Problem-Solving Exercises in Green and Sustainable Chemistry

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Author: Albert S. Matlack,Andrew P. Dicks

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482252589

Category: Science

Page: 175

View: 3063

When confronted with a problem in science, the way to proceed is not always obvious. The problem may seem intractable or there may be many possible solutions, with some better than others. Problem-Solving Exercises in Green and Sustainable Chemistry teaches students how to analyze and solve real-world problems that occur in an environmental context, and it encourages creativity in developing solutions to situations based on events that have actually taken place. The problems described in this book are relevant and stimulating in learning and understanding the principles of green and sustainable chemistry. They address various aspects of the field, including: Toxicity Waste generation and disposal Chemical accidents Energy efficiency New policy development The final chapter contains proposed solutions to the presented problems and provides commentaries and references to relevant literature. This book also prompts students to become more comfortable with the idea of multiple "correct" answers to problems. It emphasizes the reality that green chemistry is about making practical decisions and weighing multiple factors that are often conflicting, thus making it difficult or impossible to apply one perfect solution to a given situation. Problem-Solving Exercises in Green and Sustainable Chemistry prepares students to solve challenging problems, whether as green chemists, as architects designing energy-efficient buildings, or as environmentally-conscious citizens.

Alternative Solvents for Green Chemistry

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Author: Francesca Kerton,Ray Marriott

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782626131

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 1113

Everyone is becoming more environmentally conscious and therefore, chemical processes are being developed with their environmental burden in mind. This also means that more traditional chemical methods are being replaced with new innovations and this includes new solvents. Solvents are everywhere, but how necessary are they? They are used in most areas including synthetic chemistry, analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical production and processing, the food and flavour industry and the materials and coatings sectors. However, the principles of green chemistry guide us to use less of them, or to use safer, more environmentally friendly solvents if they are essential. Therefore, we should always ask ourselves, do we really need a solvent? Green chemistry, as a relatively new sub-discipline, is a rapidly growing field of research. Alternative solvents - including supercritical fluids and room temperature ionic liquids - form a significant portion of research in green chemistry. This is in part due to the hazards of many conventional solvents (e.g. toxicity and flammability) and the significant contribution that solvents make to the waste generated in many chemical processes. Solvents are important in analytical chemistry, product purification, extraction and separation technologies, and also in the modification of materials. Therefore, in order to make chemistry more sustainable in these fields, a knowledge of alternative, greener solvents is important. This book, which is part of a green chemistry series, uses examples that tie in with the 12 principles of green chemistry e.g. atom efficient reactions in benign solvents and processing of renewable chemicals/materials in green solvents. Readers get an overview of the many different kinds of solvents, written in such a way to make the book appropriate to newcomers to the field and prepare them for the 'green choices' available. The book also removes some of the mystique associated with 'alternative solvent' choices and includes information on solvents in different fields of chemistry such as analytical and materials chemistry in addition to catalysis and synthesis. The latest research developments, not covered elsewhere, are included such as switchable solvents and biosolvents. Also, some important areas that are often overlooked are described such as naturally sourced solvents (including ethanol and ethyl lactate) and liquid polymers (including poly(ethyleneglycol) and poly(dimethylsiloxane)). As well as these additional alternative solvents being included, the book takes a more general approach to solvents, not just focusing on the use of solvents in synthetic chemistry. Applications of solvents in areas such as analysis are overviewed in addition to the more widely recognised uses of alternative solvents in organic synthesis. Unfortunately, as the book shows, there is no universal green solvent and readers must ascertain their best options based on prior chemistry, cost, environmental benefits and other factors. It is important to try and minimize the number of solvent changes in a chemical process and therefore, the importance of solvents in product purification, extraction and separation technologies are highlighted. The book is aimed at newcomers to the field whether research students beginning investigations towards their thesis or industrial researchers curious to find out if an alternative solvent would be suitable in their work.

