Search results for: polar-night-marine-ecology

POLAR NIGHT Marine Ecology

Author : Jørgen Berge
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Until recently, the prevailing view of marine life at high latitudes has been that organisms enter a general resting state during the dark Polar Night and that the system only awakens with the return of the sun. Recent research, however, with coordinated, multidisciplinary field campaigns based on the high Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard, have provided a radical new perspective. Instead of a system in dormancy, a new perspective of a system in full operation and with high levels of activity across all major phyla is emerging. Examples of such activities and processes include: Active marine organisms at sea surface, water column and the sea-floor. At surface we find active foraging in seabirds and fish, in the water column we find a high biodiversity and activity of zooplankton and larvae such as active light induced synchronized diurnal vertical migration, and at seafloor there is a high biodiversity in benthic animals and macroalgae. The Polar Night is a period for reproduction in many benthic and pelagic taxa, mass occurrence of ghost shrimps (Caprellides), high abundance of Ctenophores, physiological evidence of micro- and macroalgal cells that are ready to utilize the first rays of light when they appear, deep water fishes found at water surface in the Polar night, and continuous growth of bivalves throughout the winter. These findings not only begin to shape a new paradigm for marine winter ecology in the high Arctic, but also provide conclusive evidence for a top-down controlled system in which primary production levels are close to zero. In an era of environmental change that is accelerated at high latitudes, we believe that this new insight is likely to strongly impact how the scientific community views the high latitude marine ecosystem. Despite the overwhelming darkness, the main environmental variable affecting marine organisms in the Polar Night is in fact light. The light regime during the Polar Night is unique with respect to light intensity, spectral composition of light and photoperiod.

Arctic Ecology

Author : David N. Thomas
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The Arctic is often portrayed as being isolated, but the reality is that the connectivity with the rest of the planet is huge, be it through weather patterns, global ocean circulation, and large-scale migration patterns to name but a few. There is a huge amount of public interest in the ‘changing Arctic’, especially in terms of the rapid changes taking place in ecosystems and exploitation of resources. There can be no doubt that the Arctic is at the forefront of the international environmental science agenda, both from a scientific aspect, and also from a policy/environmental management perspective. This book aims to stimulate a wide audience to think about the Arctic by highlighting the remarkable breadth of what it means to study its ecology. Arctic Ecology seeks to systematically introduce the diverse array of ecologies within the Arctic region. As the Arctic rapidly changes, understanding the fundamental ecology underpinning the Arctic is paramount to understanding the consequences of what such change will inevitably bring about. Arctic Ecology is designed to provide graduate students of environmental science, ecology and climate change with a source where Arctic ecology is addressed specifically, with issues due to climate change clearly discussed. It will also be of use to policy-makers, researchers and international agencies who are focusing on ecological issues and effects of global climate change in the Arctic. About the Editor David N. Thomas is Professor of Arctic Ecosystem Research in the Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki. Previously he spent 24 years in the School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Wales. He studies marine systems, with a particular emphasis on sea ice and land-coast interactions in the Arctic and Southern Oceans as well as the Baltic Sea. He also edited a related book: Sea Ice, 3rd Edition (2017), which is also published by Wiley-Blackwell.

The Senses A Comprehensive Reference

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The Senses: A Comprehensive Reference, Second Edition, is a comprehensive reference work covering the range of topics that constitute current knowledge of the neural mechanisms underlying the different senses. This important work provides the most up-to-date, cutting-edge, comprehensive reference combining volumes on all major sensory modalities in one set. Offering 264 chapters from a distinguished team of international experts, The Senses lays out current knowledge on the anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology of sensory organs, in a collection of comprehensive chapters spanning 4 volumes. Topics covered include the perception, psychophysics, and higher order processing of sensory information, as well as disorders and new diagnostic and treatment methods. Written for a wide audience, this reference work provides students, scholars, medical doctors, as well as anyone interested in neuroscience, a comprehensive overview of the knowledge accumulated on the function of sense organs, sensory systems, and how the brain processes sensory input. As with the first edition, contributions from leading scholars from around the world will ensure The Senses offers a truly international portrait of sensory physiology. The set is the definitive reference on sensory neuroscience and provides the ultimate entry point into the review and original literature in Sensory Neuroscience enabling students and scientists to delve into the subject and deepen their knowledge. All-inclusive coverage of topics: updated edition offers readers the only current reference available covering neurobiology, physiology, anatomy, and molecular biology of sense organs and the processing of sensory information in the brain Authoritative content: world-leading contributors provide readers with a reputable, dynamic and authoritative account of the topics under discussion Comprehensive-style content: in-depth, complex coverage of topics offers students at upper undergraduate level and above full insight into topics under discussion

