Search results for: soil-degradation-and-restoration-in-africa

Soil Degradation and Restoration in Africa

Author : Rattan Lal
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Soil degradation is a widespread problem in Africa resulting in decreased agricultural productivity while demand for food continues to increase. Degradation is caused by accelerated erosion, acidification, contamination, depletion of soil organic matter and plant nutrients, and salinization. The major cause of soil degradation in Africa is uncontrolled and excessive grazing in the savanna regions followed by deforestation and the use of inappropriate and extractive farming practices. Perpetual neglect of the health of soils in Africa can exacerbate the already serious problems of food and nutritional insecurity and environmental degradation. Food and nutritional security of the growing population of Africa can only be achieved if degraded soils are restored and soils of agroecosystems are managed prudently and sustainably. Ignoring soils and taking the fragile, finite and precious soil resources for granted is the principal cause of poverty, hunger, and environmental degradation. The downward spiral must be reversed through soil restoration measures based on translating science into action. This book describes the soils of Africa, processes of soil degradation, extent and severity of soil degradation, and the impacts of degradation processes on food and nutritional security. Features: Explores the extent and severity of soil degradation in Africa Analyzes the cause–effect relationship between anthropogenic activities and soil degradation Reviews processes of soil degradation in Africa including erosion, salinization, nutrient depletion, and decline of soil organic matter Addresses the effect of climate change on soil degradation in Africa. Explains how soil degradation causes food and nutritional insecurity Part of the Advances in Soil Sciences series, this volume is specifically devoted to the processes and factors that cause soil degradation and the challenges and potential for remediation and restoration of soil health in Africa.

Land Restoration

Author : Ilan Chabay
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Land Restoration: Reclaiming Landscapes for a Sustainable Future provides a holistic overview of land degradation and restoration in that it addresses the issue of land restoration from the scientific and practical development points of view. Furthermore, the breadth of chapter topics and contributors cover the topic and a wealth of connected issues, such as security, development, and environmental issues. The use of graphics and extensive references to case studies also make the work accessible and encourage it to be used for reference, but also in active field-work planning. Land Restoration: Reclaiming Landscapes for a Sustainable Future brings together practitioners from NGOs, academia, governments, and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) to exchange lessons to enrich the academic understanding of these issues and the solution sets available. Provides accessible information about the science behind land degradation and restoration for those who do not directly engage with the science allowing full access to the issue at hand. Includes practical on-the-ground examples garnered from diverse areas, such as the Sahel, Southeast Asia, and the U.S.A. Provides practical tools for designing and implementing restoration/re-greening processes.

Sustainable Intensification to Advance Food Security and Enhance Climate Resilience in Africa

Author : Rattan Lal
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This 32-chapter volume represents the core of several oral and poster presentations made at the conference. In addition to Introduction and Conclusion sections, the book is thematically divided into 7 sections, namely, 1) Land Use and Farming Systems, 2) Effects of Climate Change on Crop Yield, 3) Soil Nutrient and Water Management for Carbon Sequestration, 4) Rehabilitation of Degraded Lands through Forestry and Agroforestry, 5) Management of Animal Production for Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 6) Smallholder Adaptation to Climate Change, and 7) Economic, Social and Policy Issues. It addresses these themes in the context of sustainable intensification (SI). It implies increasing agronomic production from the existing land while improving/restoring its quality and decreasing the C or environmental footprint. Simply put, SI means producing more from less.

