Reconstructing the Criminal

Culture, Law, and Policy in England, 1830-1914

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Author: Martin J. Wiener

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521478823

Category: History

Page: 381

View: 1434

An account of changing conceptions and treatments of criminality in Victorian and Edwardian Britain.

Crime and Society in England

1750 - 1900

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Author: Clive Emsley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317864492

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 1117

Acknowledged as one of the best introductions to the history of crime in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 examines thedevelopments in policing, the courts, and the penal system as England became increasingly industrialised and urbanised. The book challenges the old but still influential idea that crime can be attributed to the behaviour of a criminal class and that changes in the criminal justice system were principally the work of far-sighted, humanitarian reformers. In this fourth edition of his now classic account, Professor Emsley draws on new research that has shifted the focus from class to gender, from property crime to violent crime and towards media constructions of offenders, while still maintaining a balance with influential early work in the area. Wide-ranging and accessible, the new edition examines: the value of criminal statistics the effect that contemporary ideas about class and gender had on perceptions of criminality changes in the patterns of crime developments in policing and the spread of summary punishment the increasing formality of the courts the growth of the prison as the principal form of punishment and debates about the decline in corporal and capital punishments Thoroughly updated throughout, the fourth edition also includes, for the first time, illuminating contemporary illustrations.

Inventing the Criminal

A History of German Criminology, 1880-1945

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Author: Richard F. Wetzell

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807861049

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 9860

Recent years have witnessed a resurgence of biological research into the causes of crime, but the origins of this kind of research date back to the late nineteenth century. Here, Richard Wetzell presents the first history of German criminology from Imperial Germany through the Weimar Republic to the end of the Third Reich, a period that provided a unique test case for the perils associated with biological explanations of crime. Drawing on a wealth of primary sources from criminological, legal, and psychiatric literature, Wetzell shows that German biomedical research on crime predominated over sociological research and thus contributed to the rise of the eugenics movement and the eventual targeting of criminals for eugenic measures by the Nazi regime. However, he also demonstrates that the development of German criminology was characterized by a constant tension between the criminologists' hereditarian biases and an increasing methodological sophistication that prevented many of them from endorsing the crude genetic determinism and racism that characterized so much of Hitler's regime. As a result, proposals for the sterilization of criminals remained highly controversial during the Nazi years, suggesting that Nazi biological politics left more room for contention than has often been assumed.

Essays in the History of Canadian Law

Quebec and the Canadas

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Author: George Blaine Baker,Donald Fyson

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442670061

Category: History

Page: 608

View: 7251

The essays in this volume deal with the legal history of the Province of Quebec, Upper and Lower Canada, and the Province of Canada between the British conquest of 1759 and confederation of the British North America colonies in 1867. The backbone of the modern Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec, this geographic area was unified politically for more than half of the period under consideration. As such, four of the papers are set in the geographic cradle of modern Quebec, four treat nineteenth-century Ontario, and the remaining four deal with the St. Lawrence and Great Lakes watershed as a whole. The authors come from disciplines as diverse as history, socio-legal studies, women’s studies, and law. The majority make substantial use of second-language sources in their essays, which shade into intellectual history, social and family history, regulatory history, and political history.

A New Companion to Victorian Literature and Culture

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Author: Herbert F. Tucker

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118624483

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 584

View: 6233

The Victorian period was a time of rapid cultural change, whichresulted in a huge and varied literary output. A New Companionto Victorian Literature and Culture offers experienced guidanceto the literature of nineteenth-century Britain and its social andhistorical context. This revised and expanded edition comprisescontributions from over 30 leading scholars who, approaching theVictorian epoch from different positions and traditions, delve intothe unruly complexities of the Victorian imagination. Divided into five parts, this new companion surveys sevendecades of history before examining the keys phases in a Victorianlife, the leading professions and walks of life, the majorVictorian literary genres, and the way Victorians defined theirpersons, their homes, and their national identities. Importanttopics such as sexuality, denominational faith, social class, andglobal empire inform each chapter’s approach. Each chapterprovides a comprehensive bibliography of established and emergingscholarship.

Inventing the Public Enemy

The Gangster in American Culture, 1918-1934

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Author: David E. Ruth

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226732183

Category: History

Page: 190

View: 6852

In this richly detailed account of mass media images, David Ruth looks at Al Capone and other "invented" gangsters of the 1920s and 1930s. The subject of innumerable newspaper and magazine articles, scores of novels, and hundreds of Hollywood movies, the gangster was a compelling figure for Americans preoccupied with crime and the social turmoil it symbolized. Ruth shows that the media gangster was less a reflection of reality than a projection created from Americans' values, concerns, and ideas about what would sell. We see efficient criminal executives demonstrating the multifarious uses of organization; dapper, big-spending gangsters highlighting the promises and perils of the emerging consumer society; and gunmen and molls guiding an uncertain public through the shifting terrain of modern gender roles. In this fascinating study, Ruth reveals how the public enemy provides a far-ranging critique of modern culture.

