Search results for: police-and-the-blacks

Police and the Black Community

Author : Robert F. Wintersmith
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History of police-Black community relations, the social psychology of the police occupation, and the nature of diverse Black attitudes toward police practices. A discussion of the history of police-Black community relations analyzes the origin and use of the Black Codes (laws used to enforce slavery), other psychological containment devices, the patterollers (patrol forces to catch runaway slaves or those away from the plantation without a pass) and Blacks and the Civil War. The political economy and the social psychology of the antebellum South are examined and a discussion of Blacks during and after reconstruction analyzes the emergence of a new order, the era of lawful lawlessness, and the fight for equal rights and treatment. In an examination of contemporary police departments, comments are made on the ambiguity of the police mission, the social psychology of the police occupation, departmental organization, personnel assignment, and deployment, and police attempts to improve relations with Black communities. Methodology, findings and interpretations of a study on Black attitudes toward the police are included. Summary remarks are made on dissension in the Black community, consensus in the Black community, and implications for policy.

Police and the Blacks

Author : United States Commission on Civil Rights
File Size : 87.25 MB
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Black Police in America

Author : W. Marvin Dulaney
File Size : 35.18 MB
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Traces the growth, disappearance, and eventual return of an African American presence in police forces, and links developments to changes in Black influence on the political process

Race and Policing in America

Author : Ronald Weitzer
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Race and Policing in America is about relations between police and citizens, with a focus on racial differences. It utilizes both the authors' own research and other studies to examine Americans' opinions, preferences, and personal experiences regarding the police. Guided by group-position theory and using both existing studies and the authors' own quantitative and qualitative data (from a nationally representative survey of whites, blacks, and Hispanics), this book examines the roles of personal experience, knowledge of others' experiences (vicarious experience), mass media reporting on the police, and neighborhood conditions (including crime and socioeconomic disadvantage) in structuring citizen views in four major areas: overall satisfaction with police in one's city and neighborhood, perceptions of several types of police misconduct, perceptions of police racial bias and discrimination, and evaluations of and support for a large number of reforms in policing.

Police and the Blacks

Author : United States. Commission on Civil Rights
File Size : 39.66 MB
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Out of Order

Author : Ernest Cashmore
File Size : 44.41 MB
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Black in Blue

Author : Nicholas Alex
File Size : 74.25 MB
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In-depth interviews with experienced black New York City policemen show that they face a unique set of problems directly related to race. It was found that blacks were often motivated to enter police work by the lack of alternative opportunities in other middle class professions. The black policeman sees the force as dominated by a white officialdom, while white offenders often deny that a non-uniformed black man can be a policeman. Since he is most frequently assigned to ghetto communities, the black policeman becomes the target for expressions of rage and frustration by inner city residents who perceive him as an agent of white repression. His chosen profession also affects the black policeman's social relations. He sometimes avoids the friends of his youth so that he will not learn of criminal behavior and they may avoid him for similar reasons. On and off-duty, the black policeman is drawn into an enclave of other black policemen and becomes a member of a minority group within a minority group. This book will provide additional insights for the police administrator who is directly affected by the problems faced by minority members of his organization.

Black Police White Society

Author : Steven Leinen
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Shares the experiences of Black police officers working in New York City, discusses discrimination, and looks at the relationships between Black officers, their white counterparts, and the community as a whole

Disturbing the Peace

Author : Assistant Professor of English Bryan Wagner
File Size : 46.85 MB
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W. C. Handy waking up to the blues on a train platform, Buddy Bolden eavesdropping on the drums at Congo Square, John Lomax taking his phonograph recorder into a southern penitentiary - in Disturbing the Peace, Bryan Wagner revises the history of the black vernacular tradition and gives a new account of black culture by reading these myths in the context of the tradition's ongoing engagement with the law.

Black in Blue

Author : Kenneth Bolton
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From New York to Los Angeles, police departments across the country are consistently accused of racism. Although historically white police precincts have been slowly integrating over the past few decades, African-American officers still encounter racism on the job. Bolton and Feagin have interviewed fifty veteran African-American police officers to provide real-life and vivid examples of the difficulties and discrimination these officers face everyday inside and outside the police station from barriers in hiring and getting promoted to lack of trust from citizens and members of black community.

Black Crime a Police View

Author : Herrington J. Bryce
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Occupied Territory

Author : Simon Balto
File Size : 50.63 MB
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In July 1919, an explosive race riot forever changed Chicago. For years, black southerners had been leaving the South as part of the Great Migration. Their arrival in Chicago drew the ire and scorn of many local whites, including members of the city's political leadership and police department, who generally sympathized with white Chicagoans and viewed black migrants as a problem population. During Chicago's Red Summer riot, patterns of extraordinary brutality, negligence, and discriminatory policing emerged to shocking effect. Those patterns shifted in subsequent decades, but the overall realities of a racially discriminatory police system persisted. In this history of Chicago from 1919 to the rise and fall of Black Power in the 1960s and 1970s, Simon Balto narrates the evolution of racially repressive policing in black neighborhoods as well as how black citizen-activists challenged that repression. Balto demonstrates that punitive practices by and inadequate protection from the police were central to black Chicagoans' lives long before the late-century "wars" on crime and drugs. By exploring the deeper origins of this toxic system, Balto reveals how modern mass incarceration, built upon racialized police practices, emerged as a fully formed machine of profoundly antiblack subjugation.

