Livre Noir Du Communisme

Crimes, Terreur, Répression


Author: Stéphane Courtois,Mark Kramer

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674076082

Category: History

Page: 858

View: 5166

Collects and analyzes seventy years of communist crimes that offer details on Kim Sung's Korea, Vietnam under "Uncle Ho," and Cuba under Castro.

Stalin's Agent

The Life and Death of Alexander Orlov


Author: Boris Volodarsky

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191045535

Category: Political Science

Page: 832

View: 2901

This is the history of an unprecedented deception operation - the biggest KGB deception of all time. It has never been told in full until now. There are almost certainly people who would like it never to be told. It is the story of General Alexander Orlov. Stalin's most loyal and trusted henchman during the Spanish Civil War, Orlov was also the Soviet handler controlling Kim Philby, the British spy, defector, and member of the notorious 'Cambridge Five'. Escaping Stalin's purges, Orlov fled to America in the late 1930s and lived underground. He only dared reveal his identity to the world after Stalin's death, in his 1953 best-seller The Secret History of Stalin's Crimes, after which he became perhaps the best known of all Soviet defectors, much written about, highly praised, and commemorated by the US Congress on his death in 1973. But there is a twist in the Orlov story beyond the dreams of even the most ingenious spy novelist: 'General Alexander Orlov' never actually existed. The man known as 'Orlov' was in fact born Leiba Feldbin. And while he was a loyal servant of Stalin and the controller of Philby, he was never a General in the KGB, never truly defected to the West after his 'flight' from the USSR, and remained a loyal Soviet agent until his death. The 'Orlov' story as it has been accepted until now was largely the invention of the KGB - and one perpetuated long after the end of the Cold War. In this meticulous new biography, Boris Volodarsky, himself a former Soviet intelligence officer, now tells the true story behind 'Orlov' for the first time. An intriguing tale of Russian espionage and deception, stretching from the time of Lenin to the Putin era, it is a story that many people in the world's intelligence agencies would almost definitely prefer you not to know about.

Economic Transformation

The Full Societal Transformation Thesis


Author: Ginta T. Palubinskas

Publisher: N.A


Category: Banks and banking

Page: 178

View: 6672

Desolation and Enlightenment

Political Knowledge After Total War, Totalitarianism, and the Holocaust


Author: Ira Katznelson

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231111959

Category: History

Page: 185

View: 565

In this major intellectual history, Ira Katznelson examines the works of Hannah Arendt, Robert Dahl, Richard Hofstadter, Harold Lasswell, Charles Lindblom, Karl Polanyi, and David Truman, detailing their engagement with the larger project of reclaiming the West's moral bearing.

Modernism and Totalitarianism

Rethinking the Intellectual Sources of Nazism and Stalinism, 1945 to the Present


Author: R. Shorten

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137284374

Category: History

Page: 321

View: 2337

Modernism and Totalitarianism evaluates a broad range of post-1945 scholarship. Totalitarianism, as the common ideological trajectory of Nazism and Stalinism, is dissected as a synthesis of three modernist intellectual currents which determine its particular, inherited character.

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism


Author: S. A. Smith

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191667528

Category: History

Page: 672

View: 5977

The impact of Communism on the twentieth century was massive, equal to that of the two world wars. Until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, historians knew relatively little about the secretive world of communist states and parties. Since then, the opening of state, party, and diplomatic archives of the former Eastern Bloc has released a flood of new documentation. The thirty-five essays in this Handbook, written by an international team of scholars, draw on this new material to offer a global history of communism in the twentieth century. In contrast to many histories that concentrate on the Soviet Union, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism is genuinely global in its coverage, paying particular attention to the Chinese Revolution. It is 'global', too, in the sense that the essays seek to integrate history 'from above' and 'from below', to trace the complex mediations between state and society, and to explore the social and cultural as well as the political and economic realities that shaped the lives of citizens fated to live under communist rule. The essays reflect on the similarities and differences between communist states in order to situate them in their socio-political and cultural contexts and to capture their changing nature over time. Where appropriate, they also reflect on how the fortunes of international communism were shaped by the wider economic, political, and cultural forces of the capitalist world. The Handbook provides an informative introduction for those new to the field and a comprehensive overview of the current state of scholarship for those seeking to deepen their understanding.

Cultivating the Masses

Modern State Practices and Soviet Socialism, 1914–1939


Author: David L. Hoffmann

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801462843

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 3353

Under Stalin’s leadership, the Soviet government carried out a massive number of deportations, incarcerations, and executions. Paradoxically, at the very moment that Soviet authorities were killing thousands of individuals, they were also engaged in an enormous pronatalist campaign to boost the population. Even as the number of repressions grew exponentially, Communist Party leaders enacted sweeping social welfare and public health measures to safeguard people's well-being. Extensive state surveillance of the population went hand in hand with literacy campaigns, political education, and efforts to instill in people an appreciation of high culture. In Cultivating the Masses, David L. Hoffmann examines the Party leadership's pursuit of these seemingly contradictory policies in order to grasp fully the character of the Stalinist regime, a regime intent on transforming the socioeconomic order and the very nature of its citizens. To analyze Soviet social policies, Hoffmann places them in an international comparative context. He explains Soviet technologies of social intervention as one particular constellation of modern state practices. These practices developed in conjunction with the ambitions of nineteenth-century European reformers to refashion society, and they subsequently prompted welfare programs, public health initiatives, and reproductive regulations in countries around the world. The mobilizational demands of World War I impelled political leaders to expand even further their efforts at population management, via economic controls, surveillance, propaganda, and state violence. Born at this moment of total war, the Soviet system institutionalized these wartime methods as permanent features of governance. Party leaders, whose dictatorship included no checks on state power, in turn attached interventionist practices to their ideological goal of building socialism.

