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The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex

Author : Charles Darwin
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The Descent of man

Author : Charles Darwin
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The Descent of Man

Author : Charles Darwin
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This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. To ensure a quality reading experience, this work has been proofread and republished using a format that seamlessly blends the original graphical elements with text in an easy-to-read typeface. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

The Descent of Man

Author : Grayson Perry
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What does it mean to be male in the 21st Century? Award-winning artist Grayson Perry explores what masculinity is: from sex to power, from fashion to career prospects, and what it could become—with illustrations throughout. In this witty and necessary new book, artist Grayson Perry trains his keen eye on the world of men to ask, what sort of man would make the world a better place? What would happen if we rethought the macho, outdated version of manhood, and embraced a different ideal? In the current atmosphere of bullying, intolerance and misogyny, demonstrated in the recent Trump versus Clinton presidential campaign, The Descent of Man is a timely and essential addition to current conversations around gender. Apart from gaining vast new wardrobe options, the real benefit might be that a newly fitted masculinity will allow men to have better relationships—and that’s happiness, right? Grayson Perry admits he’s not immune from the stereotypes himself—yet his thoughts on everything from power to physical appearance, from emotions to a brand new Manifesto for Men, are shot through with honesty, tenderness, and the belief that, for everyone to benefit, updating masculinity has to be something men decide to do themselves. They have nothing to lose but their hang-ups.

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Author : Steve Jones
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Men, towards the end of the last millennium, felt a sudden tightening of the bowels with the news that the services of their sex had at last been dispensed with. Dolly the Sheep - conceived without male assistance - had arrived. Her birth reminded at least half the population of how precarious man's position may be. What is the point of being a man? For a brief and essential instant he is a donor of DNA; but outside that glorious moment his role is hard to understand. This book is about science not society; about maleness not manhood. The condition is, in the end, a matter of biology, whatever limits that science may have in explaining the human condition. Today's advances in medicine and in genetics mean at last we understand why men exist and why they are so frequent. We understand from hormones to hydraulics how man's machinery works, why he dies so young and how his brain differs from that of the rest of mankind.

The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex

Author : Charles Darwin
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In the current resurgence of interest in the biological basis of animal behavior and social organization, the ideas and questions pursued by Charles Darwin remain fresh and insightful. This is especially true of The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, Darwin's second most important work. This edition is a facsimile reprint of the first printing of the first edition (1871), not previously available in paperback. The work is divided into two parts. Part One marshals behavioral and morphological evidence to argue that humans evolved from other animals. Darwin shoes that human mental and emotional capacities, far from making human beings unique, are evidence of an animal origin and evolutionary development. Part Two is an extended discussion of the differences between the sexes of many species and how they arose as a result of selection. Here Darwin lays the foundation for much contemporary research by arguing that many characteristics of animals have evolved not in response to the selective pressures exerted by their physical and biological environment, but rather to confer an advantage in sexual competition. These two themes are drawn together in two final chapters on the role of sexual selection in humans. In their Introduction, Professors Bonner and May discuss the place of The Descent in its own time and relation to current work in biology and other disciplines.

Sexual Selection And the Descent of Man

Author : Bernard Grant Campbell
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Just over one hundred and thirty years ago Charles Darwin, in The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871), developed remarkably accurate conclusions about man's ancestry, based on a review of general comparative anatomy and psychology in which he regarded sexual selection as a necessary part of the evolutionary process. But the attention of biologists turned to the more general concept of natural selection, in which sexual selection plays a complex role that has been little understood. This volume significantly broadens the scope of modern evolutionary biology by looking at this important and long neglected concept of great importance. In this book, which is the first full discussion of sexual selection since 1871, leading biologists bring modern genetic theory and behavior observation to bear on the subject. The distinguished authors consider many aspects of sexual selection in many species, including man, within the context of contemporary evolutionary theory and research. The result is a remarkably original and well-rounded view of the whole concept that will be invaluable especially to students of evolution and human sexual behavior. The lucid authority of the contributors and the importance of the topic will interest all who share in man's perennial fascination with his own history. The book will be of central importance to a wide variety of professionals, including biologists, anthropologists, and geneticists. It will be an invaluable supplementary text for courses in vertebrate biology, theory of evolution, genetics, and physical anthropology. It is especially important with the emergence of alternative explanations of human development, under the rubric of creationism and doctrines of intelligent design. Bernard G. Campbell is professor of anthropology at the University of California, Los Angeles. Born in Weybridge, England, he received his Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge in 1957, and has been a lecturer in anthropology at Cambridge and Harvard Universities. Among his many contributions to the field of anthropology is Human Evolution: An Introduction to Man's Adaptations.

