Search results for: the-deep-hot-biosphere

The Deep Hot Biosphere

Author : Thomas Gold
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This book sets forth a set of truly controversial and astonishing theories: First, it proposes that below the surface of the earth is a biosphere of greater mass and volume than the biosphere the total sum of living things on our planet's continents and in its oceans. Second, it proposes that the inhabitants of this subterranean biosphere are not plants or animals as we know them, but heat-loving bacteria that survive on a diet consisting solely of hydrocarbons that is, natural gas and petroleum. And third and perhaps most heretically, the book advances the stunning idea that most hydrocarbons on Earth are not the byproduct of biological debris ("fossil fuels"), but were a common constituent of the materials from which the earth itself was formed some 4.5 billion years ago. The implications are astounding. The theory proposes answers to often-asked questions: Is the deep hot biosphere where life originated, and do Mars and other seemingly barren planets contain deep biospheres? Even more provocatively, is it possible that there is an enormous store of hydrocarbons upwelling from deep within the earth that can provide us with abundant supplies of gas and petroleum? However far-fetched these ideas seem, they are supported by a growing body of evidence, and by the indisputable stature and seriousness Gold brings to any scientific debate. In this book we see a brilliant and boldly original thinker, increasingly a rarity in modern science, as he develops potentially revolutionary ideas about how our world works.

Subseafloor Archaeal Communities

Author : Marie- Anne Cambon- Bonavita
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Microbial Life of the Deep Biosphere

Author : Jens Kallmeyer
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Over the last two decades, exploration of the deep subsurface biosphere has developed into a major research area. New findings constantly challenge our concepts of global biogeochemical cycles and the ultimate limits to life. In order to explain our observations from deep subsurface ecosystems it is necessary to develop truly interdisciplinary approaches, ranging from microbiology and geochemistry to physics and modeling. This book aims to bring together a wide variety of topics, covering the broad range of issues that are associated with deep biosphere exploration. Not only does the book present case studies of selected projects, but also treats questions arising from our current knowledge. Despite nearly two decades of research, there are still many boundaries to exploration caused by technical limitations and one section of the book is devoted to these technical challenges and the latest developments in this field. This volume will be of high interest to biologists, chemists and earth scientists all working on the deep biosphere.

Subseafloor Archaeal Communauties

Author : Erwan G. Roussel
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Microbes The Foundation Stone of the Biosphere

Author : Christon J. Hurst
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Life at High Pressure

Author : Alister Macdonald
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Black Gold Stranglehold

Author : Jerome R. Corsi
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It is estimated that Americans consume more than 25 percent of the world's oil but have control over less than 3 percent of its proven supply. This extremely unbalanced pattern of consumption makes it possible for foreign governments, corrupt political leaders, terrorist organizations, and oil conglomerates to place the citizens of the United States in a stranglehold of supply and demand. There is no greater proof of this than the direct relationship between skyrocketing gas prices and the exploding wealth of those who control the supply of oil. In Black Gold Stranglehold, Jerome R. Corsi and Craig R. Smith expose the fraudulent science that has been sold to the American people in order to enslave them: the belief that oil is a fossil fuel and a finite resource. On the contrary, this book presents authoritative research, currently known mostly in the scientific community, that oil is not a product of decaying dinosaurs and prehistoric forests. Rather, it is a natural product of the earth. The scientific evidence cited by Corsi and Smith suggests that oil is constantly being produced by the earth, far below the planet's surface, and that it is brought to attainable depths by the centrifugal forces of the earth's rotation. In great detail Corsi and Smith explore the international and domestic politics of oil production and consumption. This includes the wealth and power of major oil conglomerates, the manipulation of world economies by oil-producing states and rogue terrorist regimes, and the political agenda of radical environmentalists and conservationists who obstruct the use of oil reserves currently controlled by the U.S. government. The authors offer an understanding of the dangerous situation America faces because its currency is no longer tied to any precious and truly scarce metals such as gold, as it was until 1973. This situation could easily lead to the devastation of the U.S. economy if Middle Eastern countries are able to enact current plans to accept only the Euro or gold-backed currencies such as the Gold Dinar instead of the U.S. dollar as the standard currency for oil. Black Gold Stranglehold will dramatically change the debate about oil. The significance of its message is sure to cause thoughtful people to reconsider the current dependence of the U.S. economy on imported oil.

