Search results for: on-social-structure-and-science

On Social Structure and Science

Author : Robert K. Merton
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Robert K. Merton is unarguably one of the most influential sociologists of his time. A figure whose wide-ranging theoretical and methodological contributions have become fundamental to the field, Merton is best known for introducing such concepts and procedures as unanticipated consequences, self-fulfilling prophecies, focused group interviews, middle-range theory, opportunity structure, and analytic paradigms. This definitive compilation encompasses the breadth and brilliance of his works, from the earliest to the most recent. Merton's foundational writings on social structure and process, on the sociology of science and knowledge, and on the discipline and trajectory of sociology itself are all powerfully represented, as are his autobiographical insights in a fascinating coda. Anchored by Piotr Sztompka's contextualizing introduction, Merton's vast oeuvre emerges as a dynamic and profoundly coherent system of thought, a constant source of vitality and renewal for present and future sociology.

Social Theory and Social Structure

Author : Robert King Merton
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Examines the interactions between sociological theory and research in various approaches to the study of social structure, evaluating the limitations and functions of each

The Idea of Social Structure

Author : Lewis A. Coser
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Written and compiled by friends and former students, The Idea of Social Structure honors Robert K. Merton, considered one of the premier sociologists of the twentieth century. Along with Talcott Parsons and Marion J. Levy, Merton was emphatic in his use of the term "social structure"—however different they were in defining and refining the term. The chapters in this volume address many of Merton's diverse sociological theories and, in turn, his theories' impact upon a very large sociological territory. The volume includes major statements on the context of working with Merton by Lewis A. Coser, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Robert A. Nisbet, and Seymour Martin Lipset, as well as memorable statements covering Merton's interests in the sociology of knowledge and science, planning communities, medical education, relative deprivation, everyday life, political roles, and communication media. This is a powerful sourcebook for understanding the work of Merton and of his intellectual successors. Nisbet called the decade of the 1930s among the most vital and creative periods in American history. It was certainly a period of intense struggle—political, military, and ideological. But the formation of modern sociology was without question one of the crowning achievements in the scientific evolution of the century. The volume is sharply focused on Merton's work and deeply appreciative of the nature of his contribution. It is a landmark effort in the study of sociology as history.

Social Structure

Author : Charles Crothers
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Crothers's book provides a thorough introduction to the idea of social structure. He examines the meanings of the term, the history of its usage within sociology and looks at the more recent developments in thinking on social structure.

Exam Prep for On Social Structure and Science

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Social Structure and Forms of Consciousness Volume 1

Author : Istvan Meszaros
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This new work (the first in a two-volume series) by the leading Marxian philosopher of our day is a milestone in human self-understanding. It focuses on the location where action emerges from freedom and necessity, thefoundation of all social science. Today, as never before, the investigation of the close relationship between social structure—defined by Marx as "arising from the life-process of definite individuals"—and the various forms of consciousness is particularly important. We can only perceive what is possible by first identifying the historical process that constrains consciousness itself and therefore social action. The relationship between social structure and forms of consciousness discussed in this volume is multifaceted and profoundly dialectical. It requires the presentation of a great wealth of historical material and the assessment of the relevant philosophical literature, from Descartes through Hegel and the Liberal tradition to the present, together with their connections with political economy and political theory. István Mészáros moves beyond both abstract solutions to the surveyed methodological questions and one-sided structuralist evaluation of the important substantive issues, bringing the process of our understanding of social structure and consciousness to a level not previously attained. Above all, in the spirit of the Marxian approach, even the most complicated problems are always analyzed in relation to the major practical concerns of our time. The primary aim of this work is to outline the dialectical intelligibility of historical development toward a viable societal reproductive order. Social Structures and Forms of Consciousness is of the highest importance as both a political and philosophical work, illuminating the place from where we must act, today.

Social Structure and Aging

Author : K. Warner Schaie
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This volume presents a systematic examination of the impact of social structures on individual behaviors and on their development in adulthood and old age. These papers and responses attempt to improve the reciprocal relationship between changes in social macro- and micro-structures and the process of psychological development in relation to issues of human aging. Using and combining concepts and data from various fields, this research promotes a better understanding of the effects of demographic patterns and social structures on the psychological development of adults.

