Search results for: power-systems-resilience

Power Systems Resilience

Author : Naser Mahdavi Tabatabaei
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This book presents intuitive explanations of the principles and applications of power system resiliency, as well as a number of straightforward and practical methods for the impact analysis of risk events on power system operations. It also describes the challenges of modelling, distribution networks, optimal scheduling, multi-stage planning, deliberate attacks, cyber-physical systems and SCADA-based smart grids, and how to overcome these challenges. Further, it highlights the resiliency issues using various methods, including strengthening the system against high impact events with low frequency and the fast recovery of the system properties. A large number of specialists have collaborated to provide innovative solutions and research in power systems resiliency. They discuss the fundamentals and contemporary materials of power systems resiliency, theoretical and practical issues, as well as current issues and methods for controlling the risk attacks and other threats to AC power systems. The book includes theoretical research, significant results, case studies, and practical implementation processes to offer insights into electric power and engineering and energy systems. Showing how systems should respond in case of malicious attacks, and helping readers to decide on the best approaches, this book is essential reading for electrical engineers, researchers and specialists. The book is also useful as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students studying the resiliency and reliability of power systems.

Power System Resilience Under Natural Disasters

Author : Yushi Tan
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Power systems are not likely to remain unscathed by natural disasters such as earthquake, hurricanes, ice storms, as evident from the recent Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma. The outages will last days or even weeks because of the amount of damaged components. And the impacts are aecting the economies, public health and communities especially those that are already facing challenges. This motivates us to study methods of improving resilience in both operational stage and planning stage. We believe this is an interdisciplinary research from several aspects, 1) There has been no consensus on the definition of power system resilience under natural disasters. And in fact, this research direction only becomes hot in recent 4 or 5 years. However, the concept of infrastructure resilience has been prevailing and well-studied in civil engineering. After summarizing previous efforts on defining and quantifying of resilience including those adapted to power systems, we base our work on the resilient measure derived from operability trajectory and develop an equivalent measure of harm that has clearer power system meanings. 2) The knowledge of power systems guides us to focus on electricity distribution systems, where we believe the resilience has more potential for improvement. We start with the case of fully automated radial distribution network, and then move on to partially automated radial distribution network and finally find a way to handle the uncertainties in repair time. After consulting with industry experts, we relax certain operational constraints to make the problems (slightly but enough) easier to solve without compromising their practicality in field. Built upon the operation problems, we formulate the quantification and assessment of resilience in the planning stage, which will help electric utilities decide how best to spread the budget to improve the resilience. 3) Unfortunately, none of the problems described above are easy to solve in terms of the computational complexity. In particular, the operational problems might need to be solved in real time repeatedly and MILP formulations, though straightforward, are too slow in practice. We adopt the settings of scheduling theory and propose the first of its kind, soft precedence constraints, to model the relaxed load flow equations in radial distribution networks. And for the assessment of resilience in the planning stage, we simplify the operational problem by using a single crew approximation with only a constant away from optimal. This allows us to reformulate the distribution systems hardening problem into a combinatorial optimization with the flavor of the multiple knapsack problem. To summarize, this research aims to develop good algorithms and heuristics for problems under the framework of power system resilience adapted from the concept of infrastructure resilience.

Resilient Energy Systems

Author : Ion Bostan
File Size : 80.70 MB
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Renewable energy systems are playing an important role in the current discourse on energy security and sustainability. Scientific, engineering and economic solutions are adopted, and their is a constant effort to understand mechanisms and options to allow a faster penetration of renewable systems in the current energy mix and energy market. Readers of this book will have access to information, engineering design and economic solutions for harvesting local and regional energy potential by means of solar, wind, hydro resources. It will enable graduate students, researchers, promoters of sustainable energy technologies,consulting engineering experts, knowledgeable public to understand the solutions, methods, techniques suitable for different phases of design and implementation of a large selection of renewable energy technologies, and to identify their sustainability in application and policy.

