Search results for: structural-physics-of-nuclear-fusion

Structural Physics of Nuclear Fusion

Author : Stoyan Sarg
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Remarkable advances in cold fusion experiments have raised the hope for a safer and cheaper nuclear energy. The results, however, cannot be explained from the point of view of current physical understanding of nuclear fusion. This is an obstacle to endorsement and investment in this field. The research needs a supporting theory. The present book suggests a new approach for analysis of the results and offers practical recommendations based on the physical models of atomic nuclei derived in the BSM-Supergravitation Unified theory (BSM-SG). The book provides: (1) a method for analysis of the LENR experiments using the BSM-SG atomic models; (b) a selection of isotopes suitable for a more efficient energy yield with a minimum of radioactive byproducts; (c) practical considerations for selection of the technical method and the reaction environment.The BSM-SG theory is based on a concept of space that follows the view of Michael Faraday and the recommendations of James Maxwell about the properties of the envisioned space medium, known as Aether. The concept of an Aether (Ether) was abandoned in favor of the quantum mechanical formalism adopted in the first quarter of 20th century. However, Albert Einstein was against this approach and openly expressed his concerns after he developed General Relativity. In his monograph “Sidelights on relativity” (1921) he wrote: “To deny the ether is ultimately to assume that empty space has no physical qualities whatever” (p.23) and “According to general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable” (p. 23).From our point of view, the major problem for recognition of the feasibility of LENR is the adopted quantum mechanical formalism. In quantum mechanics and particles physics, all elementary and subelementary particles are assumed spherical without any geometrical structure. Then the data interpretation of scattering experiments leads to a very small atomic nucleus on the order of a femtometer. This leads to a conclusion of a very strong Coulomb barrier that might be overcome only at temperatures of millions of degrees. The results from LENR experiments are in a sharp contrast to this consideration. According to BSM-SG theory, the physical models of protons and neutrons have superdense material structures with the shape of a folded and a twisted torus, respectively. They are much larger but thinner, so the Coulomb barrier also has a non-spherical shape and it is not so strong. The protons and neutrons are held in the nucleus by a Supergravitational (SG) field, which is behind the strong nuclear forces. The protons and neutrons in the atomic nuclei form three-dimensional fractal structures. The spatial geometry of the nuclear structures defines the row-column pattern of the periodic table with identifiable features of the valences, isotope stability, nuclear spin and chemical bond directions. The analysis leads to a hypothesis that the superdense nucleus causes a micro-curvature – a general relativistic effect around the nucleus. It has a feature of energy storage that corresponds to the mass deficit or nuclear binding energy expressed by Einstein's equation, E = mc^2. The fusion or fission reaction causes a small change of the micro-curvature, so the difference in the binding energy is released as gamma and particle radiation that is finally converted to heat.The analysis of some LENR experiments shows that the excited state of hydrogen and deuterium, known as the Rydberg state, facilitates some fusion reactions. According to BSM-SG, the Rydberg state is an ion-electron pair, with a finite size at the boundary of the SG field, while possessing a strong magnetic field due to the dominated magnetic moment of the electron. Additionally, the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron provides a constant driving momentum. When combined with a proper nuclear spin state of a selected heavier element, this momentum assists the magnetic field interactions, and this leads to nuclear fusion.

Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

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Physics and Technology of Nuclear Materials

Author : Ioan Ursu
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Physics and Technology of Nuclear Materials presents basic information regarding the structure, properties, processing methods, and response to irradiation of the key materials that fission and fusion nuclear reactors have to rely upon. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with selectively several fundamentals of nuclear physics. Subsequent chapters focus on the nuclear materials science; nuclear fuel; structural materials; moderator materials employed to ""slow down"" fission neutrons; and neutron highly absorbent materials that serve in reactor's power control. Other chapters explore the cooling agents; fluids carrying the energy to its final stage of conversion into electric power; thermal and biological shielding materials; some outstanding reactor components; and irradiated fuel reprocessing. The last two chapters deal with nuclear material quality inspection by destructive and non-destructive methods, and specific materials envisaged for use in future thermonuclear reactors. This monograph will be helpful for a wide range of specialists wishing to gear their research and development, education, and other activities toward the field of nuclear power and nuclear technology.

Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1986

Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
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Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1994

Author : International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Nuclear Research (15th : 1994 : Seville, Spain)
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Potential and structure in plasmas

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Nuclear Structure Physics

Author : Amritanshu Shukla
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Nuclear structure Physics connects to some of our fundamental questions about the creation of universe and its basic constituents. At the same time, precise knowledge on the subject has lead to develop many important tools of human kind such as proton therapy, radioactive dating etc. This book contains chapters on some of the crucial and trending research topics in nuclear structure, including the nuclei lying on the extremes of spin, isospin and mass. A better theoretical understanding of these topics is important beyond the confines of the nuclear structure community. Additionally, the book will showcase the applicability and success of the different nuclear effective interaction parameters near the drip line, where hints for level reordering have already been seen, and where one can test the isospin-dependence of the interaction. The book offers comprehensive coverage of the most essential topics, including: • Nuclear Structure of Nuclei at or Near Drip-Lines • Synthesis challenges and properties of Superheavy nuclei • Nuclear Structure and Nuclear models - Ab-initio calculations, cluster models, Shell-model/DSM, RMF, Skyrme • Shell Closure, Magicity and other novel features of nuclei at extremes • Structure of Toroidal, Bubble Nuclei, halo and other exotic nuclei These topics are not only very interesting from theoretical nuclear physics perspective but are also quite complimentary for ongoing nuclear physics experimental program worldwide. It is hoped that the book chapters written by experienced and well known researchers/experts will be helpful for the master students, graduate students and researchers and serve as a standard & uptodate research reference book on the topics covered.

High Energy Physics and Nuclear Structure

Author : Philippe Catillon
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Fusion

Author : G. M. McCracken
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Fusion: The Energy of the Universe, 2e is an essential reference providing basic principles of fusion energy from its history to the issues and realities progressing from the present day energy crisis. The book provides detailed developments and applications for researchers entering the field of fusion energy research. This second edition includes the latest results from the National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, CA, and the progress on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak programme at Caderache, France. Comprehensive coverage- basic principles, detailed developments and practical applications Wide accessibility, but with sufficient detail to keep the technical reader engaged Details the initial discovery of nuclear fusion, current attempts to create nuclear fusion here on earth and today's concern over future energy supply Color illustrations and examples Includes technical notes for aspiring physicists

Frontiers in Fusion Research II

Author : Mitsuru Kikuchi
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This book reviews recent progress in our understanding of tokamak physics related to steady state operation, and addresses the scientific feasibility of a steady state tokamak fusion power system. It covers the physical principles behind continuous tokamak operation and details the challenges remaining and new lines of research towards the realization of such a system. Following a short introduction to tokamak physics and the fundamentals of steady state operation, later chapters cover parallel and perpendicular transport in tokamaks, MHD instabilities in advanced tokamak regimes, control issues, and SOL and divertor plasmas. A final chapter reviews key enabling technologies for steady state reactors, including negative ion source and NBI systems, Gyrotron and ECRF systems, superconductor and magnet systems, and structural materials for reactors. The tokamak has demonstrated an excellent plasma confinement capability with its symmetry, but has an intrinsic drawback with its pulsed operation with inductive operation. Efforts have been made over the last 20 years to realize steady state operation, most promisingly utilizing bootstrap current. Frontiers in Fusion Research II: Introduction to Modern Tokamak Physics will be of interest to graduate students and researchers involved in all aspects of tokamak science and technology.

Fusion Reactor Design

Author : Takashi Okazaki
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The book gives a detailed overview of fusion reactor design, from the basics of fusion reactors and plasma physics to the technical equipment necessary to construct, design and run a fusion reactor.

Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1971

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Nuclear Fusion

Author : Igor Girka
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Power production and its consumption and distribution are among the most urgent problems of mankind. Despite positive dynamics in introducing renewable sources of energy, nuclear power plants still remain the major source of carbon-free electric energy. Fusion can be an alternative to fission in the foreseeable future. Research in the field of controlled nuclear fusion has been ongoing for almost 100 years. Magnetic confinement systems are the most promising for effective implementation, and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is under construction in France. To accomplish nuclear fusion on Earth, we have to resolve a number of scientific and technological problems. This monograph includes selected chapters on nuclear physics and mechanical engineering within the scope of nuclear fusion.

Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology

Author : Jeffery Lewins
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Dur previous volume 14 was devoted to an exposition of the topics of sensitivity analysis and uncertainty theory with its development and application in nuclear reactor physics at the heart of the discussion. In this volume, we return to our customary format as a selection of topics of current interest, authored by those working in the field. These topics range from the theoretical underpinnings of the (linear) Boltzmann transport equation to a resume of our ex pectations in what still may be thought of as twenty-first century technology, the world's fusion reactor program. In the first article of this volume, we have Protopop escu's analysis of the structure of the Boltzmann equation and its solutions for energy and space-dependent problems of an eigenvalue nature. There long has been a curious "folk history" effect in this area~ Wigner and Weinberg could de scribe it as "what was generally known was generally untrue". This account of the Boltzmann equation surely will show that a rigorous basis for our expectations of certain solutions can be well-founded on analysis. Ely Gelbard's review of the methods of determining diffusion-type parameters in complex geometries where simple diffusion theory would be welcome has required just as much rigor to determine how such modeling can be made accurate, although to a more immediate and practical purpose. The two articles can be seen as interesting contrasts, facets of the same underlying problem showing apparently different aspects of the same central core.

IV Japan Brazil Symposium on Science and Technology Energy nuclear fusion

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Basic Concepts of Nuclear Physics

Author : Jagadish B. Garg
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book provides a clear and concise discussion of basic concepts of nuclear physics to be covered in a one semester course in nuclear physics offered in colleges and universities. This course can be taken by physics and nuclear engineering seniors and graduate students, who have taken one semester of quantum mechanics and a course in math. Methods of physics. This book begins with the general properties of nuclei. In chapters 2 and 3 it discusses the nature of nuclear force as learned from the properties of deuteron and from the two body interactions of (n, n ), (n, p) and (p, p) pairs. In chapter 4 it gives discussion of the nuclear structure in terms of different nuclear models such as shell, collective vibration and rotation, unified and liquid drop. The models are applicable in different mass regions of nuclei. In chapter 5, discussion is given about \, and - ray modes of decay of unstable nuclei. Chapter 6 deals with different types of nuclear reactions induced by n, p, d, t, \- particles etc. These reactions are compound nucleus formation, direct reactions, such as stripping, knock out, pick up reactions, photonuclear reactions, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion etc. Chapter 7 gives a brief discussion of application of nuclear physics to other fields such as bio medical, nuclear energy, industry, crime detection and astrophysics. In chapter 8, I have given conceptual problems related to each chapter. The main feature of this book is that it gives a coherent treatment of each topic of nuclear physics in the proper order. Book Review Basic concepts of nuclear physics written by Jagadish B. Garg, Physics Professor, State University at Albany is a timely book. To my knowledge no other text book on this subject had been published in recent years. This book is written in a clear, concise and orderly fashion. The book begins with a discussion of the discovery of nucleus by Lord Rutherford and then describes all the basic properties of nuclei. In chapters 2and 3, the author discusses the nucleon nucleon force determined by properties of deuterons and from interaction of pairs of nucleons. In chapter 4, he discusses nuclear structure as described by shell, collective rotation, vibration, unified and liquid drop models. In chapter 5, he discusses various nuclear modes such as alpha, beta and gamma decay of unstable nuclei, In chapter 6, he discusses nuclear reactions induced by neutrons, protons, deuterons, He 3, He 4 and triton particles, photo nuclear reactions, nuclear fission and fusion. Theoretical treatment of these topics is appropriate for an introductory survey course in nuclear physics. Chapter 7 gives a brief discussion of application of nuclear physics to nuclear energy, to medical field such as diagnostic and treatment of human diseases, application to astro-physics, crime detection and determination of pollution in the environment The author is internationally known for his extensive research on many topics of nuclear physics. The author should be complimented for a clear and concise discussion of all important topics of nuclear physics. This book is suitable for a one semester survey course in nuclear physics to be given in physics and nuclear engineering departments. I have taught introductory course in nuclear physics at Renssaeler Polytecnique Institute for many years and would have adopted this book if it was then available. I would recommend this book to other professors teaching an introductory survey course on nuclear physics. - Norman Francis, Adjunct Professor at RPI(retired) Fellow of American Nuclear Society