Social Structure and Disaster Symposium on Social Structure and Disaster College of William and Mary Williamsburg Virginia 15 16 May 1986

Author : Gary A. Kreps
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In a format of presentation, critique, and commentary, disaster researchers and sociological theorists address basic theoretical issues underlying studies of social structure and disaster. The editor's program of archival research on natural disasters, social movement organizations, and other types of social structure provides a basis for discussion.

Social Structure and Voting in the United States

Author : Robert B. Smith
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This book analyzes practical and moral influences on voting decisions. Undermining the widespread assumption that economic self-interest is the key determinant of voting choices, it discovers that moral considerations rooted in religious traditions are often the more decisive. This finding is confirmed through a close analysis of tangible problems, such as child neglect and crime, problems which one would expect to trouble practical voters. Further, this book suggests that political ideologies influence party affiliation, rather than the other way around. It defines four categories of states in terms of human development and income equality—South, Heartland, postindustrial, and “balanced.” It then explains why political color (red, purple, or blue) and societal problems vary across these categories. Voters’ moral ideologies, it shows, combine with a state’s measure of income equality and human development to shape a state’s readiness to pursue practical solutions to societal problems. Finally, it shows that moral ideologies of the religious right and authoritarianism, two very different concepts, are in fact intertwined empirically. This book thus suggests that education—a key driver of human development, anti-authoritarianism, and deliberative voting—should begin in preschools that are both nurturant and instructive.

Social Structure and Forms of Consciousness

Author : István Mészáros
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In The Dialectic of Structure and History, Volume Two of Social Structure and Forms of Consciousness, Istvan Meszaros brings the comprehension of our condition and the possibility of emancipatory social action beyond the highest point reached to date. Building on the indicatory flashes of conceptual lightning in the Grundrisse and other works of Karl Marx, Meszaros sets out the relations of structure and agency, individual and society, base and superstructure, nature and history, in a dialectical totality open to the future. The project is brought to its conclusion by means of critique, an analysis that shows not only the inadequacies of the thought critiqued but at the same time their social historical cause. The crucial questions are addressed through critique of the highest point of honest and brilliant thought in capital's ascending phase, that of Adam Smith, Kant, and Hegel, as well as the irrationalities and dishonesty of the apologists of the capital system's descending phase, such as Hayek and Popper. The dead ends of both Levi-Strauss's structuralism and post-modernism, arising from their denial of history, are placed in their context as capital-apologetics. What Meszaros, the leading Marxist philosopher of our times, has achieved is of world historical importance. He has cleared the philosophical ground to permit the illumination of a path to transcend the destructive death spiral of the capital system.

Social Structure and Change

Author : A M Shah
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This volume brings together contributions on the social aspects of urbanization, industrialization and the management of complex organizations in Indian society. Topics covered include: the impact of society on industry; the impact of technology on caste and status; an examination of the world views of administrators and industrialists; and the management of organizations such as universities. These essays, based on extensive fieldwork, help to develop a general perspective on urbanization and social change.

Property Social Structure and Law in the Modern Middle East

Author : Ann Elizabeth Mayer
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For too long the study of law and society in the modern Middle East has been left to specialists in narrow subcategories of law or the social sciences. Property, Social Structure, and Law in the Modern Middle East lays the groundwork for a new field of scholarship in which analysis of the social dimensions of law and the legal dimensions of social structure are integrated. It offers the stimulus of a variety of new models of scholarship by a distinguished international group of contributors whose work shares a common focus on regimes of property in the societies of the modern Middle East. The case studies examine the regulations of many kinds of property in relation to the social structures of selected Middle Eastern communities form the eighteenth century to the present. Most of the societies studied are subjected to pressures for rapid modernization and adjustment to major economic transformations. The book features comparisons of property rights and relations under regimes of Islamic and customary law as well as modern statutory law. Highlighted are new patterns of intervention by modern Middle Eastern states to alter traditional regimes of property and to transform the accompanying social structures. Their implications for development are also considered. The book's notes and bibliographies constitute a valuable resource for anyone interested in further research.

The Concept of Social Structure

Author : Douglas V. Porpora
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Porpora is concerned with the concept of social structure and with the relationship between social structure and the individual. He focuses on two different conceptions of social structure, the Durkheimian conception, which is the dominant way in which social structure is conceptualized by sociologists, and an alternative conception, based on a reading of Marx. The author discusses in depth the various aspects of these two divergent theories and shows how the Marxian conception of social structure underlies even the newer structural analyses of racism, sexism, and power that go beyond Marxian theory. He offers a sustained critique of Structural Sociology's theoretical elimination of the individual actor, which results in a corresponding elimination of any form of agency from the explanation of social structural processes.