Resilient Power Systems

Author :
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Communications Cyber Resilience and the Future of the U S Electric Power System

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
File Size : 25.18 MB
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Electric power is a critical infrastructure that is vital to the U.S. economy and national security. Today, the nation's electric power infrastructure is threatened by malicious attacks, accidents, and failures, as well as disruptive natural events. As the electric grid evolves and becomes increasingly interdependent with other critical infrastructures, the nation is challenged to defend against these threats and to advance grid capabilities with reliable defenses. On November 1, 2019, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to gather diverse perspectives on current and future threats to the electric power system, activities that the subsector is pursuing to defend itself, and how this work may evolve over the coming decades. This publications summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Recent Developments on Industrial Control Systems Resilience

Author : Emil Pricop
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This book provides profound insights into industrial control system resilience, exploring fundamental and advanced topics and including practical examples and scenarios to support the theoretical approaches. It examines issues related to the safe operation of control systems, risk analysis and assessment, use of attack graphs to evaluate the resiliency of control systems, preventive maintenance, and malware detection and analysis. The book also discusses sensor networks and Internet of Things devices. Moreover, it covers timely responses to malicious attacks and hazardous situations, helping readers select the best approaches to handle such unwanted situations. The book is essential reading for engineers, researchers, and specialists addressing security and safety issues related to the implementation of modern industrial control systems. It is also a valuable resource for students interested in this area.

The Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters

Author : National Research Council
File Size : 79.96 MB
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The Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters is the summary of a workshop convened in February 2013 as a follow-up to the release of the National Research Council report Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. That report had been written in 2007 for the Department of Homeland Security, but publication was delayed because of security concerns. While most of the committee's findings were still relevant, many developments affecting vulnerability had occurred in the interval. The 2013 workshop was a discussion of the committee\'s results, what had changed in recent years, and how lessons learned about the grid's resilience to terrorism could be applied to other threats to the grid resulting from natural disasters. The purpose was not to translate the entire report into the present, but to focus on key issues relevant to making the grid sufficiently robust that it could handle inevitable failures without disastrous impact. The workshop focused on five key areas: physical vulnerabilities of the grid; cybersecurity; mitigation and response to outages; community resilience and the provision of critical services; and future technologies and policies that could enhance the resilience of the electric power delivery system. The electric power transmission and distribution system (the grid) is an extraordinarily complex network of wires, transformers, and associated equipment and control software designed to transmit electricity from where it is generated, usually in centralized power plants, to commercial, residential, and industrial users. Because the U.S. infrastructure has become increasingly dependent on electricity, vulnerabilities in the grid have the potential to cascade well beyond whether the lights turn on, impacting among other basic services such as the fueling infrastructure, the economic system, and emergency services. The Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters discusses physical vulnerabilities and the cybersecurity of the grid, ways in which communities respond to widespread outages and how to minimize these impacts, the grid of tomorrow, and how resilience can be encouraged and built into the grid in the future.

Resilience and Critical Power System Infrastructure

Author : Amy Schweikert
File Size : 29.12 MB
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Power System Control Under Cascading Failures

Author : Kai Sun
File Size : 25.14 MB
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Offers a comprehensive introduction to the issues of control of power systems during cascading outages and restoration process Power System Control Under Cascading Failures offers comprehensive coverage of three major topics related to prevention of cascading power outages in a power transmission grid: modelling and analysis, system separation and power system restoration. The book examines modelling and analysis of cascading failures for reliable and efficient simulation and better understanding of important mechanisms, root causes and propagation patterns of failures and power outages. Second, it covers controlled system separation to mitigate cascading failures addressing key questions such as where, when and how to separate. Third, the text explores optimal system restoration from cascading power outages and blackouts by well-designed milestones, optimised procedures and emerging techniques. The authors — noted experts in the field — include state-of-the-art methods that are illustrated in detail as well as practical examples that show how to use them to address realistic problems and improve current practices. This important resource: Contains comprehensive coverage of a focused area of cascading power system outages, addressing modelling and analysis, system separation and power system restoration Offers a description of theoretical models to analyse outages, methods to identify control actions to prevent propagation of outages and restore the system Suggests state-of-the-art methods that are illustrated in detail with hands-on examples that address realistic problems to help improve current practices Includes companion website with samples, codes and examples to support the text Written for postgraduate students, researchers, specialists, planners and operation engineers from industry, Power System Control Under Cascading Failures contains a review of a focused area of cascading power system outages, addresses modelling and analysis, system separation, and power system restoration.

