Search results for: norms-logics-and-information-systems

Norms Logics and Information Systems

Author : Paul McNamara
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This book presents research in an interdisciplinary field, resulting from the vigorous and fruitful cross-pollination between traditional deontic logic and computer science. AI researchers have used deontic logic as one of the tools in modelling legal reasoning. Computer scientists have discovered that computer systems (including their interaction with other computer systems and with human agents) can often be productively modelled as norm-governed. So, for example, deontic logic has been applied by computer scientists for specifying bureaucratic systems, access and security policies, and soft design or integrity constraints, and for modelling fault tolerance. In turn, computer scientists and AI researchers have also discovered (and made it clear to the rest of us) that various formal tools (e.g. nonmonotonic, temporal and dynamic logics) developed in computer science and artificial intelligence have interesting applications to traditional issues in deontic logic. This volume presents some of the best work done in this area, with the selection at once reflecting the general interdisciplinary (and international) character that this area of research has taken on, as well as reflecting the more specific recent inter-disciplinary developments between traditional deontic logic and computer science.

Logics for Databases and Information Systems

Author : Jan Chomicki
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Time is ubiquitous in information systems. Almost every enterprise faces the problem of its data becoming out of date. However, such data is often valu able, so it should be archived and some means to access it should be provided. Also, some data may be inherently historical, e.g., medical, cadastral, or ju dicial records. Temporal databases provide a uniform and systematic way of dealing with historical data. Many languages have been proposed for tem poral databases, among others temporal logic. Temporal logic combines ab stract, formal semantics with the amenability to efficient implementation. This chapter shows how temporal logic can be used in temporal database applica tions. Rather than presenting new results, we report on recent developments and survey the field in a systematic way using a unified formal framework [GHR94; Ch094]. The handbook [GHR94] is a comprehensive reference on mathematical foundations of temporal logic. In this chapter we study how temporal logic is used as a query and integrity constraint language. Consequently, model-theoretic notions, particularly for mula satisfaction, are of primary interest. Axiomatic systems and proof meth ods for temporal logic [GHR94] have found so far relatively few applications in the context of information systems. Moreover, one needs to bear in mind that for the standard linearly-ordered time domains temporal logic is not re cursively axiomatizable [GHR94]' so recursive axiomatizations are by necessity incomplete.

Legal Knowledge and Information Systems

Author : M. Araszkiewicz
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In recent years, the application of machine learning tools to legally relevant tasks has become much more prevalent, and the growing influence of AI in the legal sphere has prompted the profession to take more of an interest in the explainability, trustworthiness, and responsibility of intelligent systems. This book presents the proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems (JURIX 2019), held in Madrid, Spain, from 11 to 13 December 2019. Traditionally focused on legal knowledge representation and engineering, computational models of legal reasoning, and analyses of legal data, more recently the conference has also encompassed the use of machine learning tools. A total of 81 submissions were received for the conference, of which 14 were selected as full papers and 17 as short papers. A further 3 submissions were accepted as demo presentations, resulting in a total acceptance rate of 41.98%, with a competitive 25.5% acceptance rate for full papers. The 34 papers presented here cover a broad range of topics, from computational models of legal argumentation, case-based reasoning, legal ontologies, and evidential reasoning, through classification of different types of text in legal documents and comparing similarities, to the relevance of judicial decisions to issues of governmental transparency. The book will be of interest to all those whose work involves the use of knowledge and information systems in the legal sphere.

Legal Knowledge and Information Systems

Author : Tom M. van Engers
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"This volume contains the proceedings of the Nineteenth JURIX Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems (JURIX 2006). The large number of submissions shows that the interdisciplinary community is still growing and active. This volume again covers a broad range of topics. Argumentation is central to legal reasoning and therefore it is no surprise that researchers have focused on computational theories of argumentation. In this book four papers are dedicated to this topic. Typical to the legal field is the use of written knowledge sources, especially legal sources. These have been subject to AI & Law research for a long time, varying from structuring and accessing legal sources to using natural language processing techniques in order to determine the semantics of language utterances. This book contains four papers on legal sources. Central to AI and consequently to AI & Law are knowledge representation and ontologies. The latter especially are becoming more and more popular due to developments in Semantic Web research. Four papers on these topics can be read in this book. Three papers are included on applications and last but not least, the book contains four short papers on various topics."