Degradation Restoration of Arid Lands

Author : Harold E. Dregne
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Principles of Sustainable Soil Management in Agroecosystems

Author : Rattan Lal
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With the use of high-level soil management technology, Africa could feed several billion people, yet food production has generally stagnated since the 1960s. No matter how powerful the seed technology, the seedling emerging from it can flourish only in a healthy soil. Accordingly, crop yields in Africa, South Asia, and the Caribbean could be doubled or tripled through adoption of technologies based on laws of sustainable soil management. Principles of Sustainable Soil Management in Agroecosystems describes the application of these laws to enhance ecosystem services while restoring degraded soils and promoting sustainable use. With chapters contributed by world-class soil scientists, ecologists, and social scientists, this book outlines critical changes in management of agricultural soils necessary to achieve food security and meet the food demands of the present and projected future population. These changes include conversion to no-till and conservation agriculture; adoption of strategies of integrated nutrient management, water harvesting, and use of drip sub-irrigation; complex cropping/farming systems such as cover cropping and agroforestry; and use of nano-enhanced fertilizers. The book is based on the premise that it is not possible to extract more from a soil than what is put into it without degrading its quality. The strategy is to replace what is removed, respond wisely to what is changed, and be pro-active to what may happen because of natural and anthropogenic perturbations. The chapters, which exemplify these ideas, cover a range of topics including organic farming, soil fertility, crop-symbiotic soil microbiota, human-driven soil degradation, soil degradation and restoration, carbon sink capacity of soils, soil renewal and sustainability, and the marginality principle.

Review of forest and landscape restoration in Africa 2021

Author : Mansourian, S., Berrahmouni, N.
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The purpose of this report is to assess the current implementation of forest and landscape restoration (FLR) in Africa. It presents the context for FLR on the African continent, highlights major FLR initiatives, and provides an overview of FLR in Africa at the start of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021–2030). It identifies key challenges, opportunities, actors and processes, illustrated with some case studies. Data collection was both primary (interviews) and secondary (extensive desk research). The report contributes to tracking progress on the implementation of AFR100 and other FLR initiatives in Africa on the ground. It provides a baseline for the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration and is expected to be updated at regular intervals. The report is prepared under the jointly implemented regional technical cooperation programme by FAO Regional Office for Africa (RAF) and the African Union Development Agency-NEPAD (AUDA-NEPAD) “Support to the implementation and monitoring of the African Forest Landscape Restoration Initiative (AFR100)” and in close collaboration with AFR100 Management Team members and partners. It is also responding to the recommendation of the 22nd Session of FAO African Forestry and Wildlife Commission1, held in March 2020 in South Africa. The report is structured as follows: Chapter 1 introduces the importance of Africa’s forests and tree-based landscapes and to the challenges they and their people face, as well as the relevance of restoration and the global policy context. The next chapter presents an overview of FLR and restoration more generally. The third chapter provides a more detailed overview for Africa’s subregions of the current status of forests with examples of FLR initiatives (or other relevant ones that may not have the FLR label but are in fact aligned with FLR). Chapter 4 then reviews some key success factors for FLR in Africa. Chapter 5 presents opportunities going forward and remaining challenges. The last chapter is more forward-looking and speculative, highlighting potential priorities for FLR in the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration.

Economics of Land Degradation and Improvement A Global Assessment for Sustainable Development

Author : Ephraim Nkonya
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This volume deals with land degradation, which is occurring in almost all terrestrial biomes and agro-ecologies, in both low and high income countries and is stretching to about 30% of the total global land area. About three billion people reside in these degraded lands. However, the impact of land degradation is especially severe on livelihoods of the poor who heavily depend on natural resources. The annual global cost of land degradation due to land use and cover change (LUCC) and lower cropland and rangeland productivity is estimated to be about 300 billion USD. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounts for the largest share (22%) of the total global cost of land degradation. Only about 38% of the cost of land degradation due to LUCC - which accounts for 78% of the US$300 billion loss – is borne by land users and the remaining share (62%) is borne by consumers of ecosystem services off the farm. The results in this volume indicate that reversing land degradation trends makes both economic sense, and has multiple social and environmental benefits. On average, one US dollar investment into restoration of degraded land returns five US dollars. The findings of the country case studies call for increased investments into the rehabilitation and restoration of degraded lands, including through such institutional and policy measures as strengthening community participation for sustainable land management, enhancing government effectiveness and rule of law, improving access to markets and rural services, and securing land tenure. The assessment in this volume has been conducted at a time when there is an elevated interest in private land investments and when global efforts to achieve sustainable development objectives have intensified. In this regard, the results of this volume can contribute significantly to the ongoing policy debate and efforts to design strategies for achieving sustainable development goals and related efforts to address land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