Whither the Arctic Ocean

Author : Guillermo Auad
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Climate change in the Arctic Ocean has stirred a remarkable surge of interest and concern. Study after study has revealed the astonishing speed of physical, chemical, ecological, and economic change throughout the expanse of the Arctic. What is more, the consequences of the changing Arctic are not restricted to the Arctic itself, but affect everyone in the Northern Hemisphere, ranging as they do from extreme weather to resource availability and food security, with implications for politics, economics, and sociology. The challenge is to comprehend the full extent and variety of these consequences, and meeting this challenge will demand a multi- and transdisciplinary understanding. Only by this means can we hope to map out a knowledge-based ecosystem and move toward knowledge-based resource management—the essential precondition for any sustainable future. In this book, leading international experts, from many felds of science and across the entire pan-Arctic region, give their specifc takes on where the Arctic Ocean is heading. All have taken care in their writing not to exclude non-experts, in the conviction that multi- and transdisciplinarity can only be achieved when communication and outreach are not tribal in nature. The recurrent guiding theme throughout these pages is “Whith -er the Arctic Ocean?” Taken in concert, the essays synthesize the current state of scientifc knowledge to project how climate change may impact on the Arctic Ocean and the continents around it. How can and how should we prepare for the imminent future that is already lapping at the threshold of the commons? What readers will hopefully take from this multi- and transdisciplinary endeavor is not the individual perspective of each contribution, but the picture that emerges across the entire suite of essays. As we move into a near future that will encompass both the probable and surprises, this book attempts to conjure the multi-dimensional space in which a sustainable future must be brought into being.

Marine Ecology

Author : Michel J Kaiser
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Marine Ecology: Processes, Systems, and Impacts offers a carefully balanced and stimulating survey of marine ecology, introducing the key processes and systems from which the marine environment is formed, and the issues and challenges which surround its future conservation.

State of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Report

Author : Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program
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« This is the first report of the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to summarize status and trends in biotic elements in the arctic marine environment. The effort has identified knowledge gaps in circumpolar biodiversity monitoring. CBMP is the cornerstone program of Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF). »--

Towards a Unifying Pan Arctic Perspective of the Contemporary and Future Arctic Ocean

Author : Paul F. J. Wassmann
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The Topic Editors Paul F. J. Wassmann, dorte Krause-Jensen, Markus A. Janout, and Bodil Annikki Bluhm declare that they are collaborating with pan-arctic community.

Arctic Sea Ice Ecology

Author : Lars Chresten Lund-Hansen
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The book on sea ice ecology is the ecology of sea ice algae and other microorganism as bacteria, meiofauna, and viruses residing inside or at the bottom of the sea ice, called the sympagic biota. Organisms as seals, fish, birds, and Polar bears relies on sea ice but are not part of this biota. A distinct feature of this ecosystem, is the disappearance (melt) every summer and re-establishing in autumn and winter. The book is organized seasonally describing the physical, optical, biological, and geochemical conditions typical of the seasons: autumn, winter, and spring. These are exemplified with case studies based on author’s fieldwork in Greenland, the Arctic Ocean, and Antarctica but focused on Arctic conditions. The sea ice ecosystem is described in the context of climate change, interests, and effects of a decreasing summer ice extent in the Arctic Ocean. The book contains an up to date description of most relevant methods and techniques applied in sea ice ecology research. This book will appeal to university students at Masters or PhD levels reading biology, geosciences, and chemistry.

