Search results for: the-design-of-experiments-in-neuroscience

The Design of Experiments in Neuroscience

Author : Mary Harrington
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“You are about to start on a great adventure. You are going to transition from reading about science to becoming a scientist.” -From the Preface Using engaging, disarming prose, author Mary Harrington shows neuroscience students how to go about selecting a topic, designing an experiment, analyzing the results, and publishing a paper. This text effectively illustrates basic research methods and design principles by uniquely using relevant examples from neuroscience such as the principles of design of fMRI studies, the use of transgenic mice, and conditional gene knockouts. The author also addresses basic professional ethics, fundamental statistics and data analysis tools, the range of possible experimental designs (from simple descriptive studies to multifactorial designs), and ways to control unwanted variables and avoid common pitfalls. This text is intended as either a core or supplemental text for both undergraduates and graduate students studying research methods in Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy, Neurophysiology, Neurochemistry, or Biological Psychology.

The Design of Experiments in Neuroscience

Author : Mary Harrington
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A student guide to neuroscience research including how to select a topic, analyze data, and present research.

The Design of Experiments in Neuroscience

Author : Mary Harrington
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Intended to meet the needs of a student who wishes to begin research in the field of neuroscience or biological psychology, this book provides background to the scientific method, and the use of both experimental and non-experimental research designs. Using examples from published studies in neuroscience, the text discusses control of variables and analysis of results, with a focus on the logic of experimental design. Ethical issues associated with neuroscience research are considered and guidelines are described. Statistical concepts are discussed within the context of the research examples. Many exercises are provided to allow students to apply their knowledge and test their understanding. The background in research skills that this book provides will help students succeed in their research endeavors.

Designing EEG Experiments for Studying the Brain

Author : Aamir Saeed Malik
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Designing EEG Experiments for Studying the Brain: Design Code and Example Datasets details the design of various brain experiments using electroencephalogram (EEG). Providing guidelines for designing an EEG experiment, it is primarily for researchers who want to venture into this field by designing their own experiments as well as those who are excited about neuroscience and want to explore various applications related to the brain. The first chapter describes how to design an EEG experiment and details the various parameters that should be considered for success, while remaining chapters provide experiment design for a number of neurological applications, both clinical and behavioral. As each chapter is accompanied with experiment design codes and example datasets, those interested can quickly design their own experiments or use the current design for their own purposes. Helpful appendices provide various forms for one’s experiment including recruitment forms, feedback forms, ethics forms, and recommendations for related hardware equipment and software for data acquisition, processing, and analysis. Written to assist neuroscientists in experiment designs using EEG Presents a step-by-step approach to designing both clinical and behavioral EEG experiments Includes experiment design codes and example datasets Provides inclusion and exclusion criteria to help correctly identify experiment subjects and the minimum number of samples Includes appendices that provide recruitment forms, ethics forms, and various subjective tests associated with each of the chapters

Experimental Design Research

Author : Philip Cash
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This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational understanding is becoming increasingly tenuous, calling for a multidisciplinary and transdiscipinary perspective. Experimental design research thus offers a powerful tool and platform for resolving these challenges. Providing an invaluable resource for the design research community, this book paves the way for the next generation of researchers in the field by bridging methods and methodology. As such, it will especially benefit postgraduate students and researchers in design research, as well as engineering designers.

Cultural Neuroscience Cultural Influences on Brain Function

Author : Juan Y. Chiao
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This volume presents recent empirical advances using neuroscience techniques to investigate how culture influences neural processes underlying a wide range of human abilities, from perception and scene processing to memory and social cognition. It also highlights the theoretical and methodological issues with conducting cultural neuroscience research. Section I provides diverse theoretical perspectives on how culture and biology interact are represented. Sections II –VI is to demonstrate how cultural values, beliefs, practices and experience affect neural systems underlying a wide range of human behavior from perception and cognition to emotion, social cognition and decision-making. The final section presents arguments for integrating the study of culture and the human brain by providing an explicit articulation of how the study of culture can inform the study of the brain and vice versa.

