Search results for: rule-of-law-in-war

Customary Justice and the Rule of Law in War torn Societies

Author : Deborah Isser
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The major peacekeeping and stability operations of the last ten years have mostly taken place in countries that have pervasive customary justice systems, which pose significant challenges and opportunities for efforts to reestablish the rule of law. These systems are the primary, if not sole, means of dispute resolution for the majority of the population, but post-conflict practitioners and policymakers often focus primarily on constructing formal justice institutions in the Western image, as opposed to engaging existing traditional mechanisms. This book offers insight into how the rule of law community might make the leap beyond rhetorical recognition of customary justice toward a practical approach that incorporates the realities of its role in justice strategies."Customary Justice and the Rule of Law in War-Torn Societies" presents seven in-depth case studies that take a broad interdisciplinary approach to the study of the justice system. Moving beyond the narrow lens of legal analysis, the cases Mozambique, Guatemala, East Timor, Afghanistan, Liberia, Iraq, Sudan examine the larger historical, political, and social factors that shape the character and role of customary justice systems and their place in the overall justice sector. Written by resident experts, the case studies provide advice to rule of law practitioners on how to engage with customary law and suggest concrete ways policymakers can bridge the divide between formal and customary systems in both the short and long terms. Instead of focusing exclusively on ideal legal forms of regulation and integration, this study suggests a holistic and flexible palette of reform options that offers realistic improvements in light of social realities and capacity limitations. The volume highlights how customary justice systems contribute to, or detract from, stability in the immediate post-conflict period and offers an analytical framework for assessing customary justice systems that can be applied in any country. "

Rule of Law in War

Author : Travers McLeod
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Rule of Law in War places international law at the centre of the transformation of United States counterinsurgency (COIN) that occurred during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. It claims international law matters more than is often assumed and more than we have previously been able to claim, contradicting existing theoretical assumptions. In particular, the book contends international law matters in a case that may be regarded as particularly tough for international law, that is, the development of a key military doctrine, the execution of that doctrine on the battlefield, and the ultimate conduct of armed conflict. To do so, the book traces international law's influence in the construction of modern U.S. COIN doctrine, specifically, Field Manual 3-24, Counterinsurgency, released by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps in December 2006. It then assesses how international law's doctrinal interaction held up in Iraq and Afghanistan. The account of this doctrinal change is based on extensive access to the primary actors and materials, including FM 3-24's drafting history, field documents, and interviews with military officers of various ranks who have served multiple deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Rule of Law After War and Crisis

Author : Richard Zajac Sannerholm
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Rule of law has emerged as an essential objective in assistance to post-conflict and post-crisis societies, such as Somalia, Kosovo, Liberia, and Egypt. This has led to a host of externally promoted programs and projects on law reform, constitutional development, judicial training, and security sector transformation. Through UN Security Council resolutions and other means of conditionality, the rule of law is not simply promoted in post-conflict and crisis settings, but it is also enforced. A failure to adhere to the rule of law can result in donors withholding funds and political support. The employment of the concept as a standard and condition in State-building has national consequences, both legal and political. Clarity in communication on the rule of law is of great importance. This book provides a critical analysis of past and current rule-of-law promotion, and it argues that, despite past experiences of development and technical assistance, rule-of-law reform in war-torn and crisis societies operates in an autonomous field where the best practices and the lessons learned are rarely, or only superficially, acknowledged. Furthermore, there is a need for a reorientation of rule-of-law assistance to the core values of the concept in order to retain its independent and 'analytical bite, ' and to develop criteria that can guide reformers in the field. The book provides a comparative and systematic overview of how rule-of-law promotion has been put into effect, and it identifies the challenges and opportunities for enhancing and strengthening norms, ideologies, and methods for legal and judicial reform after war and crisis. (Series: Series on Transitional Justice - Vol. 7) *** ..".Sannerholm's pithy volume is an excellent primer for those interested in international rule of law reform efforts in countries emerging from war or crisis. He harbors no illusions about the challenges that these reform efforts face, and his criticisms of such efforts to date are realistic and incisive....a welcome contribution to our understanding of the foundational importance of the rule of law and the immense challenges the international community faces in establishing it where it is absent." - NYU Journal of International Law and Politics, Vol. 45, Issue 3, 2013Ã?Â?