Why Blacks Fear America s Mayor

Author : Peter Noel
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They call him "America's Mayor." But to blacks that title sugarcoats Rudy Giuliani's real reputation as one of the most racially divisive leaders in the nation. Peter Noel's book puts Giuliani's often-ignored record of oppressing the "other New York" front and center in the 2008 presidential race. Noel was a witness to "Giuliani time" in New York. As the race beat journalist for The Village Voice, he reported exclusively on the police brutality that rained down on blacks, and the denigration of black leadership by Giuliani. In this collection of his exposés, Noel provides stunning insights into the most notorious events of Giuliani's tenure, including the execution-style killing of Amadou Diallo and the sadistic torture of Abner Louima. Both men-like many black victims of Giuliani's stop-and-frisk policing-were innocent of any wrongdoing. This brutality sparked a new black activist movement. Scores, including Jesse Jackson, were arrested-and Peter Noel was there to cover it. No journalist was more insightful about the rise of Al Sharpton, Khallid Muhammad's "Million Youth March," and Giuliani's demonization of David Dinkins, the city's first black mayor. There are interviews with major political players, inside accounts of the shifting alliances and violent conflicts between ethnic groups, and a stinging critique of the white-dominated media. And then there is Peter Noel's interview with Giuliani, which took the form of a street fight in Harlem. In these eloquent, often searing pieces, written in an outraged and authentic voice, Peter Noel spoke truth to the power of an "Afriphobic" mayor. In this revealing book, he still does.

Policing Black Bodies

Author : Angela J. Hattery
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From Trayvon Martin to Freddie Gray, the stories of police violence against Black people are too often in the news. In Policing Black Bodies Angela J. Hattery and Earl Smith make a compelling case that the policing of Black bodies goes far beyond these individual stories of brutality. They connect the regulation of African American people in many settings, including the public education system and the criminal justice system, into a powerful narrative about the myriad ways Black bodies are policed. Policing Black Bodies goes beyond chronicling isolated incidents of injustice to look at the broader systems of inequality in our society—how they’re structured, how they harm Black people, and how we can work for positive change. The book discusses the school-to-prison pipeline, mass incarceration and the prison boom, the unique ways Black women and trans people are treated, wrongful convictions and the challenges of exoneration, and more. Each chapter of the book opens with a true story, explains the history and current state of the issue, and looks toward how we can work for change. The book calls attention to the ways class, race, and gender contribute to injustice, as well as the perils of colorblind racism—that by pretending not to see race we actually strengthen, rather than dismantle, racist social structures. Policing Black Bodies is a powerful call to acknowledge injustice and work for change.

Black Cop

Author : Calvin Lawrence with Miles Howe
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Calvin Lawrence became a cop at age twenty. He was recruited by the Halifax police department at a time of heightened racial tension in the city. From the start, some fellow African Canadians wondered if he had sold out. White citizens wondered whether a black Canadian even belonged in the job. Calvin takes readers into his confidence as he learns to navigate as a beat cop, and how to deal with racism in the community — and worse, in the police force itself. Lawrence leaves Halifax to join the RCMP. He shares his experiences about basic training in Regina, followed by a stint as Newfoundland's only black Mountie. He is pegged for undercover work there, but before long his cover is blown. RCMP stereotyping leads him into Toronto's notorious drug squad as an undercover police officer, and then to years in elite Mountie squads protecting prime ministers and presidents. Throughout his career, Calvin experiences hostility and racism within the force — completely contrary to the officvalues and image of the RCMP. Standing up for his rights gets him blacklisted for advancement, and ultimately leads him to clinical depression arising from workplace hostility and mistreatment. As a seventh-generation Canadian, Calvin Lawrence has written a book which lays bare key failures of Canadian police organizations. Even today they operate on the basis that only white Canadians are entitled to the rights promised to all by the rule of law and the Canadian Charter of Rights.

Black Resistance to British Policing

Author : Adam Elliott-Cooper
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Using a decade of activist research, this book offers a radical analysis of grassroots black resistance to policing in twenty-first-century Britain.