Enhancing the Resilience of the Nation s Electricity System

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Americans' safety, productivity, comfort, and convenience depend on the reliable supply of electric power. The electric power system is a complex "cyber-physical" system composed of a network of millions of components spread out across the continent. These components are owned, operated, and regulated by thousands of different entities. Power system operators work hard to assure safe and reliable service, but large outages occasionally happen. Given the nature of the system, there is simply no way that outages can be completely avoided, no matter how much time and money is devoted to such an effort. The system's reliability and resilience can be improved but never made perfect. Thus, system owners, operators, and regulators must prioritize their investments based on potential benefits. Enhancing the Resilience of the Nation's Electricity System focuses on identifying, developing, and implementing strategies to increase the power system's resilience in the face of events that can cause large-area, long-duration outages: blackouts that extend over multiple service areas and last several days or longer. Resilience is not just about lessening the likelihood that these outages will occur. It is also about limiting the scope and impact of outages when they do occur, restoring power rapidly afterwards, and learning from these experiences to better deal with events in the future.

Power Grid Resiliency for Adverse Conditions

Author : Nicholas Abi-Samra
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Written by a leading expert in the field, this practical book offers a comprehensive understanding of the impact of extreme weather and the possible effects of climate change on the power grid. The impact and restoration of floods, winter storms, wind storms, and hurricanes as well as the effects of heat waves and dry spells on thermal power plants is explained in detail. This book explores proven practices for successful restoration of the power grid, increased system resiliency, and ride-through after extreme weather and provides readers with examples from super storm Sandy. This book presents the effects of lack of ground moisture on transmission line performance and gives an overview of line insulation coordination, stress-strength analysis, and tower insulation strength, and then provides readers with tangible solutions. Structural hardening of power systems against storms, including wind pressure, wood poles, and vegetation management is covered. Moreover, this book provides suggestions for practical implementations to improve future smart grid resiliency.

Weather related Power Outages and Electric System Resiliency

Author : Richard J. Campbell
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High winds, especially when combined with precipitation from seasonal storms, can cause damage to electricity utility systems, resulting in service interruptions to large numbers of electricity customers. While most such power outages are caused by damage from trees and tree limbs falling on local electricity distribution lines and poles, major power outages tend to be caused by damage to electricity transmission lines which carry bulk power long distances. Depending on the severity of the storm and resulting impairment, power outages can last a few hours or extend to periods of several days, and have real economic effects. Power outages can impact businesses (primarily through lost orders and damage to perishable goods and inventories), and manufacturers (mainly through downtime and lost production, or equipment damage). Data from various studies lead to cost estimates from storm-related outages to the U.S. economy at between $20 billion and $55 billion annually. Data also suggest the trend of outages from weather-related events is increasing. Suggested solutions for reducing impacts from weather-related outages include improved tree-trimming schedules to keep rights-of-way clear, placing distribution and some transmission lines underground, implementing Smart Grid improvements to enhance power system operations and control, inclusion of more distributed generation, and changing utility maintenance practices and metrics to focus on power system reliability. However, most of these potential solutions come with high costs which must be balanced against the perceived benefits. A number of options exist for Congress to consider which could help reduce storm-related outages. These range from improving the quality of data on storm-related outages, to a greater strategic investment in the U.S. electricity grid. Congress could empower a federal agency to develop standards for the consistent reporting of power outage data. While responsibility for the reliability of the bulk electric system is under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (as per the Energy Policy Act of 2005), no central responsibility exists for the reliability of distribution systems. One possible option could be to bring distribution systems under the Electric Reliability Organization for reliability purposes. Recovery after storm-related outages might be enhanced by a federal role in formalizing the review or coordination of electric utility mutual assistance agreements (MAAs). This would not necessarily mean federal approval of MAAs, but may help in the cooperative coordination of additional federal and state resources, especially in a wide, multi-state weather event. While there has been much discussion of transmission system inadequacies and inefficiencies, many distribution systems are in dire need of upgrades or repairs. The cost of upgrading the U.S. grid to meet future uses is expected to be high, with the American Society of Civil Engineers estimating a need of $673 billion by 2020. While the federal government recently made funding available of almost $16 billion for specific Smart Grid projects and new transmission lines under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, there has not been a comprehensive effort to study the needs, set goals, and provide targeted funding for modernization of the U.S. grid as part of a long-term national energy strategy. Such an effort would also require decisions about the appropriate roles of government and the private sector. Power delivery systems are most vulnerable to storms and extreme weather events. Improving the overall condition and efficiency of the power delivery system can only serve to improve the resiliency of the system, and help hasten recovery from weather-related outages. Ultimately, however, electric utilities are responsible for this infrastructure. They are in the business of selling electricity, and they cannot sell electricity if their power delivery systems are out of service.