Victorians Against the Gallows

Capital Punishment and the Abolitionist Movement in Nineteenth Century Britain

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Author: James Gregory

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 0857730886

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 9414

By the time that Queen Victoria ascended the throne in 1837, the list of crimes liable to attract the death penalty had effectively been reduced to murder. Yet, despite this, the gallows remained a source of controversy in Victorian Britain and there was a growing unease in liberal quarters surrounding the question of capital punishment. In this book, James Gregory examines organised efforts to abolish capital punishment in Britain and the Empire in the Victorian era, focusing particularly on the activities of the Society for the Abolition of Capital Punishment. The amelioration of the notoriously ‘Bloody Code’ of the British state may have limited capital punishment effectively to a small number of murderers after 1840 but, despite this, capital punishment was a matter of perennial debate, from the local arena of school debating societies to the ‘imperial Parliament’, and a topic to trouble the minds of thoughtful Victorians across the British world. Drawing on a wide range of sources, from pamphlets by abolitionists or their opponents to gallows broadsides, official inquiries, provincial newspapers, novels and short stories, Gregory studies a movement acknowledged by contemporaries to be agitating one of the ‘questions of the day’ - challenging as it did contemporary theology, state infliction of violence, and prevalent ideas about punishment. He explores important aspects such as: capital punishment debates in the ‘Lex Britannica’ of British colonies and dominions, the role of women abolitionists and the class and gendered inflexions to the ‘gallows question’, the representation of the problem of capital punishment in Victorian fiction, and the relationship between abolitionists and the Home Office which exercised the royal prerogative of mercy. While the abolitionism of Nonconformist reformers such as the Quakers and Unitarians is familiar, Gregory introduces the reader to the abolitionist debates in Jewish, secularist and spiritualist circles, and explores themes such as the imagined role of the Queen as ‘fount of mercy’ and the disturbing figure of the hangman. Studying the provincial, national and international aspects to the movement, Victorians Against the Gallows offers an important contribution to our understanding of Victorian reform activities, and Victorian culture.

Reconstructing Criminality in Latin America

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Author: Carlos A. Aguirre,Robert Buffington

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

ISBN: 146164187X

Category: History

Page: 254

View: 7648

The only reader currently available on criminality in Latin America, Reconstructing Criminality in Latin America reconstructs the way in which different Latin American societies have viewed, described, defined, and reacted to criminal behavior. Crime in Latin America is explored in terms of gender, race, class, and criminological theory. The highly readable essays in this book explore how Catholic notions of sin, natural law, the "divine" rights of absolutist monarchs, liberal rights of "man," positivism, and social Darwinism received a sympathetic, even enthusiastic, endorsement from policy makers throughout Latin America. Reconstructing Criminality in Latin America also shows how new methodologies have given scholars deeper insight into the significance of crime in Latin American societies. The selections testify that the insights of scholars like Eric Hobsbawm and Michel Foucault are the foundations of modern histories of crime in Latin America. This book is ideal for criminal justice, sociology, and Latin American social history courses.

Child Sexual Abuse in Victorian England

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Author: Louise A. Jackson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134736649

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 6090

Child Sexual Abuse in Victorian England is the first detailed investigation of the way that child abuse was discovered, debated, diagnosed and dealt with in the Victorian and Edwardian periods. The focus is placed on the child and his or her experience of court procedure and welfare practice, thereby providing a unique and important evaluation of the treatment of children in the courtroom. Through a series of case studies, including analyses of the criminal courts, the author examines the impact of legislation at grass roots level, and demonstrates why this was a formative period in the legal definition of sexual abuse. Providing a much-needed insight into Victorian attitudes, including that of Christian morality, this book makes a distinctive contribution to the history of crime, social welfare and the family. It also offers a valuable critique of current work on the history of children's homes and institutions, arguing that the inter-personal relationships of children and carers is a crucial area of study.

Identifying the English

A History of Personal Identification 1500 to the Present

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Author: Edward Higgs

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441138013

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 3895

Personal identification is very much a live political issue in Britain and this book looks at why this is the case, and why, paradoxically, the theft of identity has become ever more common as the means of identification have multiplied. Identifying the English looks not only at how criminals have been identified - branding, fingerprinting, DNA - but also at the identification of the individual with seals and signatures, of the citizen by means of passports and ID cards, and of the corpse. Beginning his history in the medieval period, Edward Higgs reveals how it was not the Industrial Revolution that brought the most radical changes in identification techniques, as many have assumed, but rather the changing nature of the State and commerce, and their relationship with citizens and customers. In the twentieth century the very different historical techniques have converged on the holding of information on databases, and increasingly on biometrics, and the multiplication of these external databases outside the control of individuals has continued to undermine personal identity security.