Race Crime and Policing in the Jim Crow South

Author : Brandon T. Jett
File Size : 69.39 MB
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Throughout the Jim Crow era, southern police departments played a vital role in the maintenance of white supremacy. Police targeted African Americans through an array of actions, including violent interactions, unjust arrests, and the enforcement of segregation laws and customs. Scholars have devoted much attention to law enforcement’s use of aggression and brutality as a means of maintaining African American subordination. While these interpretations are vital to the broader understanding of police and minority relations, Black citizens have often come off as powerless in their encounters with law enforcement. Brandon T. Jett’s Race, Crime, and Policing in the Jim Crow South, by contrast, reveals previously unrecognized efforts by African Americans to use, manage, and exploit policing. In the process, Jett exposes a much more complex relationship, suggesting that while violence or the threat of violence shaped police and minority relations, it did not define all interactions. Black residents of southern cities repeatedly complained about violent policing strategies and law enforcement’s seeming lack of interest in crimes committed against African Americans. These criticisms notwithstanding, Blacks also voiced a desire for the police to become more involved in their communities to reduce the seemingly intractable problem of crime, much of which resulted from racial discrimination and other structural factors related to Jim Crow. Although the actions of the police were problematic, African Americans nonetheless believed that law enforcement could play a role in reducing crime in their communities. During the first half of the twentieth century, Black citizens repeatedly demanded better policing and engaged in behaviors designed to extract services from law enforcement officers in Black neighborhoods as part of a broader strategy to make their communities safer. By examining the myriad ways in which African Americans influenced the police to serve the interests of the Black community, Jett adds a new layer to our understanding of race relations in the urban South in the Jim Crow era and contributes to current debates around the relationship between the police and minorities in the United States.

Resigners The Experience of Black and Asian Police Officers

Author : Anne-Marie Barron
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Based on interviews with black, Asian and white resigners from the police, this book analyses the ways in which mundane features of employment within constabularies racialize the work of officers and leads to a decision to resign. It is argued that the occupational culture of policing remains a key context for the racialization of relationships between officers from majority and minority ethnic groups. This book adds to sociological and criminological research by grounding racialized relations within the reality of day-to-day work.

Police and the Unarmed Black Male Crisis

Author : Sharon E. Moore
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Presenting both historical and contemporary discussions and coverage, this book provides an in-depth and critical analysis of police brutality and the killing of unarmed black males in the United States of America. Within the book, contributors cover five key areas: the historical context and contemporary evidence of police brutality of unarmed black people in the USA; the impact of police aggression on blacks’ well-being; novel strategies for prevention and intervention; the advancement of a cordial relationship between police and black communities; and how best to equip the next generation of scholars and professionals. Each contributor provides a simple-to-understand, thought-provoking, and creative recommendation to address the perennial social ill of police brutality of black males, making this book an excellent resource for students, scholars and professionals across disciplinary spectrums. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment.

America on Fire The Untold History of Police Violence and Black Rebellion Since the 1960s

Author : Elizabeth Hinton
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"If you want to understand the massive antiracist protests of 2020, put down the navel-gazing books about racial healing and read America on Fire." —Robin D. G. Kelley, author of Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination From one of our top historians, a groundbreaking story of policing and “riots” that shatters our understanding of the post–civil rights era. What began in spring 2020 as local protests in response to the killing of George Floyd by Minneapolis police quickly exploded into a massive nationwide movement. Millions of mostly young people defiantly flooded into the nation’s streets, demanding an end to police brutality and to the broader, systemic repression of Black people and other people of color. To many observers, the protests appeared to be without precedent in their scale and persistence. Yet, as the acclaimed historian Elizabeth Hinton demonstrates in America on Fire, the events of 2020 had clear precursors—and any attempt to understand our current crisis requires a reckoning with the recent past. Even in the aftermath of Donald Trump, many Americans consider the decades since the civil rights movement in the mid-1960s as a story of progress toward greater inclusiveness and equality. Hinton’s sweeping narrative uncovers an altogether different history, taking us on a troubling journey from Detroit in 1967 and Miami in 1980 to Los Angeles in 1992 and beyond to chart the persistence of structural racism and one of its primary consequences, the so-called urban riot. Hinton offers a critical corrective: the word riot was nothing less than a racist trope applied to events that can only be properly understood as rebellions—explosions of collective resistance to an unequal and violent order. As she suggests, if rebellion and the conditions that precipitated it never disappeared, the optimistic story of a post–Jim Crow United States no longer holds. Black rebellion, America on Fire powerfully illustrates, was born in response to poverty and exclusion, but most immediately in reaction to police violence. In 1968, President Lyndon Johnson launched the “War on Crime,” sending militarized police forces into impoverished Black neighborhoods. Facing increasing surveillance and brutality, residents threw rocks and Molotov cocktails at officers, plundered local businesses, and vandalized exploitative institutions. Hinton draws on exclusive sources to uncover a previously hidden geography of violence in smaller American cities, from York, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, to Stockton, California. The central lesson from these eruptions—that police violence invariably leads to community violence—continues to escape policymakers, who respond by further criminalizing entire groups instead of addressing underlying socioeconomic causes. The results are the hugely expanded policing and prison regimes that shape the lives of so many Americans today. Presenting a new framework for understanding our nation’s enduring strife, America on Fire is also a warning: rebellions will surely continue unless police are no longer called on to manage the consequences of dismal conditions beyond their control, and until an oppressive system is finally remade on the principles of justice and equality.