Design of Experiments for Reinforcement Learning

Author : Christopher Gatti
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This thesis takes an empirical approach to understanding of the behavior and interactions between the two main components of reinforcement learning: the learning algorithm and the functional representation of learned knowledge. The author approaches these entities using design of experiments not commonly employed to study machine learning methods. The results outlined in this work provide insight as to what enables and what has an effect on successful reinforcement learning implementations so that this learning method can be applied to more challenging problems.

Neuroscience and Philosophy

Author : Maxwell Bennett
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In Neuroscience and Philosophy three prominent philosophers and a leading neuroscientist clash over the conceptual presuppositions of cognitive neuroscience. The book begins with an excerpt from Maxwell Bennett and Peter Hacker's Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience (Blackwell, 2003), which questions the conceptual commitments of cognitive neuroscientists. Their position is then criticized by Daniel Dennett and John Searle, two philosophers who have written extensively on the subject, and Bennett and Hacker in turn respond. Their impassioned debate encompasses a wide range of central themes: the nature of consciousness, the bearer and location of psychological attributes, the intelligibility of so-called brain maps and representations, the notion of qualia, the coherence of the notion of an intentional stance, and the relationships between mind, brain, and body. Clearly argued and thoroughly engaging, the authors present fundamentally different conceptions of philosophical method, cognitive-neuroscientific explanation, and human nature, and their exchange will appeal to anyone interested in the relation of mind to brain, of psychology to neuroscience, of causal to rational explanation, and of consciousness to self-consciousness. In his conclusion Daniel Robinson (member of the philosophy faculty at Oxford University and Distinguished Professor Emeritus at Georgetown University) explains why this confrontation is so crucial to the understanding of neuroscientific research. The project of cognitive neuroscience, he asserts, depends on the incorporation of human nature into the framework of science itself. In Robinson's estimation, Dennett and Searle fail to support this undertaking; Bennett and Hacker suggest that the project itself might be based on a conceptual mistake. Exciting and challenging, Neuroscience and Philosophy is an exceptional introduction to the philosophical problems raised by cognitive neuroscience.

UCSF Graduate Division Bulletin

Author : University of California, San Francisco. Graduate Division
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Relating Statistics and Experimental Design

Author : Irwin P. Levin
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This handy guide gives the novice researcher a clear description of the standard tools of the trade. Unlike some texts which focus on either design or statistics, this book covers the fundamentals of design, together with experiments and observational methods. There is an exposition of major tests of significance with formulas plus easy verbal interpretations, and "boxes" embedded in the text contain prototypic applications.

Understanding Statistics and Experimental Design

Author : Michael H. Herzog
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This open access textbook provides the background needed to correctly use, interpret and understand statistics and statistical data in diverse settings. Part I makes key concepts in statistics readily clear. Parts I and II give an overview of the most common tests (t-test, ANOVA, correlations) and work out their statistical principles. Part III provides insight into meta-statistics (statistics of statistics) and demonstrates why experiments often do not replicate. Finally, the textbook shows how complex statistics can be avoided by using clever experimental design. Both non-scientists and students in Biology, Biomedicine and Engineering will benefit from the book by learning the statistical basis of scientific claims and by discovering ways to evaluate the quality of scientific reports in academic journals and news outlets.

Experimental Design

Author : Joachim Krauth
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Scientists planning experiments in medical and behavioral research will find this handbook and dictionary an invaluable desk reference tool. Also recommended as a textbook for students of Experimental Design or accompanying courses in Statistics. Principles of experimental design are introduced, techniques of experimental design are described, and advantages and disadvantages of often used designs are discussed. This two-part volume, a handbook of experimental design and a dictionary providing short explanations for many terms related to experimental design, contains information that will not quickly become outdated.