The Descent of Man Volume 1

Author : Charles Darwin
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The Works of Charles Darwin Volume 22

Author : Charles Darwin
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Charles Robert Darwin (1809–1882) has been widely recognized since his own time as one of the most influential writers in the history of Western thought. His books were widely read by specialists and the general public, and his influence had been extended by almost continuous public debate over the past 150 years. New York University Press's new paperback edition makes it possible to review Darwin's public literary output as a whole, plus his scientific journal articles, his private notebooks, and his correspondence. This is complete edition contains all of Darwin's published books, featuring definitive texts recording original pagination with Darwin's indexes retained. The set also features a general introduction and index, and introductions to each volume.

The Works of Charles Darwin Volume 21

Author : Charles Darwin
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Charles Robert Darwin (1809–1882) has been widely recognized since his own time as one of the most influential writers in the history of Western thought. His books were widely read by specialists and the general public, and his influence had been extended by almost continuous public debate over the past 150 years. New York University Press's new paperback edition makes it possible to review Darwin's public literary output as a whole, plus his scientific journal articles, his private notebooks, and his correspondence. This is complete edition contains all of Darwin's published books, featuring definitive texts recording original pagination with Darwin's indexes retained. The set also features a general introduction and index, and introductions to each volume.

The Descent of Man

Author : Charles Charles Darwin
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How is this book unique? Font adjustments & biography included Unabridged (100% Original content) Illustrated About The The Descent of Man by Charles Darwin The Descent of Man, Darwin's second landmark work on evolutionary theory (following The Origin of the Species), marked a turning point in the history of science with its modern vision of human nature as the product of evolution. Darwin argued that the noblest features of humans, such as language and morality, were the result of the same natural processes that produced iris petals and scorpion tails. It was Darwin's second book on evolutionary theory, following his 1859 work, On the Origin of Species, in which he explored the concept of natural selection. In The Descent of Man, Darwin applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection, a form of biological adaptation distinct from, yet interconnected with, natural selection. The book discusses many related issues, including evolutionary psychology, evolutionary ethics, differences between human races, differences between sexes, the dominant role of women in choosing mating partners, and the relevance of the evolutionary theory to society.

The Descent of Man

Author : Charles Darwin
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Applying his controversial theory of evolution to the origins of the human species, Charles Darwin's The Descent of Man was the culmination of his life's work. In The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin refused to discuss human evolution, believing the subject too 'surrounded with prejudices'. He had been reworking his notes since the 1830s, but only with trepidation did he finally publish The Descent of Man in 1871. The book notoriously put apes in our family tree and made the races one family, diversified by 'sexual selection' - Darwin's provocative theory that female choice among competing males leads to diverging racial characteristics. Named by Sigmund Freud as 'one of the ten most significant books' ever written, Darwin's Descent of Man continues to shape the way we think about what it is that makes us uniquely human. In their introduction, James Moore and Adrian Desmond, acclaimed biographers of Charles Darwin, call for a radical re-assessment of the book, arguing that its core ideas on race were fired by Darwin's hatred of slavery. The text is the second and definitive edition and this volume also contains suggestions for further reading, a chronology and biographical sketches of prominent individuals mentioned. For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. With more than 1,700 titles, Penguin Classics represents a global bookshelf of the best works throughout history and across genres and disciplines. Readers trust the series to provide authoritative texts enhanced by introductions and notes by distinguished scholars and contemporary authors, as well as up-to-date translations by award-winning translators.

