Search results for: rare-earths

Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths

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This volume of the Handbook illustrates the rich variety of topics covered by rare earth science. Three chapters are devoted to the description of solid state compounds: skutterudites (Chapter 211), rare earth -antimony systems (Chapter 212), and rare earth-manganese perovskites (Chapter 214). Two other reviews deal with solid state properties: one contribution includes information on existing thermodynamic data of lanthanide trihalides (Chapter 213) while the other one describes optical properties of rare earth compounds under pressure (Chapter 217). Finally, two chapters focus on solution chemistry. The state of the art in unraveling solution structure of lanthanide-containing coordination compounds by paramagnetic nuclear magnetic resonance is outlined in Chapter 215. The potential of time-resolved, laser-induced emission spectroscopy for the analysis of lanthanide and actinide solutions is presented and critically discussed in Chapter 216.

Wind Energy Deployment and the Relevance of Rare Earths

Author : Anja Brumme
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The worldwide deployment of wind power plants is soaring. Yet the availability of their construction materials could be a potential bottleneck. As rare earth elements represent the most critical materials, Anja Brumme provides a market analysis of rare earths, ascertaining that geological scarcity is not the main problem. Instead, the author identifies four kinds of market failure: market power, co-production, by-production and negative externalities. It becomes apparent that the market for rare earth metals is in a state of severe disequilibrium. Subsequently, her estimate of future rare earth demand patterns based on the wind power industry by 2050 reveals that the current level of supply is unlikely to be sufficient in the long run. To allow for a more elaborate analysis, the author suggests two options of including a rare earth side condition in an integrated assessment model.

Rare Earths

Author : E. Nieboer
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Rare Earths Industry

Author : Ismar Borges De Lima
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Rare Earths elements are composed of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table. Scandium and yttrium have similar properties, with mineral assemblages, and are therefore referred alike in the literature. Although abundant in the planet surface, the Rare Earths are not found in concentrated forms, thus making them economically valued as they are so challenging to obtain. Rare Earths Industry: Technological, Economic and Environmental Implications provides an interdisciplinary orientation to the topic of Rare Earths with a focus on technical, scientific, academic, economic, and environmental issues. Part I of book deals with the Rare Earths Reserves and Mining, Part II focuses on Rare Earths Processes and High-Tech Product Development, and Part III deals with Rare Earths Recycling Opportunities and Challenges. The chapters provide updated information and priceless analysis of the theme, and they seek to present the latest techniques, approaches, processes and technologies that can reduce the costs of compliance with environmental concerns in a way it is possible to anticipate and mitigate emerging problems. Discusses the influence of policy on Rare Earth Elements to help raise interest in developing strategies for management resource development and exploitation Global contributions will address solutions in countries that are high RE producers, including China, Brazil, Australia, and South China End of chapter critical summaries outline the technological, economic and environmental implications of rare earths reserves, exploration and market Provides a concise, but meaningful, geopolitical analysis of the current worldwide scenario and importance of rare earths exploration for governments, corporate groups, and local stakeholders

Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths

Author : Nagaiyar Krishnamurthy
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New Edition Now Covers Recycling, Environmental Issues, and Analytical Determination Employing four decades of experience in the rare metal and rare earths industry, the authors of Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition present the entire subject of rare earth elements with depth and accuracy. This second edition updates the most important developments from the past 10 years. It emphasizes advances made in rare-earth materials processing (converting a rare-earth metal, alloy, or compound to a device-ready material), breakthroughs in the area of rare-earth separation, and now includes a chapter on the recycling of rare earth elements from magnets, batteries, and phosphors among others, covering both manufacturing scrap or materials in end of life devices. Essential to Your Collection This second edition presents comprehensive, detailed, and up-to-date coverage that includes: All aspects of rare earth extractive metallurgy A status of rare earth extraction from various world resources Flow sheets that can be used for rare earths separation, metal reduction, alloy making, refining and end product materials preparation Techniques of various rare earths recycling options An outline of environmental issues in rare earths mining and processing Methods of rare earths determination and analyses of components and impurities in rare earth materials Information extensively linked to primary literature with a complete listing of references A narration of the changing scenario of world rare earth resources and possibility of their exploitation An indispensable resource, Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition explains the many aspects of rare earth extractive metallurgy clearly and systematically. The text reveals process implementation possibilities and research opportunities, and considers potential solutions to the challenges impacting this rapidly changing industry.

Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths

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Optical spectroscopy has been instrumental in the discovery of many lanthanide elements. In return, these elements have always played a prominent role in lighting devices and light conversion technologies (Auer mantles, incandescent lamps, lasers, cathode-ray and plasma displays). They are also presently used in highly sensitive luminescent bio-analyses and cell imaging. This volume of the Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths is entirely devoted to the photophysical properties of these elements. It is dedicated to the late Professor William T (Bill) Carnall who has pioneered the understanding of lanthanide spectra in the 1960’s and starts with a Dedication to this scientist. The following five chapters describe various aspects of lanthanide spectroscopy and its applications. Chapters 231 presents state-of-the-art theoretical calculations of lanthanide energy levels and transition intensities. It is followed by a review (Chapter 232) on both theoretical and experimental aspects of f-d transitions, a less well known field of lanthanide spectroscopy, yet very important for the design of new optical materials. Chapter 233 describes how confinement effects act on the photophysical properties of lanthanides when they are inserted into nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanosheets, nanowires, nanotubes, insulating and semiconductor nanocrystals. The use of lanthanide chelates for biomedical analyses is presented in Chapter 234; long lifetimes of the excited states of lanthanide ions allow the use of time-resolved spectroscopy, which leads to highly sensitive analyses devoid of background effect from the autofluorescence of the samples. The last review (Chapter 235) provides a comprehensive survey of near-infrared (NIR) emitting molecular probes and devices, spanning an all range of compounds, from simple chelates to macrocyclic complexes, heterometallic functional edifices, coordination polymers and other extended structures. Applications ranging from telecommunications to light-emitting diodes and biomedical analyses are assessed. - Provides a comprehensive look at optical spectroscopy and its applications - A volume in the continuing authoritative series which deals with the chemistry, materials science, physics and technology of the rare earth elements

Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths

Author : Nagaiyar Krishnamurthy
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Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths compiles information from scattered sources that is often available only to specialists. It provides a complete and usable survey of the rare earth resources, extraction, and production of numerous end products that translates to both laboratory and industrial settings. This book is a source of industry expertis

Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths

Author : J.-C. G. Bünzli
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The rare earths represent a group of chemical elements, the lanthanides, together with scandium and yttrium, which exhibit similar chemical properties. They are strategically important to developed and developing nations as they have a wide variety of applications in catalysis, the defense industry, aerospace, the materials and life sciences and in sustainable energy technologies. The Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of the Rare Earths is a continuing authoritative series that deals with the science and technology of the rare earth elements in an integrated manner. Each chapter is a comprehensive, up-to-date, critical review of a particular segment of the field. The work offers the researcher and graduate student a complete and thorough coverage of this fascinating field. Individual chapters are comprehensive, broad, critical reviews Contributions are written by highly experienced, invited experts Gives an up-to-date overview of developments in the field

Handbook on Rare Earth Metals and Alloys Properties Extraction Preparation and Applications

Author : NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
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Rare earths are essential constituents of more than 100 mineral species and present in many more through substitution. They have a marked geochemical affinity for calcium, titanium, niobium, zirconium, fluoride, phosphate and carbonate ions. Industrially important minerals, which are utilized at present for rare earths production, are essentially three, namely monazite, bastnasite and xenotime. In modern time techniques for exploration of rare earths and yttrium minerals include geologic identification of environments of deposition and surface as well as airborne reconnaissance with magnetometric and radiometric equipment. There are numerous applications of rare earths such as in glass making industry, cracking catalysts, electronic and optoelectronic devices, medical technology, nuclear technology, agriculture, plastic industry etc. Lot of metals and alloys called rare earth are lying in the earth which required to be processed. Some of the important elements extracted from rare earths are uranium, lithium, beryllium, selenium, platinum metals, tantalum, silicon, molybdenum, manganese, chromium, cadmium, titanium, tungsten, zirconium etc. There are different methods involved in production of metals and non metals from rare earths for example; separation, primary crushing, secondary crushing, wet grinding, dry grinding etc. The rare earths are silver, silverymwhite, or gray metals; they have a high luster, but tarnish readily in air, have high electrical conductivity. The rare earths share many common properties this makes them difficult to separate or even distinguish from each other. There are very small differences in solubility and complex formation between the rare earths. The rare earth metals naturally occur together in minerals. Rare earths are found with non metals, usually in the 3+ oxidation state. At present all the rare earth resources in India are in the form of placer monazite deposits, which also carry other industrially important minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, sillimanite and garnet. Some of the fundamentals of the book are commercially important rare earth minerals, exploration for rare earth resources, rare earth resources of the world, some rare earth minerals and their approximate compositions, rare earths in cracking catalysts, rare earth based phosphors, interdependence of applications and production of rare earths, uranium alloys, conversion of ores to lithium chemicals, characterization and analysis of very pure silicon, derivation of molybdenum metal, electoplating and chromizing, electrolytic production of titanium, heat treatment of titanium alloys, tensile properties of alloys etc. The book covers occurrence of rare earth, resources of the world, production of lithium metals, compounds derived from the metals, chemical properties of beryllium, uses of selenium, derivation of molybdenum metals, ore concentration and treatment and many more. This is a unique book of its kind, which will be a great asset for scientists, researchers, technocrats and entrepreneurs.

Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths

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This volume of the Handbook adds five new chapters to the science of rare earths. Two of the chapters deal with intermetallic compounds. An overview of ternary systems containing rare earths, transition metals and indium – Chapter 218 – opens the volume. It is followed by Chapter 219 sorting out relationships between superconductivity and magnetism. The next two chapters are dedicated to complex compounds of rare earths: Chapter 220 describes structural studies using circularly polarized luminescence spectroscopy of lanthanide systems, while Chapter 221 examines rare-earth metal-organic frameworks, also known as coordination polymers. The final Chapter 222 deals with the catalytic activity of rare earths in site-selective hydrolysis of DNA and RNA.