Deep Life

Author : Tullis C. Onstott
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APPENDIX A: Chronology of the Exploration of Subsurface Life -- APPENDIX B: Chronology of the Meeting of the U.S. DOE's SSP Meetings -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- INDEX

Carbon in Earth

Author : Robert M. Hazen
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Volume 75 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry addresses a range of questions that were articulated in May 2008 at the First Deep Carbon Cycle Workshop in Washington, DC. At that meeting 110 scientists from a dozen countries set forth the state of knowledge about Earth's carbon. They also debated the key opportunities and top objectives facing the community. Subsequent deep carbon meetings in Bejing, China (2010), Novosibirsk, Russia (2011), and Washington, DC (2012), as well as more than a dozen smaller workshops, expanded and refined the DCO's decadal goals. The 20 chapters that follow elaborate on those opportunities and objectives.

Energy Technology and Directions for the Future

Author : John R. Fanchi, PhD
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Energy Technology and Directions for the Future presents the fundamentals of energy for scientists and engineers. It is a survey of energy sources that will be available for use in the 21st century energy mix. The reader will learn about the history and science of several energy sources as well as the technology and social significance of energy. Themes in the book include thermodynamics, electricity distribution, geothermal energy, fossil fuels, solar energy, nuclear energy, alternate energy (wind, water, biomass), energy and society, energy and the environment, sustainable development, the hydrogen economy, and energy forecasting. The approach is designed to present an intellectually rich and interesting text that is also practical.This is accomplished by introducing basic concepts in the context of energy technologies and, where appropriate, in historical context. Scientific concepts are used to solve concrete engineering problems. The technical level of presentation presumes that readers have completed college level physics with calculus and mathematics through calculus of several variables. The selection of topics is designed to provide the reader with an introduction to the language, concepts and techniques used in all major energy components that are expected to contribute to the 21st century energy mix. Future energy professionals will need to understand the origin and interactions of these energy components to thrive in an energy industry that is evolving from an industry dominated by fossil fuels to an industry working with many energy sources. Presents the fundamentals of energy production for engineers, scientists, engineering professors, students, and anyone in the field who needs a technical discussion of energy topics. Provides engineers with a valuable expanded knowledge base using the U.S. National Academy of Sciences content standards. Examines the energy options for the twenty-first century as older energy sources quickly become depleted.

The Alchemy of Nine Dimensions

Author : Barbara Hand Clow
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This is a revised and expanded edition of Barbara and Gerry Clow’s classic 2004 text. This sequel to the bestselling underground classic The Pleiadian Agenda outlines their theory of the nine dimensions of human consciousness and how those nine dimensions have become essential to our evolutionary survival. Incorporating the research and insight of the Swedish biologist Carl Calleman, the Clows demonstrate how recent scientific discoveries validate their theories. The existence of the nine dimensions of human consciousness can be proved by science. The most controversial aspect of this book is their exploration of the Mayan prophecies. Counter to much of the prevailing opinion, the fulfillment of the prophecies will not result in the Apocalypse, but will usher in a new and expanded era of human consciousness. They also assert that the beginning of this new era begins not on December 21, 2012—but on October 28, 2011—making the time of the great shift in consciousness just around the corner. Provocative and informative, the Clows have provided an explanation and roadmap for the future. It will be embraced by all who are interested in the evolution of human consciousness.

Seabed Fluid Flow

Author : Alan Judd
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Seabed fluid flow involves the flow of gases and liquids through the seabed. Such fluids have been found to leak through the seabed into the marine environment in seas and oceans around the world - from the coasts to deep ocean trenches. This geological phenomenon has widespread implications for the sub-seabed, seabed, and marine environments. Seabed fluid flow affects seabed morphology, mineralization, and benthic ecology. Natural fluid emissions also have a significant impact on the composition of the oceans and atmosphere; and gas hydrates and hydrothermal minerals are potential future resources. This book describes seabed fluid flow features and processes, and demonstrates their importance to human activities and natural environments. It is targeted at research scientists and professionals with interests in the marine environment. Colour versions of many of the illustrations, and additional material - most notably feature location maps - can be found at www.cambridge.org/9780521819503.