Encyclopedia of the World s Biomes

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Encyclopedia of the World’s Biomes is a unique, five volume reference that provides a global synthesis of biomes, including the latest science. All of the book's chapters follow a common thematic order that spans biodiversity importance, principal anthropogenic stressors and trends, changing climatic conditions, and conservation strategies for maintaining biomes in an increasingly human-dominated world. This work is a one-stop shop that gives users access to up-to-date, informative articles that go deeper in content than any currently available publication. Offers students and researchers a one-stop shop for information currently only available in scattered or non-technical sources Authored and edited by top scientists in the field Concisely written to guide the reader though the topic Includes meaningful illustrations and suggests further reading for those needing more specific information

The Ecosystem of Kongsfjorden Svalbard

Author : Haakon Hop
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This book focuses in detail on all ecologically important aspects of the Kongsfjorden system such as the marine and atmospheric environment including long-term monitoring, Ecophysiology of individual species, structure and function of the ecosystem, ecological processes and biological communities. The contributed articles include review articles and research articles that have a wider approach and bring the current research up-to-date. This book will form a baseline for future work.

Miscellaneous Invertebrates

Author : Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa
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This volume of the Handbook of Zoology summarizes "small" groups of animals across the animal kingdom. Dicyemida and Orthonectida are enigmatic parasites, formerly united as "Mesozoa" and their position among the multicellular animals is still not known with certainty. Placozoa are small, flat marine animals which provide important information on metazoan evolution. Comb jellies (Ctenophora) are esthetically fascinating animals which cause considerable discussion about their phylogenetic position. Seisonida are closely related to rotifers and acanthocephalans. Cycliophora were discovered and described as one of the last higher taxa and surprise by their complex life cycle. Kamptozoa (= Entoprocta) are small sessile animals in the sea and sometimes also in freshwater. Arrow worms (Chaetognatha) play an important role as predators in the plankton, but they also include benthic forms. Pterobranchia and acorn worms (Enteropneusta) belong to the deuterostomia and are related to echinoderms. In particular enteropneusts play an important role in understanding deuterostome evolution. These chapters provide up to date reviews of these exiting groups with reference to the important literature and therefore serves as an important source of information.