Sustainable Green Chemistry

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Author: Mark Anthony Benvenuto

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110435853

Category: Science

Page: 125

View: 1697

Sustainable Green Chemistry, the 1st volume of Green Chemical Processing, covers several key aspects of modern green processing. The scope of this volume goes beyond bio- and organic chemistry, highlighting the ecological and economic benefits of enhanced sustainability in such diverse fields as petrochemistry, metal production and wastewater treatment. The authors discuss recent progresses and challenges in the implementation of green chemical processes as well as their transfer from academia to industry and teaching at all levels. Selected successes in the greening of established processes and reactions are presented, including the use of switchable polarity solvents, actinide recovery using ionic liquids, and the removal of the ubiquitous bisphenol A molecule from effluent streams by phytodegradation.

Global Sustainable Development and Renewable Energy Systems

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Author: Olla, Phillip

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1466616261

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 354

View: 7975

Over the past decade, the use of Renewable Energy Technology (RET) has significantly increased around the globe. Technologies that once were considered experimental are now being deployed on commercial scales at phenomenal rates, delivering cost-effective substitutions for conventional, fossil fuel-based systems that cause problems including greenhouse gas emissions, expensive operating costs, and global pollution. But these new systems come at a costly rate, and because of this, officials must review their overall efficiency and effectiveness. Global Sustainable Development and Renewable Energy Systems pushes through the boundaries of current research to introduce the concept of an energy management information system, exploring the role of energy for sustainable development. This book goes into great detail describing the benefits of these systems for organizations, focusing on corporate sustainability initiatives and activities to combat climate change. Research presented in this publication includes modeling techniques, software applications, and case studies that reveal how renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, and biomass fuel can have a significant implications for both operating costs and environmental impacts.

Handbook of Green Analytical Chemistry

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Author: de la Guardia,Salvador Garrigues

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111994094X

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 6983

The emerging field of green analytical chemistry is concerned with the development of analytical procedures that minimize consumption of hazardous reagents and solvents, and maximize safety for operators and the environment. In recent years there have been significant developments in methodological and technological tools to prevent and reduce the deleterious effects of analytical activities; key strategies include recycling, replacement, reduction and detoxification of reagents and solvents. The Handbook of Green Analytical Chemistry provides a comprehensive overview of the present state and recent developments in green chemical analysis. A series of detailed chapters, written by international specialists in the field, discuss the fundamental principles of green analytical chemistry and present a catalogue of tools for developing environmentally friendly analytical techniques. Topics covered include: Concepts: Fundamental principles, education, laboratory experiments and publication in green analytical chemistry. The Analytical Process: Green sampling techniques and sample preparation, direct analysis of samples, green methods for capillary electrophoresis, chromatography, atomic spectroscopy, solid phase molecular spectroscopy, derivative molecular spectroscopy and electroanalytical methods. Strategies: Energy saving, automation, miniaturization and photocatalytic treatment of laboratory wastes. Fields of Application: Green bioanalytical chemistry, biodiagnostics, environmental analysis and industrial analysis. This advanced handbook is a practical resource for experienced analytical chemists who are interested in implementing green approaches in their work.

Sustainability in the Chemical Industry

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Author: Eric Johnson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940073834X

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 8277

It’s the new rock and roll. It’s the new black. Sustainability is trendy, and not just among hipsters and pop stars. The uncool chemical sector helped pioneer it, and today, companies inside and outside the sector have embraced it. But what have they embraced? Surely not the Brundtland definition of meeting “the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Sustainability describes a change in the chemical industry’s approach to the external world: to regulators, to greens, to neighbors, to investors and to the general public. Displacing the adversarialism of the 1970s-80s, sustainability is a new approach to social/political conflict, and an attempt to rebuild the industry’s long-suffering public image. In practice, it consists of: A ‘stakeholder’ approach to communications and external relations A rebranding of regulatory compliance and risk management, with the emphasis on their benefits to stakeholders Recognition (and even celebration) of the opportunities, not just the costs, of environmental and social protection The core of this book is a survey of the world’s 29 largest chemical companies: how they put sustainability into action (six of the 29 do not), and the six ‘sustainability brands’ they have created. It begins with a history of stakeholders conflict, before looking at various definitions of sustainability – by academics, by the public and by investors. After the survey and analysis, the book covers sustainability and ‘greenwash’ plus the ROI of sustainability, and it gives five recommendations.