Global Ecology

Author : Sven Erik Jørgensen
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Global Ecology focuses on the perception of the biosphere or the ecosphere as a unified cooperative system with numerous synergistic effects, which describe the distinctive properties of this sphere. This book is subdivided into five parts dealing with diverse aspects in global ecology. The first part of the book provides comprehensive description of the biosphere, including its unique characteristics and evolution. This part also describes various spheres in the biosphere, such as the hydrosphere, noosphere, and pedosphere as well as their composition. The next part focuses on the global cycles, including calcium, carbon, iron, microbial nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and water cycles. In addition, global balances and flows are explained. Presented in the third part are the results of the global cycles and flows as well as the patterns of the climatic factors and marine currents. There is also a part discussing the climate interactions, climatic changes, and its effect on the living organisms. The book concludes by covering the application of stoichiometry in the biosphere and in ecosystems. The book offers a comprehensive view of global ecology and ecological stoichiometry, which will aid in the processes of global ecology. Provides an overview of the theory and application of global ecology International focus and range of ecosystems makes Global Ecology an indispensable resource to scientists Based on the bestselling Encyclopedia of Ecology Full-color figures and tables support the text and aid in understanding

Tales From The Underground

Author : David Wolfe
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There are over one billion organisms in a pinch of soil, yet we know much more about deep space than about the universe below. In Tales from the Underground, Cornell ecologist David Wolfe takes us on a tour through current scientific knowledge of the subterranean world. We follow the progress of discovery from Charles Darwin's experiments with earthworms, to Lewis and Clark's first encounter with prairie dogs, to the use of new genetic tools that are revealing an astonishingly rich ecosystem beneath our feet. Wolfe plunges us deep into the earth's rocky crust, where life may have begun-a world devoid of oxygen and light but safe from asteroid bombardment. Primitive microbes found there are turning our notion of the evolutionary tree of life on its head: amazingly, they represent perhaps a full third of earth's genetic diversity. As Wolfe explains, creatures of the soil can work for us, by providing important pharmaceuticals and recycling the essential elements of life, or against us, by spreading disease and contributing to global climate change. The future of our species may well depend on how we manage our living soil resources. Tales from the Underground will forever alter our appreciation of the natural world around-and beneath-us.

The Spark of Life

Author : Christopher Wills
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Christopher Wills and Jeffrey Bada examine the enduring mysteries surrounding life's origin: did life arise on Earth or on some other planet? What did the earliest primitive organisms look like? Were they based on RNA, DNA, or on something we would hardly recognize today? The authors examine the latest research - in fields ranging from molecular biology to astronomy - on questions surrounding life's origins. They untangle a century of contentious debate and explore many theories, assessing the probability of everything from asteroids and Martian rocks to 'primordial soup' and volcanic vents. They then present their own elegant and compelling scenario: life arose not in the subterranean depths, as many believe, but on Earth's tumultuous surface, where a primitive form of natural selection spawned the first genetic material, perhaps in the form of a proto-virus. The book ends with a whirlwind tour of one of the most exciting scientific endeavours - the search for extra-terrestial life.

Deep Carbon in Earth Early Career Scientist Contributions to the Deep Carbon Observatory

Author : Donato Giovannelli
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Since its inception, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) has coalesced a multidisciplinary and international group of researchers focused on understanding and quantifying Earth’s deep carbon budget. Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe, and understanding carbon chemistry under a variety of environmental conditions impacts all aspects of planetary sciences, including planet formation, the form and function of planetary interiors, and the origin and diversity of life. DCO recognizes that is integrating and promoting the contributions of early career scientists are integral to the advancement of knowledge regarding the quantities, movements, origins, and forms of Earth’s deep carbon through field, experimental, analytical, and computational research. Early career scientists represent the future of deep carbon science and contribute substantially to ongoing research by implementing innovative ideas, challenging traditional working schemes, and bringing a globally interconnected perspective to the scientific community. This research topic highlights the contributions at the forefront of deep carbon research by DCO Early Career Scientist community. The manuscripts of this Frontiers e-volume bear evidence of the rapid advances in deep carbon science, and highlights the importance of approaching this field from a plethora of different angles integrating disciplines as diverse as mineralogy, geochemistry and microbiology. This integration is fundamental in understanding the movements and transformations of carbon across its deep cycle.