Medical Sociology Social structures and health

Author : Graham Scambler
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The Stag Hunt and the Evolution of Social Structure

Author : Brian Skyrms
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"The possibility of a successful solution depends on the coevolution of cooperation and social structure. Brian Skyrms focuses on three factors that affect the emergence of such structure and the facilitation of collective action: location (interactions with neighbors), signals (transmission of information), and association (the formation of social networks)."--Jacket.

Female Male Socialization Social Roles and Social Structure

Author : Clarice Stasz Stoll
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The Sociology of Science

Author : Robert K. Merton
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"The exploration of the social conditions that facilitate or retard the search for scientific knowledge has been the major theme of Robert K. Merton's work for forty years. This collection of papers [is] a fascinating overview of this sustained inquiry. . . . There are very few other books in sociology . . . with such meticulous scholarship, or so elegant a style. This collection of papers is, and is likely to remain for a long time, one of the most important books in sociology."—Joseph Ben-David, New York Times Book Review "The novelty of the approach, the erudition and elegance, and the unusual breadth of vision make this volume one of the most important contributions to sociology in general and to the sociology of science in particular. . . . Merton's Sociology of Science is a magisterial summary of the field."—Yehuda Elkana, American Journal of Sociology "Merton's work provides a rich feast for any scientist concerned for a genuine understanding of his own professional self. And Merton's industry, integrity, and humility are permanent witnesses to that ethos which he has done so much to define and support."—J. R. Ravetz, American Scientist "The essays not only exhibit a diverse and penetrating analysis and a deal of historical and contemporary examples, with concrete numerical data, but also make genuinely good reading because of the wit, the liveliness and the rich learning with which Merton writes."—Philip Morrison, Scientific American "Merton's impact on sociology as a whole has been large, and his impact on the sociology of science has been so momentous that the title of the book is apt, because Merton's writings represent modern sociology of science more than any other single writer."—Richard McClintock, Contemporary Sociology

Self Social Structure and Beliefs

Author : Jeffrey C. Alexander
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This is an exploration of the creative work done by leading sociologists who were inspired by the scholarship of Neil Smelser.

Sociological Snapshots 4

Author : Jack Levin
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When it comes to Sociology, "seeing" is indeed believing. In Sociological Snapshots 4: Seeing Social Structure and Change in Everyday Life, Jack Levin bridges the gap between sociological theorizing and everyday experiences by developing students' ability to "see" sociology via "snapshots" of culture and social structure. Unlike other basic readers, this book contains a set of informal essays with topics ranging from elevator culture to domestic terrorism, from fads to the Washington, D.C., snipers. In a simple and entertaining style, this book continues to link everyday experiences to foundational concepts and concerns and analyze data about social reality.

Moral Codes and Social Structure in Ancient Greece

Author : Joseph M. Bryant
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An exercise in cultural sociology, Moral Codes and Social Structure in Ancient Greece seeks to explicate the dynamic currents of classical Hellenic ethics and social philosophy by situating those idea-complexes in their socio-historical and intellectual contexts. Central to this enterprise is a comprehensive historical-sociological analysis of the Polis form of social organization, which charts the evolution of its basic institutions, roles, statuses, and class relations. From the Dark Age period of “genesis” on to the Hellenistic era of “eclipse” by the emergent forces of imperial patrimonialism, Polis society promoted and sustained corresponding normative codes which mobilized and channeled the requisite emotive commitments and cognitive judgments for functional proficiency under existing conditions of life. The aristocratic warrior-ethos canonized in the Homeric epics; the civic ideology of equality and justice espoused by reformist lawgivers and poets; the democratization of status honor and martial virtue that attended the shift to hoplite warfare; the philosophical exaltation of the Polis-citizen bond as found in the architectonic visions of Plato and Aristotle; and the subsequent retreat from civic virtues and the interiorization of value articulated by the Skeptics, Epicureans, and Stoics, new age philosophies in a world remade by Alexander’s conquests—these are the key phases in the evolving currents of Hellenic moral discourse, as structurally framed by transformations within the institutional matrix of Polis society.