Search results for: the-future-of-the-oocyte

The Future of the Oocyte

Author : John Eppig
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Since the first successful transfer of an in vitro fertilised human egg in 1976, modern endocrinology, genetics, and assisted reproductive technologies have opened new frontiers of research with the aim to treat infertile women. In this workshop we set out to promote an interdisciplinary discussion between experts from various fields of basic, company-based and clinical research related to folliculogenesis and oocyte development. The aim of this workshop was to present, discuss and assess novel approaches in mammalian folliculogenesis and oocyte development that may have an impact on fertility/ infertility in the near or distant future. Key issues were the understanding of new modulators of folliculogenesis and regulators of cytoplasmic as well as meiotic oocyte maturation, modern technologies, the aging oocyte and pathogenetic mechanisms of infertility.

Cloning and the Future of Human Embryo Research

Author : Paul Lauritzen
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Hailed as revolutionary, the prospect of human cloning is actually the next logical step in a series of developments in reproductive technology that began with the first test-tube baby in 1978. This book addresses the debates over cloning in the context of new reproductive technology and human embryo research. It examines the status of preimplantation embryos, the ethical issues related to cloning and embryo research, and the formulation of public policy.

Oocyte Cryopreservation

Author : Jennifer A. Moligano
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The Future of Human Reproduction

Author : Holm Søren
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ISSUES IN BIOMEDICAL ETHICS General Editors: John Harris, University of Manchester; Soren Holm, University of Copenhagen. Consulting Editor: Ranaan Gillon, Director, Imperial College Health Service, London. North American Consulting Editor: Bonnie Steinbock, Professor of Philosophy, SUNY, Albany. The late twentieth century has witnessed dramatic technological developments in biomedical science and the delivery of health care, and these developments have brought with them important social changes. All too often ethical analysis has lagged behind these changes. The purpose of this series is to provide lively, up-to-date, and authoritative studies for the increasingly large and diverse readership concerned with issues in biomedical ethics--not just healthcare trainees and professionals, but also social scientists, philosophers, lawyers, social workers, and legislators. The series will feature both single-author and multi-author books, short and accessible enough to be widely read, each of them focused on an issue of outstanding current importance and interest. Philosophers, doctors, and lawyers from several countries already feature among the authors lined up for the series. It promises to become the leading channel for the best original work in this burgeoning field. this volume: The Future of Human Reproduction brings together new work, by an international group of contributors from various fields and perspectives, on ethical, social, and legal issues raised by recent advances in reproductive technology. These advances have put us in a position to choose what kinds of children and parents there should be; the aim of the essays is to illuminate how we should deal with these possibilities for choice. Topics discussed include gender and race selection, genetic engineering, fertility treatment, ovarian tissue transfer, and post-menopausal pregnancy. The central focus of the volume is the interface between reproductive choice and public regulation. 'The Future of Human Reproduction is a roadmap for twenty-first century reproductive technologies written by leading thinkers in the field for philosophers, policy makers, and clinicians. However, it will perhaps be equally useful for parents and other members of our most important social institutions, as we struggle to cope with the rapidly changing reproductive horizon.' Glenn McGee, University of Pennsylvania Center for Bioethics

Oocyte Biology in Fertility Preservation

Author : S. Samuel Kim
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​Fertility preservation has become one of the most important and fast growing fields of reproductive medicine. Although there are several strategies for fertility preservation in female, most of them are still considered experimental. It is important to perfect the existing technologies, but also developing new strategies should be actively sought. The future development of fertility preservation strategies should be based on the sound scientific knowledge and principles. One of the main objectives of fertility preservation in females is prevention of oocyte depletion. The mechanisms of oocyte loss and survival in the ovary are complex, which include genetic control both in germ cells and in somatic cells, DNA damage and repair mechanism, apoptosis and autophagy, and other poorly understood molecular mechanisms. To develop clinically effective and safe strategies for fertility preservation, it is essential to know and understand the fundamentals of oocyte and ovarian biology at the molecular level. Thus, the purpose of this edition is to review the current progress in research related to molecular and genetic control of oocyte development that can be applied to fertility preservation. The main topics that are discussed in this publication include molecular signaling mechanisms of oocyte activation and loss, genomic integrity of oocytes, and epigenetics.​

Biology of Developing Systems

Author : Philip Grant
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Molecular Genetics of Drosophila Oogenesis

Author : Paul F. Lasko
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The genetic development of eggs in fruit fly (Drosophilia) is the most important model used by developmental biologists in understanding how we go from a fertilized egg to a fully developed organism. Insights into fruit fly genetics have also begun to provide an idea as to how humans develop. This text amasses and organizes information on nearly 400 genes affecting the origin and development of ova. It should aid understanding of the crucial processes in organisms development.