The Descent of Man

Author : Charles Darwin
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The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book on evolutionary theory by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871. It was Darwin's second great book on evolutionary theory, following his 1859 work, On The Origin of Species. In The Descent of Man, Darwin applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection. The book discusses many related issues, including evolutionary psychology, evolutionary ethics, differences between human races, differences between sexes, the superiority of men to women, and the relevance of the evolutionary theory to society.

The Descent of Man

Author : Charles Darwin
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INTRODUCTION. PART I. THE DESCENT OR ORIGIN OF MAN. CHAPTER I. THE EVIDENCE OF THE DESCENT OF MAN FROM SOME LOWER FORM. THE BODILY STRUCTURE OF MAN. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. RUDIMENTS. CHAPTER II. ON THE MANNER OF DEVELOPMENT OF MAN FROM SOME LOWER FORM. THE DIRECT AND DEFINITE ACTION OF CHANGED CONDITIONS. EFFECTS OF THE INCREASED USE AND DISUSE OF PARTS. ARRESTS OF DEVELOPMENT. REVERSION. CORRELATED VARIATION. RATE OF INCREASE. NATURAL SELECTION. CONCLUSION. CHAPTER III. COMPARISON OF THE MENTAL POWERS OF MAN AND THE LOWER ANIMALS. ABSTRACTION, GENERAL CONCEPTIONS, SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS, MENTAL INDIVIDUALITY. LANGUAGE. SENSE OF BEAUTY. BELIEF IN GOD—RELIGION. CHAPTER IV. MAN A SOCIAL ANIMAL. THE MORE ENDURING SOCIAL INSTINCTS CONQUER THE LESS PERSISTENT INSTINCTS. THE STRICTLY SOCIAL VIRTUES AT FIRST ALONE REGARDED. CONCLUDING REMARKS. SUMMARY OF THE LAST TWO CHAPTERS. CHAPTER V. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL FACULTIES DURING PRIMEVAL AND CIVILISED TIMES. NATURAL SELECTION AS AFFECTING CIVILISED NATIONS. ON THE EVIDENCE THAT ALL CIVILISED NATIONS WERE ONCE BARBAROUS. CHAPTER VI. ON THE AFFINITIES AND GENEALOGY OF MAN. ON THE BIRTHPLACE AND ANTIQUITY OF MAN. LOWER STAGES IN THE GENEALOGY OF MAN. CONCLUSION. CHAPTER VII. ON THE RACES OF MAN. ON THE EXTINCTION OF THE RACES OF MAN. ON THE FORMATION OF THE RACES OF MAN. NOTE ON THE RESEMBLANCES AND DIFFERENCES IN THE STRUCTURE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN IN MAN AND APES BY PROFESSOR HUXLEY, F.R.S. PART II. SEXUAL SELECTION. CHAPTER VIII. PRINCIPLES OF SEXUAL SELECTION. NUMERICAL PROPORTION OF THE TWO SEXES. POLYGAMY. THE MALE GENERALLY MORE MODIFIED THAN THE FEMALE. LAWS OF INHERITANCE. INHERITANCE AT CORRESPONDING PERIODS OF LIFE. INHERITANCE AT CORRESPONDING SEASONS OF THE YEAR. INHERITANCE AS LIMITED BY SEX. ON THE RELATION BETWEEN THE PERIOD OF DEVELOPMENT OF A CHARACTER AND ITS TRANSMISSION TO ONE SEX OR TO BOTH SEXES. SUMMARY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS. SUPPLEMENT ON THE PROPORTIONAL NUMBERS OF THE TWO SEXES IN ANIMALS BELONGING TO VARIOUS CLASSES. MAN. HORSES. DOGS. SHEEP. FISH. INSECTS. CHAPTER IX. SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS IN THE LOWER CLASSES OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. THE SUB-KINGDOM OF THE MOLLUSCA. SUB-KINGDOM OF THE VERMES: CLASS, ANNELIDA (OR SEA-WORMS). SUB-KINGDOM OF THE ARTHROPODA: CLASS, CRUSTACEA. CLASS, ARACHNIDA (SPIDERS). CLASS, MYRIAPODA. CHAPTER X. SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF INSECTS. DIFFERENCE IN SIZE BETWEEN THE SEXES. ORDER, THYSANURA. ORDER, DIPTERA (FLIES). ORDER, HEMIPTERA (FIELD-BUGS). ORDER: HOMOPTERA. ORDER, ORTHOPTERA (CRICKETS AND GRASSHOPPERS). ORDER, NEUROPTERA. ORDER, HYMENOPTERA. ORDER, COLEOPTERA (BEETLES). LAW OF BATTLE. STRIDULATING ORGANS. CHAPTER XI. ORDER LEPIDOPTERA. (BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS.) DISPLAY. MIMICRY. SUMMARY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS ON INSECTS. CHAPTER XII. SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF FISHES, AMPHIBIANS, AND REPTILES. AMPHIBIANS. URODELA. ANURA OR BATRACHIA. REPTILES. CHELONIA. CROCODILIA. OPHIDIA. LACERTILIA. CHAPTER XIII. SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF BIRDS. LAW OF BATTLE. VOCAL AND INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC. LOVE ANTICS AND DANCES. DECORATION. DISPLAY BY MALE BIRDS OF THEIR PLUMAGE. CHAPTER XIV. LENGTH OF COURTSHIP. UNPAIRED BIRDS. MENTAL QUALITIES OF BIRDS, AND THEIR TASTE FOR THE BEAUTIFUL. PREFERENCE FOR PARTICULAR MALES BY THE FEMALES. VARIABILITY OF BIRDS, AND ESPECIALLY OF THEIR SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS. FORMATION AND VARIABILITY OF THE OCELLI OR EYE-LIKE SPOTS ON THE PLUMAGE OF BIRDS. GRADATION OF SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS. ARGUS PHEASANT. CHAPTER XV. CHAPTER XVI. RULES OR CLASSES OF CASES. CLASS I. CLASS II. WHEN THE ADULT FEMALE IS MORE CONSPICUOUS THAN THE ADULT MALE, THE YOUNG OF BOTH SEXES IN THEIR FIRST PLUMAGE RESEMBLE THE ADULT MALE. CLASS III. WHEN THE ADULT MALE RESEMBLES THE ADULT FEMALE, THE YOUNG OF BOTH SEXES HAVE A PECULIAR FIRST PLUMAGE OF THEIR OWN. CLASS IV. WHEN THE ADULT MALE RESEMBLES THE ADULT FEMALE, THE YOUNG OF BOTH SEXES IN THEIR FIRST PLUMAGE RESEMBLE THE ADULTS. CLASS V. WHEN THE ADULTS OF BOTH SEXES HAVE A DISTINCT WINTER AND SUMMER PLUMAGE, WHETHER OR NOT THE MALE DIFFERS FROM THE FEMALE, THE YOUNG RESEMBLE THE ADULTS OF BOTH SEXES IN THEIR WINTER DRESS, OR MUCH MORE RARELY IN THEIR SUMMER DRESS, OR THEY RESEMBLE THE FEMALES ALONE. OR THE YOUNG MAY HAVE AN INTERMEDIATE CHARACTER; OR, AGAIN, THEY MAY DIFFER GREATLY FROM THE ADULTS IN BOTH THEIR SEASONAL PLUMAGES. CLASS VI. THE YOUNG IN THEIR FIRST PLUMAGE DIFFER FROM EACH OTHER ACCORDING TO SEX; THE YOUNG MALES RESEMBLING MORE OR LESS CLOSELY THE ADULT MALES, AND THE YOUNG FEMALES MORE OR LESS CLOSELY THE ADULT FEMALES. ON THE COLOUR OF THE PLUMAGE IN RELATION TO PROTECTION. SUMMARY OF THE FOUR CHAPTERS ON BIRDS. CHAPTER XVII. SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF MAMMALS. CHOICE IN PAIRING BY EITHER SEX OF QUADRUPEDS. CHAPTER XVIII. ODOUR. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HAIR. COLOUR OF THE HAIR AND OF THE NAKED SKIN. EQUAL TRANSMISSION OF ORNAMENTAL CHARACTERS TO BOTH SEXES. QUADRUMANA. SUMMARY. PART III. SEXUAL SELECTION IN RELATION TO MAN, AND CONCLUSION. CHAPTER XIX. SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF MAN. LAW OF BATTLE. DIFFERENCE IN THE MENTAL POWERS OF THE TWO SEXES. VOICE AND MUSICAL POWERS. THE INFLUENCE OF BEAUTY IN DETERMINING THE MARRIAGES OF MANKIND. CHAPTER XX. THE CAUSES WHICH PREVENT OR CHECK THE ACTION OF SEXUAL SELECTION WITH SAVAGES. INFANTICIDE. EARLY BETROTHALS AND SLAVERY OF WOMEN. THE MANNER OF ACTION OF SEXUAL SELECTION WITH MANKIND. ABSENCE OF HAIR ON THE BODY, AND ITS DEVELOPMENT ON THE FACE AND HEAD. COLOUR OF THE SKIN. SUMMARY. CHAPTER XXI. GENERAL SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION. SUPPLEMENTAL NOTE. ON SEXUAL SELECTION IN RELATION TO MONKEYS.

