Search results for: the-case-of-state-liability

State Liability in Eu and International Law

Author : Agne Vaitkeviciute
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This research comprises of two parts. The first part analyses the most important issues of the principle of Member State's liability in damages for the breach of European Union law: legal basis of the principle, requirements for liability and, lastly, recent developments in the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union. The principle of Member State's liability in damages and the requirements of liability are being further developed by the Court in its modern jurisprudence. These cases show that the requirements of liability were clarified and the scope of application of the principle of Member State's liability broadened. The author also examines that the state liability is being recognised both in EU and international law. State responsibility in international law can be understood in a broad sense and a narrow sense. It is emphasized that in a broad sense, state responsibility in international law comprises three institutes: firstly, state responsibility for internationally wrongful acts; secondly, state responsibility for the damage caused by lawful acts.

The Case of State Liability

Author : Michael Haba
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In light of the 20th anniversary of the ruling in Francovich, Michael Haba analyzes the principle of Member State Liability, which provides a right to damages whenever EU law is breached by Member States. His research ascertains that the doctrine evolved through three stages before becoming the unified approach that it is today. The author emphasizes that the principle’s base lay at the outset of the EEC, when the ECJ sought means to foster the enforcement of EC law. He shows that although State Liability was introduced in Francovich, there was not enough guidance on its application. He highlights that these matters were resolved in Brasserie/Factortame III, which refined the assessment of culpability, but was inconsistent and had to be further clarified in case law. He illustrates that the doctrine was expanded to breaches of EC law by last instance courts in Köbler. Finally, the author examines if breaches of European competition rules could lead to a right to damages under the principle, but concludes that no fourth stage of State Liability can be established.

The Effectiveness of the K bler Liability in National Courts

Author : Zsófia Varga
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Over the last 15 years, Köbler liability has resulted in the allocation of damages on only five occasions. Why is that? And what are the practical implications of the Köbler judgment in the Member States? This book offers a unique analysis of the principle – not from the usual EU-focused point of view but from the view of the practical Member State – and thus follows the track set by earlier books in the 'EU Law in the Member States' series. It thoroughly examines the national jurisprudential and legislative acceptation of the state liability principle and explores the existence of alternative remedies available in the Member States in case of such breaches. The conclusions, based on a systematic assessment of 300 national judgments from the 28 Member States, lead to a reconsideration of the role of the Köbler doctrine in the system of judicial remedies against violation of EU law by national supreme courts. After the pronouncement of the ECJ judgment in Köbler, legal scholars and practitioners have forecast the eradication of the principle of res judicata and the endangering of judicial independence. The judgment caused a lot of ink to flow; according to the ECJ's records, at least 100 studies are directly devoted to the analysis of this decision. This book is, however, the first to offer a comprehensive analysis on the genuine life of the Köbler liability in the Member States.

Liability of Member States for the Violation of Fundamental Values of the European Union

Author : Armin Hatje
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Die Werte der Europäischen Union werden insbesondere durch das Verfahren des Art. 7 EUV vor systemischen Gefahren geschützt. Die Vorschrift erlaubt es in letzter Konsequenz, den betreffenden Mitgliedstaaten erhebliche Sanktionen aufzuerlegen. Als ultima ratio kommt sogar die Aussetzung des Stimmrechts in Betracht. Während die herkömmliche Betrachtung der Norm davon ausgeht, dass es sich um einen Sonderfall des Vertragsverletzungsverfahrens handelt, werden in diesem Band die Elemente des Tatbestandes herausgearbeitet, die für einen deliktischen Anspruch der Union gegen den vertragsbrüchigen Mitgliedstaat sprechen. Diese auf den ersten Blick ungewöhnliche Sicht auf Art. 7 EUV hat vor allem den analytischen Vorteil, die einzelnen Tatbestandsvoraussetzungen in ihrer ganzen Tragweite vor allem mit Blick auf die Rechtsfolgen besser verstehen zu können. Mit Beiträgen von Ewa Baginska | Sylwia Majkowska-Szulz | Gavin Barret | Tomás Dumbrovsky | Andreas Haratsch | Aalt Willem Heringa | Ulrich Magnus | Matthias Niedobitek | Michael Potacs | Laurent Sermet | Lubos Tichy | Mirosław Wyrzykowski | Jiri Zemanek

Public Liability in EU Law

Author : Pekka Aalto
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Over the last two decades public law liability for breach of European Union law has been subject to remarkable developments. This book examines the convergence between its two constituent systems: the damages liability of the EU and that of its Member States for failing to comply with EU rules. Member State liability, based as it is on the Francovich case (1991) and Brasserie du Pêcheur and Factortame (1996) judgments of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) is well established. But it is yet to be closely scrutinised by reference to the detailed rules on the liability of the European Union. The focus of the book is on the two key legal criteria that are common to both systems, namely the grant of rights to individuals by EU law and the notion of sufficiently serious breach of such rights. The analysis concentrates on developments in the case law of the ECJ and the General Court since the Bergaderm judgment (2000), which consolidated the convergence of the two liability systems that was first indicated in Brasserie du Pêcheur and Factortame. These two criteria are set side by side to evaluate the extent, in real terms, of the convergence of Member State and EU institutional damages liability, and to determine the extent to which one has influenced the other. This book shows that although full convergence between the two liability systems is not likely, each stream of case law should look to the other more actively as this important element of EU remedial law develops. Convergence in EU law public liability is supported by developments in adjacent areas, most notably European tort law and European administrative law. This study also illustrates how convergence in the EU liability systems to date has had spill-over effects into national public liability law.

INIS Atomindex

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Responsibility and Liability in the Context of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes by Sea

Author : Jan Albers
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The term “hazardous wastes” covers a wide range of disused products and production wastes generated not only in industrial sectors, but also in all areas of everyday life. Hazardous wastes are to a large extent shipped by sea to third countries for recycling or disposal. While the procedural requirements for such movements are laid out in the 1989 Basel Convention, explicit rules of responsibility and liability for resulting damages are neither provided by the Basel Convention nor by other international conventions. The Liability Protocol to the Basel Convention of 1999 has not yet entered into force. This book examines the existing rules of responsibility and liability applying to States and private persons and outlines the conditions under which liability may be incurred. Subsequently, the advantages and shortcomings of the 1999 Liability Protocol are analyzed. Although this Protocol faces substantial political headwind, from a legal perspective it includes principally useful and reasonable approaches and should therefore be ratified.

A Survey of Liability Insurance for Physical Educators Within the United States

Author : Peter John Graham
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Governmental Tort Liability

Author : Donald D. Barry
File Size : 22.31 MB
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Responsibilities of the Non State Actor in Armed Conflict and the Market Place

Author : Noemi Gal-Or
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To whom are armed opposition groups and business corporations accountable for their actions in armed conflict and in peace times? Are they responsible as a group? This pioneer book offers innovative theoretical and empirical analyses to these questions.