From War to the Rule of Law

Author : J. J. C. Voorhoeve
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As recent events in Iraq demonstrate, countries that have suffered civil war or rule by military regime can face a long, difficult transition to peaceful democracy. Drawing on the experiences of Bosnia, Haiti, Rwanda and Afghanistan, this outstanding volume demonstrates that newly emerging democracies need more than emergency economic support: restoring the rule of law can involve the training of a new police force, for example, or the creation of an international war crimes tribunal. Concluding with specific recommendations for the UN and EU members, Voorhoeve reminds us that disregard for human rights or delay in civilian reconciliation can lead to resurgences of violence.

Law s Wars

Author : Richard L. Abel
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The US 'war on terror', which Bush declared and Obama continued, repeatedly violated fundamental rule of law values. Law's Wars: The Fate of the Rule of Law in the US 'War on Terror' is the first comprehensive account of efforts to resist and correct those violations. It focuses on responses to abuses in Abu Ghraib, efforts by Guantnamo Bay detainees to improve conditions of confinement in and win release, exposs of and efforts to end torture and electronic surveillance, and civilian casualties on the battlefield, including targeted killings. Abel deploys a law and society perspective to construct and analyze detailed narratives of the roles of victims, whistle-blowers, the media, NGOs, lawyers, doctors, politicians, military personnel, foreign governments and international organizations in defending the rule of law. Only by understanding past errors can we hope to prevent their repetition in what promises to be an endless 'war on terror'.

Civil War and the Rule of Law

Author : Agnès G. Hurwitz
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How do rule of law programs contribute to conflict management? What strategies best address the challenges to securing the rule of law in fragile countries? What place do rule of law policies have in efforts to achieve stable and equitable development? questions, analyzing rule of law programs in the context of conflict prevention, peacekeeping, and peacebuilding activities. Throughout the book, they emphasize the critical relationship linking the rule of law, security, development, and human rights.

The Law of War

Author : Em Prof Ingrid Detter
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The third edition of Ingrid Detter's authoritative work explores the changing legal context of modern warfare in light of events over the last decade. The new edition covers post 9/11 events and the resulting changes in the ethos of war. It analyses the role of military companies sometimes authorised by States to act in war-like situations and examines what their legitimacy means for international society. The edition also discusses certain ‘intrinsic’ rules such as rules giving individuals the right to be spared genocide, torture, slavery and apartheid and assure them basic democratic rights.

Terrorism Law

Author : Jeffrey F. Addicott
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Since the events of September 11, 2001, the world has entered into a period fraught with uncertainty and yet there shines a renewed hope to enlarge the peace and advance human rights. The central hope of the War on Terror rests in the great promise of a world more fully based on governments who adhere to human rights and democratic values. It offers a chance to advance human rights and democracy in areas of the world heretofore untouched. America's strongest weapon in the War on Terror does not rest with our military might or police functions. America's strongest weapon is our uncompromising commitment to the freedoms and civil liberties embodied in our Constitution and reflected in the U.N. Charter. The United States of American can only be successful if we follow a rule of law roote in human rights and democratic principles.Terrorism, like crime, can never be completely eradicated. At the time the first edition was published we were just entering our War on Terror. Although it was realized at the time that legal and policy challenges would exist, no one could have predicted exactly what events would take place. We have made progress in finding and arresting terrorists,including some of the top leaders of al-Qaeda, however our fight is not over. In the last few years our war on terror has lead us into Afghanistan and Iraq, Saddam Hussein has been captured, and a new Iraqi government has been established.The second edition of Winning the War on Terror, has been updated to include some of our nations biggest changes in fighting the war. This book highlights some of the legal and policy challenges that confront the United States, and emphasizes the importance of developing capable military forces while promoting democracy as the long-term solution to terrorism. It includes new chapters on the Iraqi war, the Iraqi democracy, the Supreme court decisions on detainees, the interrogation techniques of the US and cyber terrorism.TOPICS INCLUDE What is terrorism? The War on Terror Expanding the War on Terror Civil liberties and the War on Terror Necessity for laws of war Avoiding terrorism Leading the wayPax Americana or the rule of law? The role of the military and Army Special Forces in promoting human rights America must stay the course