The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex

Author : Charles Darwin
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The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin, Volume I, with full illustrations. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book on evolutionary theory by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871. It was Darwin's second book on evolutionary theory, following his 1859 work, On The Origin of Species. In The Descent of Man, Darwin applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection. The book discusses many related issues, including evolutionary psychology, evolutionary ethics, differences between human races, differences between sexes, the dominant role of women in choosing mating partners, and the relevance of the evolutionary theory to society.

The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex Vol I

Author : Charles Darwin
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The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex Vol. I From Charles Darwin

The Descent of Man and Other Stories

Author : Edith Wharton
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Reproduction of the original: The Descent of Man and Other Stories by Edith Wharton

The Descent of Man

Author : Charles Darwin
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INTRODUCTION. The nature of the following work will be best understood by a brief account of how it came to be written. During many years I collected notes on the origin or descent of man, without any intention of publishing on the subject, but rather with the determination not to publish, as I thought that I should thus only add to the prejudices against my views. It seemed to me sufficient to indicate, in the first edition of my 'Origin of Species,' that by this work "light would be thrown on the origin of man and his history;" and this implies that man must be included with other organic beings in any general conclusion respecting his manner of appearance on this earth. Now the case wears a wholly different aspect. When a naturalist like Carl Vogt ventures to say in his address as President of the National Institution of Geneva (1869), "personne, en Europe au moins, n'ose plus soutenir la creation indépendante et de toutes pièces, des espèces," it is manifest that at least a large number of naturalists must admit that species are the modified descendants of other species; and this especially holds good with the younger and rising naturalists. The greater number accept the agency of natural selection; though some urge, whether with justice the future must decide, that I have greatly overrated its importance. Of the older and honoured chiefs in natural science, many unfortunately are still opposed to evolution in every form. In consequence of the views now adopted by most naturalists, and which will ultimately, as in every other case, be followed by others who are not scientific, I have been led to put together my notes, so as to see how far the general conclusions arrived at in my former works were applicable to man. This seemed all the more desirable, as I had never deliberately applied these views to a species taken singly. When we confine our attention to any one form, we are deprived of the weighty arguments derived from the nature of the affinities which connect together whole groups of organisms—their geographical distribution in past and present times, and their geological succession. The homological structure, embryological development, and rudimentary organs of a species remain to be considered, whether it be man or any other animal, to which our attention may be directed; but these great classes of facts afford, as it appears to me, ample and conclusive evidence in favour of the principle of gradual evolution. The strong support derived from the other arguments should, however, always be kept before the mind.

The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex

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The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex V2

Author : Charles Darwin
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