factory, community to society, and estate to class in the textile-producing regions of the Rhineland and Westphalia.

The Gender and Psychology Reader

Author : Blythe Clinchy
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In The Gender and Psychology Reader, Blythe McVicker Clinchy and Julie K. Norem have culled through a diverse group of readings to provide a wide-ranging exploration of both progress made and problems encountered as psychologists grapple with gender. The volume includes both classic and contemporary readings, drawn from all branches of psychology-- social, developmental, personality, cognitive, history, physiological/biological--as well as from other disciplines, including sociology, philosophy, and anthropology. The essays cover a gamut of subjects including epistemological issues, the study of difference, the embodiment of gender, autonomy and connection in relationships, and clinical implications. A concluding chapter by the editors considers themes that can be traced through the different sections, gaps in current perspectives, and future directions. The Gender and Psychology Reader includes contributions from an array of distinguished scholars from varying methodological and disciplinary backgrounds. Among the contributors are Laurel Furumoto, Jeanne Marecek, Laura S. Brown, Anne Fausto- Sterling, Sandra Lipsitz Bem, Michelle Fine, Jospeh H. Pleck, J. G. Morawski, Daniel A. Hart, Barrie Thorne, and Aida Hurtado. Organized for easy use as either a primary or supplementary text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in psychology, The Gender and Psychology Reader will also serve as the essential reference for those in clinical practice interested in gender issues.

Gender and the South China Miracle

Author : Ching Kwan Lee
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Based on studies of electronics factories in Hong Kong and South China, and comparing the political perspectives of older and younger women workers, author Ching Kwan Lee argues that gender plays a crucial role in the culture and management strategies of factories that rely heavily on women workers.

Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology

Author : Joan C. Chrisler
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Donald R. McCreary and Joan C. Chrisler The Development of Gender Studies in Psychology Studies of sex differences are as old as the ?eld of psychology, and they have been conducted in every sub?eld of the discipline. There are probably many reasons for the popularity of these studies, but three reasons seem to be most prominent. First, social psychological studies of person perception show that sex is especially salient in social groups. It is the ?rst thing people notice about others, and it is one of the things we remember best (Fiske, Haslam, & Fiske, 1991; Stangor, Lynch, Duan, & Glass, 1992). For example, people may not remember who uttered a witty remark, but they are likely to remember whether the quip came from a woman or a man. Second, many people hold ?rm beliefs that aspects of physiology suit men and women for particular social roles. Men’s greater upper body strength makes them better candidates for manual labor, and their greater height gives the impression that they would make good leaders (i. e. , people we look up to). Women’s reproductive capacity and the caretaking tasks (e. g. , breastfeeding, baby minding) that accompany it make them seem suitable for other roles that require gentleness and nurturance. Third, the logic that underlies hypothesis testing in the sciences is focused on difference. Researchers design their studies with the hope that they can reject the null hypothesis that experimental groups do not differ.

The Sociology of Gender

Author : Amy S. Wharton
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Featuring extensive revisions and updates, the Second Edition of The Sociology of Gender: An Introduction to Theory and Research presents an introductory overview of gender theory and research, and continues to offer a unique and compelling approach to one of the most important topics in the field of sociology. Features extensive revisions and updates, and incorporates recent cross-national research on gender Expands and develops frameworks introduced in first edition Treats gender as a multilevel system operating at the individual, interactional, and institutional levels Stresses conceptual and theoretical issues in the sociology of gender Offers an accessible yet intellectually sophisticated approach to current gender theory and research Includes pedagogical features designed to encourage critical thinking and debate

Doing Gender Doing Difference

Author : Sarah Fenstermaker
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For the first time the anthologized works of Sarah Fenstermaker and Candace West have been collected along with new essays to provide a complete understanding of this topic of tremendous importance to scholars in social science.

Re negotiating Gender

Author : Lake Lui
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In Chinese societies where both “money” and “gender” confer power, can a woman’s economic success relative to her husband’s bring about a more equal division of household labor? Lui’s qualitative study of “status-reversed” Hong Kong families, wherein wives earn more than their husbands, examines how couples re-negotiate household labor in ways that perpetuate male dominance within the family even when the traditional gender expectation that “men rule outside, women rule inside” (nanzhuwai, nuzhunei) is challenged. Going beyond the dyadic negotiation of household labor, this important study also explores the role of “third parties,” namely the couples’ children and parents, who actively encourage couples to conform to traditional gender norms, thereby reproducing an unequal division of household labor. Based upon the experiences of families with stay-at-home dads, Lui further identifies a new mechanism of deconstructing gender, by which couples concertedly construct new norms of "work" and "gender" that they maintain through daily interactions to fit their atypical relative earnings. As a result, there are sparks of hope that both men and women can be liberated from a set of traditional social norms. Re-negotiating Gender: Household Division of Labor When She Earns More than He Does is essential reading in the fields of family and gender studies, sociology, psychology, and East Asian studies.

The Kaleidoscope of Gender

Author : Joan Z. Spade
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This integrated, comprehensive text/reader is designed to present an accessible, timely, and stimulating introduction to the sociology of gender. It can be used as a text by itself or as a supplement to other materials in courses in Sociology of Gender and Introduction to Women’s Studies. Articles have been selected (1) to creatively and clearly explicate what gender is and is not, and what it means to say that gender is socially constructed; (2) to untangle and clarify the intricate ways in which gender is embedded in and defined by other systems of difference and inequality such as race, social class, sexualities, and age; (3) to illustrate the complex variations and dynamics of gender across cultures. By organizing the book around a metaphor-the kaleidoscope--the articles are integrated throughout the text and tied together by text/introductions to each chapter. This makes the book more than a collection of articles; each article fits into the metaphor and its three themes: prisms, patterns, and possibilities.