Green Chemistry for Environmental Sustainability

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Author: Sanjay K. Sharma,Ackmez Mudhoo

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439824740

Category: Nature

Page: 450

View: 2046

When the Nobel Prize Committee recognized the importance of green chemistry with its 2005 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, this relatively new science came into its own. Although no concerted agreement has been reached yet about the exact content and limits of this interdisciplinary discipline, there seems to be increasing interest in environmental topics that are based on the chemistry embodied in this subject. Linking green chemistry practice to environmental sustainability, Green Chemistry for Environmental Sustainability illustrates the efforts being made to remediate a scathed environment into a pristine one. Links Green Chemistry Practice to Environmental Sustainability Eminent international experts present research on and the application of green chemistry and engineering in addressing current issues of an environmental and social nature. They cover sustainable development and environmental sustainability with chapters on green chemistry and engineering research, the design and synthesis of environmentally benign chemical processes, green approaches to minimize and/or remediate environmental pollution, the development of biomaterials, biofuel, and bioenergy production, biocatalysis, and policies and ethics in green chemistry. The book also explores economics, environmentally benign technologies for greener processes, computational methods and modeling, and green approaches to minimize air and water. Green chemistry has brought a relatively prompt and positive paradigm shift in the overall use and management of natural resources and raw materials for the development of society with a subtle promise to cause far less pronounced harm to the environment. This text provides insight into the chemical and biochemical technologies that are being studied, optimized, and eventually developed to promote environmental sustainability. It provides up-to-date information on selected fields where the principles of green chemistry are being embraced for safeguarding and improving the quality of the environment.

Chemistry Education in the ICT Age

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Author: Minu Gupta Bhowon,Sabina Jhaumeer-Laulloo,Henri Li Kam Wah,Ponnadurai Ramasami

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402097324

Category: Science

Page: 447

View: 3219

th th The 20 International Conference on Chemical Education (20 ICCE), which had rd th “Chemistry in the ICT Age” as the theme, was held from 3 to 8 August 2008 at Le Méridien Hotel, Pointe aux Piments, in Mauritius. With more than 200 participants from 40 countries, the conference featured 140 oral and 50 poster presentations. th Participants of the 20 ICCE were invited to submit full papers and the latter were subjected to peer review. The selected accepted papers are collected in this book of proceedings. This book of proceedings encloses 39 presentations covering topics ranging from fundamental to applied chemistry, such as Arts and Chemistry Education, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chemical Education for Development, Chemistry at Secondary Level, Chemistry at Tertiary Level, Chemistry Teacher Education, Chemistry and Society, Chemistry Olympiad, Context Oriented Chemistry, ICT and Chemistry Education, Green Chemistry, Micro Scale Chemistry, Modern Technologies in Chemistry Education, Network for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Education, Public Understanding of Chemistry, Research in Chemistry Education and Science Education at Elementary Level. We would like to thank those who submitted the full papers and the reviewers for their timely help in assessing the papers for publication. th We would also like to pay a special tribute to all the sponsors of the 20 ICCE and, in particular, the Tertiary Education Commission (http://tec.intnet.mu/) and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (http://www.opcw.org/) for kindly agreeing to fund the publication of these proceedings.

Book of abstracts

2000 International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies, Pacifichem 2000 : Honolulu, Hawaii, December 14-19, 2000

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Author: American Chemical Society

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780841237759

Category: Chemistry

Page: N.A

View: 6874