Oocyte Cryopreservation

Author : David Wyatt Hickman
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Insect Biology in The Future

Author : Michael Locke
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Insect Biology in the Future: ""VBW 80"" contains essays presented to Sir Vincent Wigglesworth during his 80th year. Wigglesworth is fairly designated as the founding father and remarkable leader of insect physiology. His papers and other works significantly contribute to this field of study. This book, dedicated to him, underlines the value of insect material in approaching a wide spectrum of biological issues. The essays in this book tackle the insects' physiology, including their evolution and dominance. The papers also discuss the various avenues of water loss and gain as interrelated components of overall water balance in land arthropods. This reference suggests possible areas for further research mainly at the whole animal level. It also describes the fat body, hemolymph, endocrine control of vitellogenin synthesis, reproduction, growth, hormones, chemistry, defense, and survival of insects. Other topics of importance include cell communication and pattern formation in insects; plant-insect interaction; and insecticides.


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Studies on Cryopreservation of Zebrafish Danio Rerio Oocytes Using Controlled Slow Cooling and Vitrification

Author : Mo Guan
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Cryopreservation of gametes provides a promising method to preserve fish genetic materials, which offers many benefits to the fields of aquaculture, conservation and biomedicine. Although successful cryopreservation of spermatozoa of about 200 fish species has been achieved, systematic studies on cryopreservation of fish oocytes have only recently been undertaken. The objective of the present studies was to use zebrafish as a model system to develop a cryopreservation protocol for fish oocytes and to develop reliable viability assessment methods for monitoring zebrafish oocyte viability both before and after cryopreservation. A simple and rapid enzymatic method for zebrafish oocytes isolation was developed and the investigations on cryopreservation of zebrafish oocytes using improved controlled slow cooling and vitrification were carried out. Oocyte viability following cryopreservation was investigated by ATP assay, oocyte viability molecular signature (OVMS) and cryomicroscopic observation in addition to staining methods. The optimum conditions for oocyte enzymatic separation were identified as 0.4mg/ml collagenase or 1.6mg/ml hyaluronidase treatment for 10min at 22oC and this method can be used for oocytes at all stages. The use of sodium free medium (KCl buffer), fast warming and 4-step removal of cryoprotectants in an improved controlled slow cooling protocol significantly enhanced oocyte viability (67.5 ± 1.7%) when compared with a previous study (16.3 ± 2.3%) in this laboratory. Mixtures of cryoprotectants (methanol, Me2SO and propylene glycol), stepwise addition and removal of cryoprotectants in combination of a new vitrification system (CVA65 vitrification system) were used in vitrification studies. Oocyte survivals after vitrification assessed by trypan blue staining were relatively high (76.5 ± 6.3%) shortly after warming in KCl buffer. Furthermore, the result of ATP assay showed that ATP levels in oocytes decreased significantly after cryopreservation indicating the bioenergetic systems of oocytes were damaged. Cryomicroscopic observations demonstrated that Intracellular ice formation (IIF) is the main factor causing injuries during cryopreservation of zebrafish oocytes. The results provided by the present study will assist successful protocol design for cryopreservation of fish oocytes in the future.

The Oocyte Economy

Author : Catherine Waldby
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In recent years increasing numbers of women from wealthy countries have turned to egg donation, egg freezing, and in vitro fertilization to become pregnant, especially later in life. This trend has created new ways of using, exchanging, and understanding oocytes—the reproductive cells specific to women. In The Oocyte Economy Catherine Waldby draws on 130 interviews---with scientists, clinicians, and women who have either donated or frozen their oocytes or received those of another woman---to trace how the history of human oocytes' perceived value intersects with the biological and social life of women. Demonstrating how oocytes have come to be understood as discrete and scarce biomedical objects open to valuation, management, and exchange, Waldy examines the global market for oocytes and the power dynamics between recipients and the often younger and poorer donors. With this exploration of the oocyte economy and its contemporary biopolitical significance, Waldby rethinks the relationship between fertility, gendered experience, and biomedical innovation.