The Design and Conduct of Meaningful Experiments Involving Human Participants

Author : R. Barker Bausell
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Designing and conducting experiments involving human participants requires a skillset different from that needed for statistically analyzing the resulting data. The Design and Conduct of Meaningful Experiments Involving Human Participants combines an introduction to scientific culture and ethical mores with specific experimental design and procedural content. Author R. Barker Bausell assumes no statistical background on the part of the reader, resulting in a highly accessible text. Clear instructions are provided on topics ranging from the selection of a societally important outcome variable to potentially efficacious interventions to the conduct of the experiment itself. Early chapters introduce the concept of experimental design in an intuitive manner involving both hypothetical and real-life examples of how people make causal inferences. The fundamentals of formal experimentation, randomization, and the use of control groups are introduced in the same manner, followed by the presentation and explanation of common (and later, more advanced) designs. Replete with synopses of examples from the journal literature and supplemented by 25 experimental principles, this book is designed to serve as an interdisciplinary supplementary text for research-methods courses in the educational, psychological, behavioral, social, and health sciences. It also serves as an excellent primary text for methods seminar courses.

Computational Neuroscience Theoretical Insights into Brain Function

Author : Paul Cisek
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Computational neuroscience is a relatively new but rapidly expanding area of research which is becoming increasingly influential in shaping the way scientists think about the brain. Computational approaches have been applied at all levels of analysis, from detailed models of single-channel function, transmembrane currents, single-cell electrical activity, and neural signaling to broad theories of sensory perception, memory, and cognition. This book provides a snapshot of this exciting new field by bringing together chapters on a diversity of topics from some of its most important contributors. This includes chapters on neural coding in single cells, in small networks, and across the entire cerebral cortex, visual processing from the retina to object recognition, neural processing of auditory, vestibular, and electromagnetic stimuli, pattern generation, voluntary movement and posture, motor learning, decision-making and cognition, and algorithms for pattern recognition. Each chapter provides a bridge between a body of data on neural function and a mathematical approach used to interpret and explain that data. These contributions demonstrate how computational approaches have become an essential tool which is integral in many aspects of brain science, from the interpretation of data to the design of new experiments, and to the growth of our understanding of neural function. • Includes contributions by some of the most influential people in the field of computational neuroscience • Demonstrates how computational approaches are being used today to interpret experimental data • Covers a wide range of topics from single neurons, to neural systems, to abstract models of learning

Laboratory Animal Welfare

Author : Kathryn Bayne
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Laboratory Animal Welfare provides a comprehensive, up-to-date look into the new science of animal welfare within laboratory research. Animals specifically considered include rodents, cats and dogs, nonhuman primates, agricultural animals, avian animals and aquatic animals. The book examines the impact of experiment design and environment on animal welfare, as well as emergency situations and euthanasia practices. Readers will benefit from a review of regulations and policy guidelines concerning lab animal use, as well as information on assessing animal welfare. With discussions of the history and ethics of animals in research, and a debate on contemporary and international issues, this book is a go-to resource for laboratory animal welfare.

Bad Moves

Author : Barbara Sahakian
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Making decisions is such a regular activity that it is mostly taken for granted. However, damage or abnormality in the areas of the brain involved in decision-making can severely affect personality and the ability to manage even simple tasks. Here, Barbara Sahakian and Jamie Nicole LaBuzetta discuss the process of normal decision making - our strategies for making decisions, biases that affect us, and influential factors - and then describe the abnormal patterns found in patients with conditions such as severe depression, Alzheimer's, and accidental brain damage. Using striking examples and case studies from their own research to show the impact of abnormal decision making, they introduce the concept of 'hot' and 'cold' decision making based on the level of emotions involved, showing that in various psychiatric conditions extreme emotions alter the pattern of decision making. Looking at the ways in which the brain can be manipulated to improve cognitive function in these patients, they consider the use of 'smart drugs' that alleviate these problems. The realization that smart drugs can improve cognitive abilities in healthy people has led to growing general use, with drugs easily available via the Internet. They raise ethical questions about the availability of these drugs for cognitive enhancement, in the hope of informing public debate about an increasingly important issue.