The Gender Communication Connection

Author : Teri Kwal Gamble
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The authors explore the many ways that gender and communication intersect and affect each other. Every chapter encourages a consideration of how gender attitudes and practices, past and current, influence personal notions of what it means not only to be female and male, but feminine and masculine. The second edition of this student friendly and accessible text is filled with contemporary examples, activities, and exercises to help students put theoretical concepts into practice.

Unbending Gender

Author : Joan Williams
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In Unbending Gender, Joan Williams takes a hard look at the state of feminism in America. Concerned by what she finds--young women who flatly refuse to identify themselves as feminists and working-class and minority women who feel the movement hasn't addressed the issues that dominate their daily lives--she outlines a new vision of feminism that calls for workplaces focused on the needs of families and, in divorce cases, recognition of the value of family work and its impact on women's earning power. Williams shows that workplaces are designed around men's bodies and life patterns in ways that discriminate against women, and that the work/family system that results is terrible for men, worse for women, and worst of all for children. She proposes a set of practical policies and legal initiatives to reorganize the two realms of work in employment and households--so that men and women can lead healthier and more productive personal and work lives. Williams introduces a new 'reconstructive' feminism that places class, race, and gender conflicts among women at center stage. Her solution is an inclusive, family-friendly feminism that supports both mothers and fathers as caregivers and as workers.

Gender Nation and State in Modern Japan

Author : Andrea Germer
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Gender, Nation and State in Modern Japan makes a unique contribution to the international literature on the formation of modern nation–states in its focus on the gendering of the modern Japanese nation-state from the late nineteenth century to the present. References to gender relations are deeply embedded in the historical concepts of nation and nationalism, and in the related symbols, metaphors and arguments. Moreover, the development of the binary opposition between masculinity and femininity and the development of the modern nation-state are processes which occurred simultaneously. They were the product of a shift from a stratified, hereditary class society to a functionally-differentiated social body. This volume includes the work of an international group of scholars from Japan, the United States, Australia and Germany, which in many cases appears in English for the first time. It provides an interdisciplinary perspective on the formation of the modern Japanese nation–state, including comparative perspectives from research on the formation of the modern nation–state in Europe, thus bringing research on Japan into a transnational dialogue. This volume will be of interest in the fields of modern Japanese history, gender studies, political science and comparative studies of nationalism.

Doing Gender Diversity

Author : Rebecca F. Plante,Lis M. Mau
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This cutting-edge reader demonstrates the multiple ways in which the universe of gender is socially, culturally, and historically constructed. The selections focus on gender itself - how gender operates socioculturally, exists, functions, and is presented in micro and macro interactions. In order to avoid balkanization, the authors examine the various ways in which culture intersects with individuals to produce the range of presentations of self that we call 'gender', from people born male who become adult men to lesbian women to transmen, and everyone else on the diverse gender spectrum.

Gender Time and Reduced Work

Author : Cynthia Negrey
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Gaat in op de invloed van allerlei vormen van arbeidstijdverkorting op genderverhoudingen en de 'quality of time'.

Gender Family and Economy

Author : Rae Lesser Blumberg
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The 'triple overlap' refers to the link between gender stratification, the household and economic variables. In this volume, leading sociologists examine this overlap as a totality, providing theoretical concepts and new research on how the triple overlap works, both inside the family and within the broader context of society. Their competing conceptions of the interrelationship of gender, family and economy are bolstered by empirical papers which raise questions of culture, class and race within the contexts of both the developed and developing worlds. Six of the articles in this volume were previously published as a Special Issue of Journal of Family Issues.

Destined for Equality

Author : Robert Max Jackson
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Men and women remain unequal in the United States, but in this provocative book, Robert Max Jackson demonstrates that gender inequality is irrevocably crumbling. Destined for Equality, the first integrated analysis of gender inequality's modern decline, tells the story of that progressive movement toward equality over the past two centuries in America, showing that women's status has risen consistently and continuously. Jackson asserts that women's rising status has been due largely to the emergence of modern political and economic organizations, which have transformed institutional priorities concerning gender. Although individual politicians and businessmen generally believed women should remain in their traditional roles, Jackson shows that it was simply not in the interests of modern enterprise and government to foster inequality. The search for profits, votes, organizational rationality, and stability all favored a gender-neutral approach that improved women's status. The inherent gender impartiality of organizational interests won out over the prejudiced preferences of the men who ran them. As economic power migrated into large-scale organizations inherently indifferent to gender distinctions, the patriarchal model lost its social and cultural sway, and women's continual efforts to rise in the world became steadily more successful. Total gender equality will eventually prevail; the only questions remaining are what it will look like, and how and when it will arrive.

Reconfigurations of Class and Gender

Author : Janeen Baxter
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This far-reaching volume reasserts the significance of class and gender for understanding socioeconomic conditions. The contributors urge a nuanced approach that focuses on the specific institutional contexts of class-gender relations in various advanced industrial nations.

Gender and Families

Author : Scott Coltrane
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Gender and Families uses cultural events from our everyday lives to explore how families and gender are mutually produced and inseparably linked. In this updated second edition, Coltrane and Adams continue to demystify the complexities of gender and family with discussions of racial difference, ethnicity, and social class.