The Cold War Politics of Genetic Research

An Introduction to the Lysenko Affair


Author: William deJong-Lambert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400728409

Category: Science

Page: 186

View: 3194

This book uses the reaction of a number of biologists in the United States and Great Britain to provide an overview of one of the most important controversies in Twentieth Century biology, the “Lysenko Affair.” The book is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of history/history of science. It covers a number of topics which are relevant to understanding the sources and dimensions of the Lysenko controversy, including the interwar eugenics movement, the Scopes Trial, the popularity of Lamarckism as a theory of heredity prior to the synthesis of genetics and Natural Selection, and the Cold War. The book focuses particularly on portrayals—both positive and negative—of Lysenko in the popular press in the U.S. and Europe, and thus by extension the relationship between scientists and society. Because the Lysenko controversy attracted a high level of interest among the lay community, it constitutes a useful historical example to consider in context with current topics that have received a similar level of attention, such as Intelligent Design or Climate Change.

Fellowship of Reason

A Moral Community for the 21st Century


Author: Martin L. Cowen III

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 1462812562

Category: Philosophy

Page: 201

View: 1652

For almost two millennia religions have had a virtual monopoly on morality. No longer. Today, there is a philosophy of reason that provides a rational and objective validation of moral laws. The Fellowship of Reason exists to advocate, celebrate, and promulgate that morality based upon reality to a literate, thoughtful, reality-oriented, self-responsible general public worldwide. This book is divided into twelve chapters. Chapter 1 elaborates the reasons for the existence of our rational moral community. The objective human needs that until now have been served only by religion are explored. In chapter 2 I explain the details of our moral philosophy by identifying what we regard as the ultimate value. The choices of ultimate value include God, the state, the environment, and individual human life. Chapter 3 considers the meaning of life from three angles—the purpose or goal of life, the intention of life, and the actual definition of a particular human life as manifested in the actions taken by that individual. We work through an exercise to discover the meaning (definition) of the reader's life. Chapter 4 advocates that each individual discover and deliberately pursue his or her own major lifetime goals, that he or she give his or her life a meaning in the sense of purpose or goal. Happiness, we hold, requires a life purpose. Chapter 5 considers the contents of human consciousness. Five components of the human soul are explored—the other, your daemon, reason, emotions, and your parents' child. Chapter 6 presents techniques for working on your soul and explains the non-mystical, natural referents of the Holy Trinity. Chapter 7 concisely states our philosophy of reason. Chapter 8 introduces the new component to our philosophy of reason—benevolence. The relationship between the virtues of benevolence and the penultimate values of a loving family, good friends, and community is revealed. Chapter 9 details the elements of a regular meeting of the Fellowship of Reason. Chapter 10 describes our rational rituals. In order to be happy, one must selectively focus one's attention. These rituals are institutionally structured disciplines designed to focus our attention upon the good things in life. Chapter 11 reveals the mythology of our new moral community. And finally, in chapter 12 we provide reasons why you should create a Fellowship of Reason in your city. We show how reason, if utilized consistently as the means of living, will spread human freedom, prosperity, and happiness throughout the world. An appendix concludes, addressed to our theistic friends. The purpose of morality is to teach you to enjoy yourself and live well on earth. Reason makes human life possible. The Fellowship of Reason proposes to bring to you, in regular weekly celebrations and in daily spiritual exercises, tools that will enhance your life and the lives of everyone around you. Read the book to learn more about the Fellowship of Reason.

Marx, Lenin, and the Revolutionary Experience

Studies of Communism and Radicalism in an Age of Globalization


Author: Paul LeBlanc

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131779351X

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 362

Marx, Lenin, and the Revolutionary Experience offers a fresh look at Communism, both the bad and good, and also touches on anarchism, Christian theory, conservatism, liberalism, Marxism, and more, to argue for the enduring relevance of Karl Marx, and V.I. Lenin as democratic revolutionaries. It examines the "Red Decade" of the 1930s and the civil rights movement and the New Left of the 1960s in the United States as well. Studying the past to grapple with issues of war and terrorism, exploitation, hunger, ecological crisis, and trends toward deadening "de-spiritualization", the book shows how the revolutionaries of the past are still relevant to today's struggles. It offers a clearly written and carefully reasoned thematic discussion of globalization, Marxism, Christianity (and religion in general), Communism, the history of the USSR and US radical and social movements.