Enhanced Power System Resiliency to High impact Low frequency Events with Emphasis on Geomagnetic Disturbances

Author : Maryam Kazerooni
File Size : 41.11 MB
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Resilience of Integrated Power and Water Systems

Author : Masanubu Shinozuka
File Size : 59.51 MB
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Power Systems Management and Associated Information Exchange Data and Communications Security Resilience and Security Recommendations for Power Systems with Distributed Energy Resources der Cyber Physical Systems

Author : British Standards Institute Staff
File Size : 31.27 MB
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Electric power systems, Electric power distribution, Remote control systems, Telemetry, Information exchange, Data security, Data transmission, Telecommunication, Communication networks, Computer networks, Cryptography, Internet, Transport layer (OSI)

IBM Geographically Dispersed Resiliency for IBM Power Systems

Author : Dino Quintero
File Size : 86.27 MB
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This IBM® Redbooks® publication introduces and provides a broad understanding of the new IBM Geographically Dispersed Resiliency for IBM Power SystemsTM solution. The IBM Geographically Dispersed Resiliency for Power Systems solution is a set of software components that together provide a disaster recovery (DR) mechanism for virtual machines (VMs) running on an IBM POWER7® processor-based server or later. This document describes various components, subsystems, and tasks that are associated with the IBM Geographically Dispersed Resiliency for Power Systems solution. This book is targeted at technical professionals (consultants, technical support staff, IT Architects, and IT Specialists) that are responsible for providing high availability (HA) and DR solutions and support on IBM Power Systems servers. Since the released of the first IBM Geographically Dispersed Resiliency for Power Systems V1.1.0, a new SP1 has been released which delivers the following capabilities and support changes to the offering. Note: This is a replacement offering for the Geographically Dispersed Resiliency (5799-DRP) PRPQ. Implementation services for Geographically Dispersed Resiliency are strongly recommended. Contact [email protected] for further information on the services available. Geographically Dispersed Resiliency for Power Systems V1.1.0 SP1 offers support for: IBM i as a guest operating system, adding to the current support for IBM AIX and Linux IBM DS8000 Global Mirror IBM SAN Volume Controller/IBM Storwize Metro and Global Mirror EMC SRDF synchronous replication Boot device selection for IBM POWER8 technology-based systems Geographically Dispersed Resiliency for Power Systems V1.1.0 SP1 includes new capabilities to help you achieve your disaster recovery objectives: Support for both synchronous and asynchronous replication of data through the IBM SAN Volume Controller Support for both synchronous and asynchronous replication of data through the Storwize family Support for asynchronous replication of data through the DS8000 family Support for synchronous replication of data through EMC storage by using Symmetrix Remote Data Facility (SRDF) Support for IBM i guest virtual machines On POWER8 technology-based systems, support for multiple boot disks to allow selection of the appropriate boot device to use in recovery Note: At the time this publication was written, the residency team developed the content utilizing IBM Geographically Dispersed Resiliency for Power Systems V1.1.0. For more information, refer to the IBM Geographically Dispersed Resiliency for Power Systems website at the following link: https://www.ibm.com/us-en/marketplace/disaster-recovery-for-power

Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters

Author : Planning Committee for the Workshop on the Resilience of the Electric Power System to Terrorism and Natural Disasters
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Annotation. "The Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters" is the summary of a workshop convened in February 2013 as a follow-up to the release of the National Research Council report "Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System." That report had been written in 2007 for the Department of Homeland Security, but publication was delayed because of security concerns. While most of the committee's findings were still relevant, many developments affecting vulnerability had occurred in the interval. The 2013 workshop was a discussion of the committee\'s results, what had changed in recent years, and how lessons learned about the grid's resilience to terrorism could be applied to other threats to the grid resulting from natural disasters. The purpose was not to translate the entire report into the present, but to focus on key issues relevant to making the grid sufficiently robust that it could handle inevitable failures without disastrous impact. The workshop focused on five key areas: physical vulnerabilities of the grid; cybersecurity; mitigation and response to outages; community resilience and the provision of critical services; and future technologies and policies that could enhance the resilience of the electric power delivery system. The electric power transmission and distribution system (the grid) is an extraordinarily complex network of wires, transformers, and associated equipment and control software designed to transmit electricity from where it is generated, usually in centralized power plants, to commercial, residential, and industrial users. Because the U.S. infrastructure has become increasingly dependent on electricity, vulnerabilities in the grid have the potential to cascade well beyond whether the lights turn on, impacting among other basic services such as the fueling infrastructure, the economic system, and emergency services. "The Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters" discusses physical vulnerabilities and the cybersecurity of the grid, ways in which communities respond to widespread outages and how to minimize these impacts, the grid of tomorrow, and how resilience can be encouraged and built into the grid in the future.

Cyber physical Resilience Assessment for Active Power Distribution Systems

Author : Venkatesh Venkataramanan
File Size : 68.60 MB
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Recent cyber attacks on the power grid have been of increasing complexity and sophistication. It is important that the power system remain resilient to such cyber-attacks, and supply power to the critical loads even with multiple contingencies. In order to understand the impact of cyber-attacks on the power system resiliency, it is important to consider an holistic cyber-physical system specially with increasing industrial automation. Three cyber-physical resiliency metrics considering cyber vulnerabilities, cyber-physical system model, and device level properties are proposed, for various applications.Various Use cases are presented to demonstrate application of the developed cyber-physical resiliency metrics to enhance situational awareness of the operator, and enable better control actions to improve resiliency. In addition, the metrics are tested and validated using a cyber-physical testbed, which is created by using various ad-hoc simulation and emulation tools.

Power After Carbon

Author : Peter Fox-Penner
File Size : 60.5 MB
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The electricity sector is facing its toughest test: eliminate carbon emissions while meeting much larger demands for power and adjusting to massive disruptions in its markets, technologies, business models, and policies. Peter Fox-Penner unwinds the industry's fast-moving challenges and makes realistic recommendations for this essential industry.

Utility Investments in Resilience of Electricity Systems

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Recent power outages caused by hurricanes, wildfires and other natural disasters, coupled with evolving cyber and physical threats, have increased interest in the resilience of electricity systems. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Grid Modernization Lab Consortium (GMLC) defines resilience as “the ability to prepare for and adapt to changing conditions and withstand and recover rapidly from disruptions, including the ability to withstand and recover from deliberate attacks, accidents, or naturally occurring threats or incidents.” In a new report for Berkeley Lab, organizations that represent state regulators, utilities and consumers discuss the level and scope of resilience needed, how to decide what investments are most impactful, and roles of local, state and federal officials.