Journeys to Antarctica

Author : Kalman Dubov
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The continent of Antarctica, shrouded in mist, ice and frightful weather, was a land of mystery for millennia. Ancient and medieval cartographers and scientists pondered its reality, considering the South Pole at the extreme of Earth, the counterpart of the North Pole. But it was only in the 17th and 18th centuries that brave captains, piloting tiny ships (by today's standards) began plying these waters. The myth of Terra Australis was soon debunked as the misty veil of ice and cold yielded its secrets. Soon, many explorers set themselves the task of mastering this secret and unknown land. The story of such exploration is a fascinating tale: of those who braved the ice and cold; those who living to tell the tale of their exploits; and those who did not. Today, waters, seas, mountains and valleys are known by these hardy men and their feats of bravery. The tale of exploration is also coupled with greed, spurred by the advance of territorial claims over land and sea. In this regard, the British were foremost in this quest. They were only halted by the adoption of the Antarctic Treaty System, an international agreement that preserves and protects Antarctica from every mercantile endeavor -- at least until until 2048. There are no human settlements on Antarctica, save for research stations as scientist-explorers further our collective understanding of the continent, its flora and fauna, its many water animals that come here and to understand the story hidden beneath hundreds of feet of solid ice. Of greatest importance is the effect this continent has on the rest of the globe, with its teeming billions and ecological effect the world has on this distant land. This review discusses the explorers who first mapped the land and its waters, who navigated these channels and so, leading to the wider discovery of the continent itself. The expansion of British interests in Antarctica was also spurred by the claim over the Falklands Islands, resulting in the 1982 conflict between Britain and Argentina. The Argentine invasion was repelled by British forces, though Argentina continues to claim sovereignty over the islands. For a time, Britain declared sovereignty from the Falklands to the South Pole, with overlapping claims from other countries. None of these sovereignty claims however, are recognized under the Antarctic Treaty. Of special interest is the science applied to the continent, which requires specialized training and expertise. I review some of the science, appreciating the dedication and determination of the men and women to understand this icy continent. Speaking of women, I was surprised to learn that women were forbidden from participating in exploration and scientific efforts based on nothing more than machismo - men who decided this was no place for women. The first women who pioneered and came to Antarctica faced a host of male-dominated and demeaning attitudes until these attitudes changed. I also explore a Jewish conundrum - how to visit Antarctica, either during its long summer or its dark winter and remain true to Jewish tradition. That tradition mandates following laws that are time-sensitive by the rhythm of day and night, which do not apply in this remote region. Ancient precedent is used to apply a modicum of reality to this remote region. I then discuss my two visits to the continent, once about Holland America's Prinsendam, and the second aboard the Amsterdam. While both journeys were memorable, the second voyage was overshadowed by Covid-19. In fact, the latter journey ended in late March, just two months later, when all passengers were required to disembark in Perth Australia and had to immediately return home. Unless one is a research scientist, travel to Antarctica is commonly by cruise ship. Even then, the Antarctic mainland is not seen. Instead, the ship will visit various points in the Antarctic Peninsula, a location that is closer to Ushuaia, Argentina or Punta Arenas, Chile. These locations are Fin del Mundo - the end of the earth, the last human habitation before reaching the Antarctic land mass. My visits were to the Peninsula, with each trip lasting just four and one half days. Combined, these nine days remain memorable for the uniqueness as for their stark color extremes. White and dark predominates here with few other colors marring the landscape. If ever I had a 'bucket list', these nine days filled the void of the only landmass on earth where extremes of ice and snow, of dark-colored penguins, whales and seals contrasted with the icebergs and high granite peaks atop snow-encrusted mountains. I remain grateful for this incredible opportunity to visit this remote land, cocooned aboard a large and warm vessel, with fellow passengers seeking the see this remote and distant land. I hope this review does justice to the beauty and cold silence of this remote land.

Microbiology of the Rapidly Changing Polar Environments

Author : Julie Dinasquet
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Marine and freshwater polar environments are characterized by intense physical forces and strong seasonal variations. The persistent cold and sometimes inhospitable conditions create unique ecosystems and habitats for microbial life. Polar microbial communities are diverse productive assemblages, which drive biogeochemical cycles and support higher food-webs across the Arctic and over much of the Antarctic. Recent studies on the biogeography of microbial species have revealed phylogenetically diverse polar ecotypes, suggesting adaptation to seasonal darkness, sea-ice coverage and high summer irradiance. Because of the diversity of habitats related to atmospheric and oceanic circulation, and the formation and melting of ice, high latitude oceans and lakes are ideal environments to investigate composition and functionality of microbial communities. In addition, polar regions are responding more dramatically to climate change compared to temperate environments and there is an urgent need to identify sensitive indicators of ecosystem history, that may be sentinels for change or adaptation. For instance, Antarctic lakes provide useful model systems to study microbial evolution and climate history. Hence, it becomes essential and timely to better understand factors controlling the microbes, and how, in turn, they may affect the functioning of these fragile ecosystems. Polar microbiology is an expanding field of research with exciting possibilities to provide new insights into microbial ecology and evolution. With this Research Topic we seek to bring together polar microbiologists studying different aquatic systems and components of the microbial food web, to stimulate discussion and reflect on these sensitive environments in a changing world perspective.

The Double crested Cormorant

Author : Linda R. Wires
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The double-crested cormorant, found only in North America, is an iridescent black waterbird superbly adapted to catch fish. It belongs to a family of birds vilified since biblical times and persecuted around the world. Thus it was perhaps to be expected that the first European settlers in North America quickly deemed the double-crested cormorant a competitor for fishing stock and undertook a relentless drive to destroy the birds. This enormously important book explores the roots of human-cormorant conflicts, dispels myths about the birds, and offers the first comprehensive assessment of the policies that have been developed to manage the double-crested cormorant in the twenty-first century. Conservation biologist Linda Wires provides a unique synthesis of the cultural, historical, scientific, and political elements of the cormorant’s story. She discusses the amazing late-twentieth-century population recovery, aided by protection policies and environment conservation, but also the subsequent U.S. federal policies under which hundreds of thousands of the birds have been killed. In a critique of the science, management, and ethics underlying the double-crested cormorant’s treatment today, Wires exposes “management” as a euphemism for persecution and shows that the current strategies of aggressive predator control are outdated and unsupported by science.

