Search results for: role-portrayal-and-stereotyping-on-television

Role Portrayal and Stereotyping on Television

Author : Elizabeth Milke
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Television and Sex Role Stereotyping

Author : Barrie Gunter
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The observation of male and female models in the child's environment has been postulated as a major source of sex-role information, while the audio-visual mass media is one of the two principle sources of models for the developing child.

Television and Gender Representation

Author : Barrie Gunter
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On gender stereotyping on television.

Developing a Stereotype Index of Gender Role Stereotypes in Television Advertising

Author : Kwangok Kim
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Over the decades women have usually been portrayed in the mass media in stereotypical roles, such as inferior to men, as sex objects, and/or as dependent on men. Although society has developed and the status of women has improved, there have been few changes in the mass media. The mass media continue to reinforce stereotypical gender roles. Few studies have conducted content analyses that effectively measure stereotypes in advertising other than using nominal level data. Accordingly, this study was designed to develop a "Stereotype Index," measuring how much an advertisement uses stereotypical images in its content at the ordinal level. Each advertisement received positive points for the use of stereotypes and negative points for the use of reverse-stereotypes in its content based on the Stereotype Index. The mean of each variable could subsequently be compared directly using parametric statistics rather than traditional chi-square analysis. Differences between nominal (categorical) and ordinal level data were examined by conducting both non-parametric and parametric analyses in this study, using a probability sample of prime-time television commercials during a sweeps month (4 November through 1 December, 2004). The final sample included 845 advertisements and 1,062 central figures. Findings indicated that both categorical and ordinal data measured the same stereotypical traits. The Stereotype Index test certainly overcame the limitations of the chi-square test. According to the results of both measurements, men and women were portrayed frequently in stereotyped roles in television advertising during prime time. For example, women were frequently portrayed as homemakers/parents and product users, whereas men were often portrayed as professionals and authorities. The Stereotype Index reported detailed gender role stereotypes within embedded traits of stereotypes and indicated how gender roles were portrayed overall. The Stereotype Index proved useful to examine overall gender role stereotypes among studies by comparing means of stereotypical traits, if the same index is used. Therefore, the outcome of this study indicated a promising knowledge contribution of the Stereotype Index to gender role studies for researchers who have been challenged by the limitations of the chi-square tests.

Mass Media Images and Impact on Health

Author : Nancy Signorielli
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This basic sourcebook shows how mass media, and particularly TV, present images that are dangerous to our health and advocates needed reforms. Nancy Signorielli describes the world of television today which has become a major source of information for people around the world--for children especially--and examines how media deal with health and how their messages affect our beliefs and behavior. Her analysis of the latest evidence concerning media images and popular beliefs and behavior and about current health guidelines is designed for students and professionals in communication, health and medical studies, and education and public information. This important new reference volume opens with an introduction that characterizes the role that television and mass media play in our attitudes and behavior about violence, safety, health, and the environment. Topical chapters consider media images and impact on their audiences in relation to physical health and disabilities, mental illness, safety and impairment, death and suicide, the role of health professionals, sex and sexuality, drug and alcohol use and abuse, AIDS, food and nutrition, and the environment. She summarizes the latest evidence, calls for further research, and points to ways to improve media coverage of health matters. An extensive reference list is an invaluable resource for students and experts.

Television s Impact on Children and Adolescents

Author : Sara Lake
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Comparison of Gender Stereotypes in German and East Asian Television Advertisements