Women in Microbiology

Author : Rachel J. Whitaker
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Many girls want to become scientists when they grow up, just like many boys do. But for these girls, the struggle to do what they love and to be treated with respect has been much harder because of the discrimination and bias in our society. In Women in Microbiology, we meet women who, despite these obstacles and against tough odds, have become scientific leaders and revered mentors. The women profiled in this collection range from historic figures like Alice Catherine Evans and Ruth Ella Moore to modern heroes like Michele Swanson and Katrina Forest. What binds all of these remarkable women are a passion for their work, a zest for life, a warm devotion to mentoring others—especially younger women—and a sense of justice and fairness that they are willing to fight tirelessly to obtain. Each story is unique, but each woman featured in Women in Microbiology has done so much to expand our knowledge of the natural world while also making it easier for the next generation of scientists to work collaboratively and in an atmosphere where people are judged by their intellect, imagination, skill, and commitment to service regardless of gender or race. Women in Microbiology is a wonderful collection of stories that will inspire everyone, but especially young women and men who are wondering how to find their way in the working world. Some of the names are familiar and some are lesser known, but all of the stories arouse a sense of excitement, driven by tales of new, important scientific insights, stories of overcoming adversity and breaking boundaries, and the inclusion of personal tips and advice from successful careers. These stories are proof that a person can live a balanced and passionate life in science that is rich and rewarding.

Life Everywhere

Author : David Darling
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To many people, the main question about extraterrestrial life is whether or not it exists. But to the scientific community, that question has already been answered: It does. So confident are scientists of the existence of life on other planets that they've invested serious amounts of money, time and prestige in finding and studying it. NASA has started an Institute of Astrobiology, for instance, and the University of Washington, Seattle, began in September 1999 to accept graduate students into its Department of Astrobiology. Life Everywhere is the first book to lay out for a general reader what the new science of astrobiology is all about. It asks the fascinating questions researchers are asking themselves and one another: u What is life? u How does it originate? u How often does life survive once it arises?u How does evolution work?u What determines whether complex or even intelligent life will emerge from more primitive forms?Informed by interviews with most of the experts in this nascent subject, Life Everywhere introduces readers to one of the most important scientific disciplines of the coming century.

Exploring the Origin Extent and Future of Life

Author : Constance M. Bertka
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Where did we come from? Are we alone? Where are we going? These are the questions that define the field of astrobiology. New discoveries about life on Earth, the increasing numbers of extrasolar planets being identified, and the technologies being developed to locate and characterize Earth-like planets around other stars are continually challenging our views of nature and our connection to the rest of the universe. In this book, philosophers, historians, ethicists, and theologians provide the perspectives of their fields on the research and discoveries of astrobiology. A valuable resource for graduate students and researchers, the book provides an introduction to astrobiology, and explores subjects such as the implications of current origin of life research, the possible discovery of extraterrestrial microbial life, and the possibility of altering the environment of Mars.

Fungal Biology in the Origin and Emergence of Life

Author : David Moore
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The rhythm of life on Earth includes several strong themes contributed by Kingdom Fungi. So why are fungi ignored when theorists ponder the origin of life? Casting aside common theories that life originated in an oceanic primeval soup, in a deep, hot place, or even a warm little pond, this is a mycological perspective on the emergence of life on Earth. The author traces the crucial role played by the first biofilms – products of aerosols, storms, volcanic plumes and rainout from a turbulent atmosphere – which formed in volcanic caves 4 billion years ago. Moore describes how these biofilms contributed to the formation of the first prokaryotic cells, and later, unicellular stem eukaryotes, highlighting the role of the fungal grade of organisation in the evolution of higher organisms. Based on the latest research, this is a unique account of the origin of life and its evolutionary diversity to the present day.