English Studies The State of the Discipline Past Present and Future

Author : N. Gildea
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An accessible and wide-ranging consideration of concerns facing English Studies in its surrounding context of the university and society. The contributors to this volume seek to trace, in the face of current challenges, historical and contemporary debates surrounding English Studies.

Trends in Functional Programming

Author : Zoltan Horvath
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Volume 10 in the Trends in Functional Programming (TFP) series presents some of the latest research results in the implementation of functional programming languages and the practice of functional programming. It contains a peer-reviewed selection of the best articles presented at the 2009 Tenth Symposium on Trends in Functional Programming held in Komárno, Slovakia. TFP 2009 was co-located with the Third Central European Functional Programming School (CEFP 2009) and organized by the Department of Programming Languages and Compilers, Faculty of Informatics, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest and the Selye János University, Komárno.TFP brings together international researchers, students and industry professionals dedicated to promoting new research directions and to investigating the relationship between functional programming and other branches of Computer Science. This TFP volume includes some of the latest trends of functional programming, and it is an essential part of any modern programming languages library.

The Cognitive Neurosciences

Author : David Poeppel
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The sixth edition of the foundational reference on cognitive neuroscience, with entirely new material that covers the latest research, experimental approaches, and measurement methodologies. Each edition of this classic reference has proved to be a benchmark in the developing field of cognitive neuroscience. The sixth edition of The Cognitive Neurosciences continues to chart new directions in the study of the biological underpinnings of complex cognition—the relationship between the structural and physiological mechanisms of the nervous system and the psychological reality of the mind. It offers entirely new material, reflecting recent advances in the field, covering the latest research, experimental approaches, and measurement methodologies. This sixth edition treats such foundational topics as memory, attention, and language, as well as other areas, including computational models of cognition, reward and decision making, social neuroscience, scientific ethics, and methods advances. Over the last twenty-five years, the cognitive neurosciences have seen the development of sophisticated tools and methods, including computational approaches that generate enormous data sets. This volume deploys these exciting new instruments but also emphasizes the value of theory, behavior, observation, and other time-tested scientific habits. Section editors Sarah-Jayne Blakemore and Ulman Lindenberger, Kalanit Grill-Spector and Maria Chait, Tomás Ryan and Charan Ranganath, Sabine Kastner and Steven Luck, Stanislas Dehaene and Josh McDermott, Rich Ivry and John Krakauer, Daphna Shohamy and Wolfram Schultz, Danielle Bassett and Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Marina Bedny and Alfonso Caramazza, Liina Pylkkänen and Karen Emmorey, Mauricio Delgado and Elizabeth Phelps, Anjan Chatterjee and Adina Roskies

Neglected Factors in Pharmacology and Neuroscience Research

Author : V. Claassen
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Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences, Volume 12: Neglected Factors in Pharmacology and Neuroscience Research: Biopharmaceutics, Animal Characteristics, Maintenance, Testing Conditions can be used as reference in the improvement of test designs for biochemists and physiologists in the control of test conditions. The book is divided into five sections. The introduction deals with the uncertainty of animal characteristics and test conditions as hindrances to the development of general insight into biological regulatory mechanism. The first section discusses biopharmaceutics — the interaction of drugs when interacting with molecules or enzymes in sufficient concentration at a specific site of action. The second section reviews animal characteristics in terms of strain differences, sex differences, and changes during development and aging of the subject. The third section discusses the maintenance of experimental animals such as housing conditions, food composition, and water intake as these kinds of environmental factors may shape the phenotype and responsiveness of the experimental animal. The fourth section explains the testing conditions such as metabolic effects and drug interactions, anesthesia, stress, and even the effects on circadian rhythms. The last section is a discussion on the importance of experimental results. This section covers internal and external validities and statistical inference. The author concludes that the design of any experiment should include a power analysis so that reliable and valuable conclusions can follow. Biochemists, physiologists, pharmacokineticists, toxicologists, chemical researchers, and others for whom drugs are their main focus of study will find this book valuable.