MI5 the Cold War and the Rule of Law

Author : Keith Ewing
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This book explores the powers, activities, and accountability of MI5 from the end of the Second World War to 1964. It argues that MI5 acted with neither statutory authority nor statutory powers, and with no obvious forms of statutory accountability. It was established as a counter-espionage agency, yet was beset by espionage scandals on a frequency that suggested if not high levels of incompetence, then high levels of distraction and the squandering of resources. The book addresses the evolution of MI5's mandate after the Second World War which set out its role and functions, and to a limited extent the lines of accountability, the surveillance targets of MI5 and the surveillance methods that it used for this purpose, with a focus in two chapters on MPs and lawyers respectively; the purposes for which this information was used, principally to exclude people from certain forms of employment; and the accountability of MI5 or the lack thereof for the way in which it discharged its responsibilities under the mandate. As lawyers the authors' concern is to consider these questions within the context of the rule of law, one of the core principles of the British constitution, the values of which it was the duty of the Security Service to uphold. Based on extensive archival research, it suggests that MI5 operated without legal authority or exceeded the legal authority it did have.

The Rule of Law in Crisis and Conflict Grey Zones

Author : Michael John-Hopkins
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This book responds to ongoing calls for clarification and consensus regarding the meaning, scope and interplay of humanitarian law and human rights law in the ‘grey zones’ of unconventional operational environments such as counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. It contributes to the debate in this area by developing objective criteria for determining where the shift from the legal framework of law enforcement to that of non-international armed conflict occurs in relation to targeting law and weaponry law; by developing improved objective criteria for determining what constitutes direct participation in hostilities and de facto membership in an organised armed group; by taking stock of how existing targeting and weaponry rules are being applied to unconventional conflicts within civilian populated areas by key state players as well as by international and regional human rights mechanisms; by arguing for the progressive realisation of targeting and weaponry law so that they are more fitting for operational environments that are increasingly urbanised and civilianised; by seeking to understand how global networked connectivity may affect our understanding of the operational theatre of war and the geographical reach of the legal framework of non-international armed conflict.?

The War on Terrorism and the Rule of Law

Author : Richard M. Pious
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A detailed and accessible discussion of due process issues invoked by the George W. Bush administration's war on terror.

World Peace Through Law

Author : James Taylor Ranney
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This book deals with the history and future of the concept of ‘world peace through law’ (WPTL), which advocates replacing the use of international force with the global rule of law. WPTL calls for replacing war with the global rule of law by arms reductions, including the abolition of nuclear weapons, global alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, and various enforcement mechanisms. This book sets forth a three-part proposal: 1) arms reductions – primarily the abolition of nuclear weapons, with necessarily concomitant reductions in conventional forces; 2) a four-stage system of global alternative dispute resolution (ADR), utilizing both law and equity; 3) adequate enforcement mechanisms, including a UN Peace Force. The core of this proposal is alternative dispute resolution mechanisms—international ADR. International ADR would consist of a four-stage process of compulsory negotiation, compulsory mediation, compulsory arbitration., and compulsory adjudication by the World Court. The fundamental proposition of this book is that the use of alternatives to war, global ADR, is the ultimate solution to the problem of peace. The full implementation of WPTL will entail a vast array of progressive initiatives on many fronts, including abolition of nuclear weapons, with the global rule of law being the capstone to all of these developments. This book will be of great interest to students of peace studies, arms control, international law, and world politics.