Marine Ecology a Comprehensive Integrated Treatise on Life in Oceans and Coastal Waters Environmental factors 3 v

Author : Otto Kinne
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Fjord Systems and Archives

Author : John Allen Howe
File Size : 76.30 MB
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"The current volume brings together a selection of papers which have variously, but not exclusively, been presented in recent years at one of three international meetings on the theme of Fjords. The first of these meetings on 'Fjord environments: past, present and future' was held as a workshop ...The second meeting was convened as a formal session (CGC-13) entitles 'Fjords: climate and environmental change' ..The third of these meetings, the 2nd International workshop on the theme Fjord environments: past, present and future ..." --p. [1].

Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology

Author : Joel W. Iledgpeth and Harry S. Ladd
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Library and Information Studies for Arctic Social Sciences and Humanities

Author : Spencer Acadia
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Library and Information Studies for Arctic Social Sciences and Humanities serves as a key interdisciplinary title that links the social sciences and humanities with current issues, trends, and projects in library, archival, and information sciences within shared Arctic frameworks and geographies. Including contributions from professionals and academics working across and on the Arctic, the book presents recent research, theoretical inquiry, and applied professional endeavours at academic and public libraries, as well as archives, museums, government institutions, and other organisations. Focusing on efforts that further Arctic knowledge and research, papers present local, regional, and institutional case studies to conceptually and empirically describe real-life research in which the authors are engaged. Topics covered include the complexities of developing and managing multilingual resources; working in geographically isolated areas; curating combinations of local, regional, national, and international content collections; and understanding historical and contemporary colonial-industrial influences in indigenous knowledge. Library and Information Studies for Arctic Social Sciences and Humanities will be essential reading for academics, researchers, and students working the fields of library, archival, and information or data science, as well as those working in the humanities and social sciences more generally. It should also be of great interest to librarians, archivists, curators, and information or data professionals around the globe.

Marine Ecology

Author : Martin R. Speight
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This book began life as a series of lectures given to second and third year undergraduates at Oxford University. These lectures were designed to give students insights as to how marine ecosystems functioned, how they were being affected by natural and human interventions, and how we might be able to conserve them and manage them sustainably for the good of people, both recreationally and economically. This book presents 10 chapters, beginning with principles of oceanography important to ecology, through discussions of the magnitude of marine biodiversity and the factors influencing it, the functioning of marine ecosystems at within trophic levels such as primary production, competition and dispersal, to different trophic level interactions such as herbivory, predation and parasitism. The final three chapters look at the more applied aspects of marine ecology, discussion fisheries, human impacts, and management and conservation. Other textbooks covering similar topics tend to treat the topics from the point of view of separate ecosystems, with chapters on reefs, rocks and deep sea. This book however is topic driven as described above, and each chapter makes full use of examples from all appropriate marine ecosystems. The book is illustrated throughout with many full colour diagrams and high quality photographs. The book is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students at colleges and universities, and it is hoped that the many examples from all over the world will provide global relevance and interest. Both authors have long experience of research and teaching in marine ecology. Martin Speight’s first degree was in marine zoology at UCNW Bangor, and he has taught marine ecology and conservation at Oxford for 25 years. His research students study tropical marine ecology from the Caribbean through East Africa to the Far East. Peter Henderson is a Senior Research Associate at the University of Oxford, and is Director of Pisces Conservation in the UK. He has worked on marine and freshwater fisheries, as well as ecological and economic impacts and exploitation of the sea in North and South America as well as Europe.

Microbial Response to a Rapidly Changing Marine Environment Global Warming and Ocean Acidification

Author : Mi Sun Yun
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