Logic Programs Norms and Action

Author : Alexander Artikis
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This book is dedicated to Marek Sergot, Professor in Computational Logic at Imperial College London, on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Professor Sergot’s scientific contributions range over many different fields. He has developed a series of novel ideas and formal methods bridging areas including artificial intelligence, computational logic, philosophical logic, legal theory, artificial intelligence and law, multi-agent systems and bioinformatics. By combining his background in logic and computing with his interest in the law, deontic logic, action, and related areas, and applying to all his capacity to understand the subtleties of social interaction and normative reasoning, Professor Sergot has opened up new directions of research, and has been a reference, an inspiration, and a model for many researchers in the fields to which he has contributed. The Festschrift includes several reminiscences and introductory essays describing Professor Sergot's achievements, followed by a series of articles on logic programming, temporal reasoning and action languages, artificial intelligence and law, deontic logic and norm-governed systems, and logical approaches to policies.

Agency Norms Inquiry and Artifacts Essays in Honor of Risto Hilpinen

Author : Paul McNamara
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Logic in the Theory and Practice of Lawmaking

Author : Michał Araszkiewicz
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This book presents the current state of the art regarding the application of logical tools to the problems of theory and practice of lawmaking. It shows how contemporary logic may be useful in the analysis of legislation, legislative drafting and legal reasoning concerning different contexts of law making. Elaborations of the process of law making have variously emphasised its political, social or economic aspects. Yet despite strong interest in logical analyses of law, questions remains about the role of logical tools in law making. This volume attempts to bridge that gap, or at least to narrow it, drawing together some important research problems—and some possible solutions—as seen through the work of leading contemporary academics. The volume encompasses 20 chapters written by authors from 16 countries and it presents diversified views on the understanding of logic (from strict mathematical approaches to the informal, argumentative ones) and differentiated choices concerning the aspects of law making taken into account. The book presents a broad set of perspectives, insights and results into the emerging field of research devoted to the logical analysis of the area of creation of law. How does logic inform lawmaking? Are legal systems consistent and complete? How can legal rules be represented by means of formal calculi and visualization techniques? Does the structure of statutes or of legal systems resemble the structure of deductive systems? What are the logical relations between the basic concepts of jurisprudence that constitute the system of law? How are theories of legal interpretation relevant to the process of legislation? How might the statutory text be analysed by means of contemporary computer programs? These and other questions, ranging from the theoretical to the immediately practical, are addressed in this definitive collection.

The Role of Norms and Electronic Institutions in Multi Agent Systems

Author : Javier Vazquez-Salceda
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"It is not the consciousness of men that defines their existence, but, on the contrary, their social existence determines their consciousness." Karl Marx In recent years, several researchers have argued that the design of multi-agent sys tems (MAS) in complex, open environments can benefit from social abstractions in order to cope with problems in coordination, cooperation and trust among agents, problems which are also present in human societies. The agent-mediated electronic institutions (e-institutions for short) is a new and promising field which focuses in the concepts of norms and institutions in order to pro vide normative frameworks to restrict or guide the behaviour of (software) agents. The main idea is that the interactions among a group of (software) agents are ruled by a set of explicit norms expressed in a computational language representation that agents can interpret. Such norms should not be considered as a negative constraining factor but as an aid that guides the agents' choices and reduces the complexity ofthe environment making the behaviour of other agents more predictable.

Deontic Logic and Normative Systems

Author : Fabrizio Cariani
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This volume presents the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Deontic Logic and Normative Systems, DEON 2014, held in Ghent, Belgium, in July 2014. The 17 revised papers and the 2 invited papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 31 submissions. Topics covered include challenges from natural language for deontic logic; the relationship between deontic and other types of modality: epistemic modality, imperatives, supererogatory, etc.; the deontic paradoxes; the modeling of normative concepts other than obligation and permission, e.g., values; the game-theoretical aspects of deontic reasoning; the emergence of norms; norms from a conversational and pragmatic point of view; and norms and argumentation.

Rules and Reasoning

Author : Christoph Benzmüller
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This book constitutes the proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Rules and Reasoning, RuleML+RR 2018, held in Luxembourg during September 2018. This is the second conference of a new series, joining the efforts of two existing conference series, namely “RuleML” (International Web Rule Symposium) and “RR” (Web Reasoning and Rule Systems). The 10 full research papers presented together with 5 long technical communications and 7 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 33 submissions.