Peacekeeping Policing and the Rule of Law after Civil War

Author : Robert A. Blair
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The UN plays a vital but underappreciated role in restoring the rule of law in countries recovering from civil war.

The Rule of Law in Comparative Perspective

Author : Mortimer Sellers
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This volume compares the different conceptions of the rule of law that have developed in different legal cultures. It describes the social purposes and practical applications of the rule of law and how it might be improved in the varied circumstances.

Military Justice in Vietnam

Author : William Thomas Allison
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A concise look at how military justice during the Vietnam War served the dual purpose of punishing U.S. solders' crimes and infractions while also serving the important role of promoting core American values--democracy and rule of law--to the Vietnamese.

Reflections on the Law of War

Author : Frits Kalshoven
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The papers collected in this volume span a 35-year period of active involvement in the 'reaffirmation and development of international humanitarian law'. A process under that name started in 1971 and ended in 1977 with the adoption of two Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, one for international and one for internal armed conflicts. Subsequent developments brought a narrowing of this gap between international and internal armed conflicts, as well as growing recognition of the interplay between the law of armed conflict and human rights, the rediscovery of individual criminal liability for violations of international humanitarian law, the introduction of further prohibitions or restrictions on the use of specified weapons, and so on. In contrast with these positive developments, the period was negatively characterised by increasing disrespect, not only for some or other minor rule (such as what to do with cash taken from a prisoner of war at the time of his capture) but for the very principles underlying the entire body of the law of armed conflict: respect for the other as a human being and, hence, humane treatment of prisoners of war and other detainees, protection of civilians... Throughout the period, the author's activities ranged from participation in lawmaking and law interpreting exercises, through attempts at explaining the law of armed conflict in its historical context and making propaganda for its faithful implementation, to critical or even bewildered observance of actual events. The papers brought together here reflect these diverse angles.

Nationalism and the Rule of Law

Author : Iavor Rangelov
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This book provides the first systematic account of the relationship between nationalism and the rule of law.

Promoting the Rule of Law in Post Conflict States

Author : Laura Grenfell
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In most post-conflict states, a strong level of legal pluralism is the norm, particularly in regions of Africa and Asia where between eighty and ninety per cent of disputes are resolved through non-state legal mechanisms. The international community, in particular the United Nations, persistently drives the re-establishment of the rule of law in war-torn areas where, traditionally, customary law is prevalent. Laura Grenfell traces the international community's evolving understanding of the rule of law in such regions and explores the implications of strong legal pluralism for the rule-of-law enterprise. Using the comparative examples of two unique case studies, South Africa and Timor-Leste, Promoting the Rule of Law provides insight into the relationship between the rule of law and legal pluralism. Alongside these studies, the book offers a comprehensive introduction to the conceptual framework of the rule of law in the context of approaches taken by the international community.

Elements of International Law and Laws of War

Author : Henry Wager Halleck
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The Rule of Law

Author : Cheryl Saunders
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This book brings together the views of an extraordinary range of well-known authors. It contains essays by: Chief Justice Murray Gleeson, High Court of Australia; Justice Louise Arbour, Supreme Court of Canada; Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Supreme Court of USA; Dr Radhika Coomaraswamy, the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women; and Professors Saunders (Australia), Dyzenhaus (Canada), and Troper (France). The essays cover issues such as: the debate about the meaning and application of the rule of law; the gaps between the theory and practice of the rule of law; relations between governments and people; the tensions between the judiciary and the elected branches of government; international criminal justice; and the position of women in situations of conflict and insurrection. The analyses in the book draw on topical events ranging from the Florida appeal in the election of President Bush to the indictment of Slobodan Milosevic at the War Crimes Tribunal.