Natural Resource Degradation in Sub Saharan Africa SSA

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Land degradation neutrality

Author : Onyango, V., Davies, J., Sharpe, N., Maiga, S.I., Ogali, C., Perez-Rocha, J., Isakov, A.
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In rangelands and grasslands, land degradation has an immediate and local impact by disrupting ecosystems from functioning, threatening livelihoods and negatively affecting social cohesion. It also threatens productivity while dovetailing with the threats of climate change in these ecologically fragile areas. The understanding of land degradation in rangelands and grasslands is weak, which is attributed to a lack of robust data and a misunderstanding of management objectives. The day-to-day management of land by pastoral communities is intricately linked to local and traditional knowledge that needs to be taken into account when monitoring the health of ecosystems and designing management interventions. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 15 Life on land includes Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) as a target, which requires that the process of degradation is halted and reversed. This publication presents a rationale for participatory approaches to achieve LDN in pastoral areas while showing how this can be achieved using the Participatory Rangelands and Grasslands Assessment (PRAGA) that has been piloted in Kenya, the Niger, Burkina Faso, Uruguay and Kyrgyzstan.

Wind Erosion in Niger

Author : Andreas A.C. Buerkert
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The West African Sahel is the transition zone between the Saharadesert in the north of Africa and the more humid Sudanian zones in the south. Although diverse in many ways, the Sahelian countries have the common problem of a fragile agricultural sector. This predicament is mainly caused by low inherent soil fertility, limited and unpredictable rainfall, frequent droughts, and wind erosion that accelerates soil degradation and desertification, compounded by To assure food production in the future, means rapidly growing populations. of declining soil fertility and increasing must be found to offset the trends soil degradation through wind erosion. This is a challenge for agricultural research. Since 1985, the Special Research Program 308 'Adapted Farming in West Africa' at the UniversityofHohenheimin collaboration with the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in Niger, has pursued the developmentof agricultural innovations for smallholder farmers in one of the most ecologically fragile regions of the world. The prevention of soil degradation, the restoration and maintenance of soil fertility, and the increase of land and labor productivity are key objectives of this multidisci plinary research program. From the beginning, a major focus of research has been wind erosion.

Nature Faune journal Volume 32 Issue 1

Author : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
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This edition of Nature & Faune journal explores the science and innovations (technical, social and policy) that can support the achievement of the African dream of restoring 100 million hectares of its degraded land. Articles in this edition share experiences on challenges, opportunities and successful restoration, including farmer managed natural regeneration, improved management of smallholder woodlots, reforestation, evergreen agriculture with intercropped trees, and associated sustainable land management practices such as water harvesting and erosion control. Africa’s Great Green Wall is presented in this edition as a transformative model for rural communities’ sustainable development. In particular the lessons learned from the “Action Against Desertification” programme funded by the European Union and implemented by FAO with partner countries and organizations, are discussed, paving a way towards the implementation of African Forest Landscape Restoration Initiative. Initiatives to address land degradation and desertification trends in Africa, promote sustainable land management, and restoration of degraded forests and landscapes include Africa’s Great Green Wall initiative, and 2016’s African Forest Landscape Restoration Initiative – AFR100. Most of the articles dwelt on how efforts to this end are being pursued.

Response to Land Degradation

Author : E M Bridges
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This work is intended for advanced readers interested in methods of sustainable land management - the prevention and control of land degradation. It offers a coherent view of the situation concerning land degradation and the human response to the problem. It is generally recognized that technological solutions alone cannot solve the problems of land degradation. This book discusses the role of land use and land management policies, programmes, insitutional innovations, and economic incentives for the control and prevention of land degradation. Special attention is given to legal issues at the international level and in individual countries.