Author : Sarah Heitz
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Research Paper from the year 2004 in the subject Communications - Intercultural Communication, grade: 1,3, University of Augsburg, course: Academic Writing, language: English, abstract: Stereotypes and prejudice are omnipresent and therefore influence every person in his or her perception. Undoubtedly, most of us are unaware of this fact. As a phrase from the “Handwörterbuch der Psychologie” states, “The prejudice of our own impartiality is the strongest prejudice of all”(Asanger, & Wenninger, p. 539). Gender stereotype refers to the subjective perception of what a male or female should be or how one should behave. For example, a stereotypic Hong Kong Chinese person would perceive that females should be gentle, sympathetic and shy, whereas males should possess strong personality and leadership abilities (Fung, & Ma, 2000). Gender roles can change in alignment with changes in society. However, the Arima (2003) study determined that television advertisements in Japan still depicted the old gender stereotype of “men at work and women at home”, even though the rate of women attending college and of women in the working population has increased. Moreover, the younger generation in Japan supports the new gender stereotype of “men at work, women at both work and home”. In the US, television advertisements reflected gender role expectations, as well. Products that are assumed to appeal to female customers are presented exclusively by a female main character. Respectively, products predominantly designed for men, are exclusively presented by male characters (Blain, & McElroy, 2002). Although gender representation has been studied extensively in the US, little is known about the portrayal of gender stereotypes in German and Asian television advertisements. This study proposes to fill this gap by analysing German television advertisements and by comparing the findings to the results of latest studies on gender stereotypes in East Asia.

Communications

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A Sourcebook on Children and Television

Author : Nancy Signorielli
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This book grew out of the perceived need for an authoritative sourcebook and compendium of existing research. Each chapter consists of an extensive review of the literature and research relating to numerous aspects of the broad topic, including content, commercials, viewing habits, cognitive effects, behavioral effects, educational impact, and a brief history of children's programming. The first section focuses on the more formal aspects of television and how they relate to children. The second section examines the content and effects of television and the impact they may have on children's behavior and their ideas of the world.

Black Women s Portrayals on Reality Television

Author : Donnetrice C. Allison
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This book critically analyzes the portrayals of Black women in current reality television. Audiences are presented with a multitude of images of Black women fighting, arguing, and cursing at one another in this manufactured world of reality television. This perpetuation of negative, insidious racial and gender stereotypes influences how the U.S. views Black women. This stereotyping disrupts the process in which people are able to appreciate cultural and gender difference. Instead of celebrating the diverse symbols and meaning making that accompanies Black women's discourse and identities, reality television scripts an artificial or plastic image of Black women that reinforces extant stereotypes. This collection's contributors seek to uncover examples in reality television shows where instantiations of Black women's gendered, racial, and cultural difference is signified and made sinister.

Character Portrayals and Values in Network TV Commercials

Author : Cynthia Leone Scheibe
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Content Analysis of Roles Portrayed by Women in Advertisements in Selected South African Media

Author : Tania Maree
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Women have been portrayed in advertising in stereotypical roles for years. Typical stereotypes include the nurturing mother or the alluring seductress. Since the social climate and the roles of females have evolved through the years, the appropriate portrayal of women in today's media has become debatable. Findings from previous advertising research studies indicate that women are generally not depicted in powerful roles. This may limit the perceptions of women as it does not reflect their abilities and positions of power that they hold in real life. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the roles portrayed by women in magazine advertisements and television commercials in South Africa. Several secondary research objectives were set including inter alia the incidence of female models in advertisements and commercials, the ethnic representation of women in advertisements and commercials, and the types of products and services advertised using female models. Data were collected from full-page and double-page advertisements appearing in nine consumer magazines as well as commercials broadcasted during prime time on the four free-to-air television channels. The research method used was content analysis, which focused on the visual elements in advertisements and commercials - particularly the female model. The sample included 203 magazine advertisements and 245 television commercials. The results indicated that 55 per cent of magazine advertisements and 40 per cent of television commercials featured women. The findings also indicated various roles portrayed by women. The most prevalent role portrayal in magazine advertisements was that of a physically decorative woman (27%), typified as a woman that symbolises the physical ideal. In television commercials, women were most often depicted as product users, with 25 per cent of the portrayals showing a woman actually using or preparing to use the advertised product. The less prevalent portrayals included career woman, homemaker, mother, mannequin, romantic, sex object, social being, background elements as well as various other categories. From the other portrayals, the study has also identified new roles that had not been specifically identified in previous studies. The new roles identified in magazines were leisure woman and sportswoman, and in television commercials, customer and spokesperson. The results further revealed that women are used as visual attention-attracting focus points in advertisements across a range of different product or service categories. The product category that most often featured women in both media was personal care products (41% for magazine and 26% for television advertisements). The implications of the study are that South African advertisers need to consider the suitability of the models that are used to attract attention to their advertisements, as well as the fit between the role portrayal and the brand image. From a practical perspective, the study provides insight to advertisers regarding the relevance of female portrayals in advertising. One of the recommendations is that future research should be conducted to determine women's opinions on female portrayals in advertisements. The study contributes to the available literature on this topic in several ways. Firstly, current female roles in South African magazine and television advertising have been identified. Moreover, a number of new role portrayals were also identified and described. The information gained in the study could be utilised by other researchers as a basis for future studies.