Assessing the Medical Risks of Human Oocyte Donation for Stem Cell Research

Author : National Research Council
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It is widely understood that stem cell treatments have the potential to revolutionize medicine. Because of this potential, in 2004 California voters approved Proposition 71 to set up a 10-year, $3 billion program to fund research on stem cells. Under the direction of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, this program will pay to build facilities for stem cell research and will fund doctors and scientists to carry out research with the ultimate goal of helping to develop therapies based on stem cells. For this research to move forward, however, will require a steady supply of stem cells, particularly human embryonic stem cells. Those stem cells are collected from developing human embryos created from eggs-or oocytes-harvested from the ovaries of female donors. Thus much of the promise of stem cells depends on women choosing to donate oocytes to the research effort. The oocyte donation process is not without risk, however. Donors are given doses of hormones to trigger the production of more eggs than would normally be produced, and this hormone treatment can have various side effects. Once the eggs have matured in the ovary, they must be retrieved via a surgical procedure that is typically performed under anesthesia, and both the surgery and the anesthesia carry their own risks. Furthermore, given the very personal nature of egg donation, the experience may carry psychological risks for some women as well. With this in mind, in 2006 the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine contracted with the National Academies to organize a workshop that would bring together experts from various areas to speak about the potential risks of oocyte donation and to summarize what is known and what needs to be known about this topic. The Committee on Assessing the Medical Risks of Human Oocyte Donation for Stem Cell Research was formed to plan the workshop, which was held in San Francisco on September 28, 2006. This report is a summary and synthesis of that workshop.

Archives n erlandaises de zoologie

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Future Aspects in Human In Vitro Fertilization

Author : Wilfried Feichtinger
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While the organization of an international congress on in vitro fertilization (IVF) was an entirely new venture for us in 1983, since we had no experience but were full of optimism, we approached the organization of a second Congress in Vien na in 1986 much more calmly. Our experience had increased as had the readiness of many of our friends to help and of people interested in cooperating. However, would our Congress not lose its originality on account of the increased routine? This was certainly a possible danger which we wanted to prevent by means of two counter measures. The first concerned the scientific program: the new and trend-setting aspects of IVF would be discussed primarily rather than the results of traditional methods. The second measure concerned the social program, aimed more at private contacts in the intimate and familiar atmosphere of homes and workplace rather than meetings in luxurious but impersonal public institu tions. We believe that both these measures achieved the desired effect. Although we could not avoid some events taking place at the same time, the most important problems were treated and discussed jointly. Thus, the Congress was easy to survey, and all topics were thoroughly discussed.

Clinical In Vitro Fertilization

Author : C. Wood
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Man is entering a new era as a result of advances in human reproduction. Techniques have been developed to assist in the creation of man-artificial insemination and, now, in vitro fertilization (IVF). Soon, other new methods, based upon current advances of the IVF procedure, will develop to improve the quality of human reproduction. The book describes the conceptual framework and details of technique concerned with in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (ET). Edwards and Steptoe first described the technique of IVF and ET and the subsequent births of two normal babies. Since then, the success rate of the system has been improved by the use of fertility drugs to provide more oocytes and preincubation to mature the oocyte before fertilization. As a result of the continued research from Melbourne and Cambridge, more than 100 babies have been born. A free interchange of information between the Cambridge and Melbourne groups has led to a predictable success rate of 15%-20% per laparoscopy, and infertility centres all over the world are now copying the techniques. It is an appropriate time to inform doctors and scientists to help them understand the various procedures involved in IVF and ET. While many advances will occur in the future, the establishment of high success rates in several of the critical steps in the procedure-oocyte pick-up rate (90%), fertilization (>90%) and early embryo development (70%-90% )-signifies that some of the new techniques are stabilized sufficiently to warrant transmission of information by text, rather than scientific journal.

Australian Journal of Zoology

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The Soviet Journal of Developmental Biology

Author :
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Cell Differentiation

Author : Robert John Cecil Harris
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The Fish Oocyte

Author : Patrick J. Babin
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This book presents a comprehensive overview on egg production in fish, from the standpoint of the oocyte. It covers oocyte development, maturation, hydration and fertilization. The book places special emphasis on using state-of-the-art tools for discerning the ultra-structure of the follicle and genomic/proteomic tools to fully understand biological basis of fish reproduction.