Nuclear Physics

Author : Source Wikipedia
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 264. Chapters: Nuclear fusion, Nuclear fission, Weak interaction, Radionuclide, Strong interaction, Atomic number, Transuranium element, Nuclear chain reaction, Cold fusion, Mossbauer effect, Beta decay, Ununoctium, Nuclear shell model, Ununquadium, Decay product, Synthetic element, Proton decay, Copernicium, Alpha decay, Hadron, Ununhexium, Ununennium, Ununpentium, Cross section, Unbinilium, Ununtrium, Nucleosynthesis, Electron capture, Binding energy, Interacting boson model, Decay energy, Helium fusion, Pair production, Scattering, Fissile, Nuclear explosive, Effects of nuclear explosions, Nuclear isomer, Tetraquark, Isotope, Gamma ray, Nuclear fission product, P-nuclei, Nuclear structure, Environmental radioactivity, Strangeness production, Cluster decay, Nuclear drip line, Parity, Atomic nucleus, Semi-empirical mass formula, Heat of combustion, Isospin, Stopping power, Strangelet, Nuclear reaction, Xi baryon, Gamma spectroscopy, Prompt critical, Toroidal ring model, Charmed baryons, Fission products, Emission spectrum, Subatomic particle, Electrostatic nuclear accelerator, Particle physics experiments, Nuclear transmutation, Radiation protection, Chemical shift, Beta-decay stable isobars, Natural nuclear fission reactor, Synthesis of precious metals, Nuclear force, S-process, Georeactor, Binary collision approximation, Radium and radon in the environment, Nuclear astrophysics, Long-lived fission product, Double beta decay, Neutron transport, Actinides in the environment, Temperature coefficient, Energy Catalyzer, Institute for Transuranium Elements, B FH, Paul Scherrer Institute, Hagedorn temperature, Spallation Neutron Source, Liquid metal cooled reactor, Internal conversion, Jellium, Bethe formula, Scattering cross-section, G-factor, Unbibium, Particle-induced X-ray emission, John Bockris, Dead time, Anomalon, Dosimetry, ..

Safety Environmental Impact and Economic Prospects of Nuclear Fusion

Author : Bruno Brunelli
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This book contains the lectures and the concluding discussion of the "Seminar on Safety, Environmental Impact, and Economic Prospects of Nuclear Fusion", which was held at Erice, August 6-12, 1989. In selecting the contributions to this 9th meeting held by the International School of Fusion Reactor Technology at the E. Majorana Center for Scientific Cul ture in Erice, we tried to provide a comprehensive coverage of the many interre lated and interdisciplinary aspects of what ultimately turns out to be the global acceptance criteria of our society with respect to controlled nuclear fusion. Consequently, this edited collection of the papers presented should provide an overview of these issues. We thus hope that this book, with its extensive subject index, will also be of interest and help to nonfusion specialists and, in general, to those who from curiosity or by assignment are required to be informed on these as pects of fusion energy.

Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

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Potential and Structure in Plasmas

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