Sustainability in Natural Resources Management and Land Planning

Author : Walter Leal Filho
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Linkages Between Land Management Land Degradation and Poverty in Sub Saharan Africa

Author : Nkonya, Ephraim
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Most African countries strive for both poverty reduction and sustainable land management, yet information on the exact relationship between these goals is limited. This report seeks to fill the gap by demonstrating a strong linkage between poverty and land management. Using Uganda as a case study, the authors show that certain policies, such as investments in soil and water conservation and agroforestry, may simultaneously increase productivity and reduce poverty and land degradation. Other strategies, including development of rural roads, non-farm activities, and rural finance, may reduce poverty without significantly affecting productivity or land management. Some policies, however, will likely involve trade-offs among different goals and will need to have their negative impacts minimized. Those in government, NGOs, the private sector, or academia who are concerned about sustainably reducing poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa will benefit from this analysis of how to pursue these key development goals.

Soils and Landscape Restoration

Author : John A. Stanturf
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Soils and Landscape Restoration provides a multidisciplinary synthesis on the sustainable management and restoration of soils in various landscapes. The book presents applicable knowledge of above- and below-ground interactions and biome specific realizations along with in-depth investigations of particular soil degradation pathways. It focuses on severely degraded soils (e.g., eroded, salinized, mined) as well as the restoration of wetlands, grasslands and forests. The book addresses the need to bring together current perspectives on land degradation and restoration in soil science and restoration ecology to better incorporate soil-based information when restoration plans are formulated. Incudes a chapter on climate change and novel ecosystems, thus collating the perspective of soil scientists and ecologists on this consequential and controversial topic Connects science to international policy and practice Includes summaries at the end of each chapter to elucidate principles and key points

International Yearbook of Soil Law and Policy 2017

Author : Harald Ginzky
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This book presents an important discussion on soil and sustainable agriculture from a range of perspectives, addressing key topics such as sustainable intensification, the FAO Voluntary Guidelines, and the crucial role of appropriate tenure rights. This second volume of the International Yearbook of Soil Law and Policy is divided into four parts, the first of which deals with several aspects of the theme “soil and sustainable agriculture.” In turn, the second part covers recent international developments, the third part presents regional and national reports, and the fourth discusses cross-cutting issues. Given the range of key topics covered, the book offers an indispensable tool for all academics, legislators and policymakers working in this field. The “International Yearbook of Soil Law and Policy” is a book series that discusses central questions in law and politics with regard to the protection and sustainable management of soil and land – at the international, national and regional level. The Chapter "The Use of Property Law Tools for Soil Protection" by Jessica Owley is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at

Climate Change and Multi Dimensional Sustainability in African Agriculture

Author : Rattan Lal
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This 35-chapter book is based on several oral and poster presentations including both invited and contributory chapters. The book is thematically based on four pillars of sustainability, with focus on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): Environment, Economic, Social and Institutional. The environmental sustainability, which determines economic and social/institutional sustainability, refers to the rate of use of natural resources (soil, water, landscape, vegetation) which can be continued indefinitely without degrading their quality, productivity and ecosystem services for different ecoregions of SSA. This book will help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals of the U.N. in SSA. Therefore, the book is of interest to agriculturalists, economists, social scientists, policy makers, extension agents, and development/bilateral organizations. Basic principles explained in the book can be pertinent to all development organizations.

Land Degradation in the Developing World Implications for Food Agriculture and the Environment to the Year 2020

Author : Sara J. Scherr and Satya Yadav, IFPRI
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Soil Degradation

Author : Sara J. Scherr
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Evaluating the impact of soil degradation o food security. Past and present effects of soil degradation. Future effects of soil degradation and threats to developing-country food security. Policy and research priorities.

Exclosures for landscape restoration in Ethiopia

Author : Mekuria, Wolde
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