Taking Sides

Author : Alison Alexander
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Abhigyan

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Guides to Library Collection Development

Author : John Thomas Gillespie
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Intended to enhance collection development in school, public, and college libraries, this volume lists and annotates approximately 1,500 significant bibliographies published from 1985 through 1993, with some earlier but still useful publications. Annotations indicate scope of the work, size (often the number of entries), kinds of material included, purpose, arrangement, nature of entries, indexes, special features, and a recommendation. Author, title, and subject indexes provide easy access to the entries. With its deep and comprehensive coverage, this work will help not only in the process of selecting and acquiring materials for the library but also in the process of identification of items for reference, readers' advisory, interlibrary loan, and collection evaluation.

The Female Profile in Arabic Television Programs and Advertisements

Author : Lyne Michel Sneige
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Research on sex role portrayal in television programs has been induced by the conclusion that television presents a highly influential factor in shaping people's attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of reality. The theme that has mostly guided studies of media content has been the relationship between media content and social reality. Several research findings dealing with the topic of female portrayal on television, have revealed that media content uses stereotypes of women. The use of content analysis in the study of female images in the media stresses two main ideas, the first holds that television has a moral obligation to serve, and therefore to represent all societal groups in an accurate and equitable manner. The second idea emphasizes the socializing role of television messages and their powerful influence in shaping the audience's attitudes and convictions. This research raises the following questions: Are women depicted in a stereotyped manner in Arabic programs and advertisements, on Lebanese television? If yes, are these images counteracted by alternative female models? What are the social consequences in any of the possibilities? Is Lebanese Television encouraging women to contribute to national and social development? It is hypothesized in the present research, that women are portrayed in a stereotyped and traditional manner in local and/or other Arabic programs and advertisements, broadcasted on Lebanese television. Moreover, it is believed that women are subject to discrimination, as the images propagated represent only one side of the story, and do not apply to all female profiles. The female depiction in the media has attracted a number of researchers over the years, alarmed by the stereotyped female characteristics propagated by the media, and mostly by television. An overview of previous research conducted in the West as well as in the Arab World, on the portrayal of women on television is presented in Chapter One. Chapter Two discusses the theoretical framework of the thesis. Although the study is rooted in several streams of thought, such as the Center for Comtemporary and Cultural Studies, The Critical Cultural Study movement, Althusser's Ideological State Apparatuses, Perception Theory, and Gerbner's Cultivation Theory, all these theories and views finally converge in the strong conviction that television messages are powerful socializing agencies in our contemporary societies, that should be closely controlled, and whose effects are not to be underestimated. In addition, Chapter Two also includes the hypotheses considered in the study. Chapter Three presents the study design of the thesis as well as the definitions of all the concepts along which the evaluation and discussion of the female characters portrayed in the films/series and advertisements is carried out. The study design discusses the research method adopted in the thesis, i.e. content analysis, as well as some practical details regarding the sample and the method of data collection.

Sex Role Portrayals on Commercial Broadcast Television

Author : Laura Lee Henderson
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Sociology

Author : David Popenoe
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Perspectives

Author : Michael Acker
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Feminisms

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