Search results for: neuroimmunity-the-brain-gut-connection

Neuroimmunity and the Brain gut Connection

Author : Aristo Vojdani
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Bi-directional communication between the central nervous system (CNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS) occurs both in health and disease. Various CNS- and gut-directed stressors stimulate the brain-gut axis. Processes modulating responsiveness to stressors along the brain-gut axis involve neural pathways, the immunological, and endocrinological mechanisms. Disturbances at every level of neural control of the gastrointestinal tract can affect modulation of gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and immune functions as well as perception and emotional response to visceral events. ENS function, central processing, and autonomic regulation play an important role in the brain-gut dialogue. Stress and emotions may trigger neuroimmune and neuroendocrine reactions via the brain-gut axis. Nutritional strategies may impact on the integrity and the expression of neurophysiological systems, and neuroimmunolgical interventions through diet and toxin reduction may provide potential support to address the growing concerns of environmentally induced brain disease and neurological autoimmune disorders. In this book, you will find an in-depth review of the brain-gut connection.

Food Associated Autoimmunities

Author : Aristo Vojdani
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This book discusses the various mechanisms by which food can trigger autoimmunity, thus turning a patient's own immune system against him. Readers will learn about the vital role of oral tolerance in immunity, the history of food allergy testing, difference between food allergy and food immune reactivity, the gut-brain-immune system axis, and discover how the blood-brain barrier and its integrity is connected to neuroautoimmunity and neurodegeneration. It ends with concrete workable suggestions on how to repair or restore broken immunity, or maintain a healthy immune system. This book is for medical or health care practitioners whose patients have puzzling symptoms and test results that are difficult to explain; it will help practitioners give patients the answers, diagnosis, care and treatment that they deserve, and can help to prevent, halt, or even reverse the course of autoimmune disease in patients, saving them from what could be an unhappy lifetime of suffering

Beyond the borders The gates and fences of Neuroimmune interaction

Author : Javier Velázquez-Moctezuma
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Neuroimmunology is a rapidly growing emerging field at which two old sciences have converged to integrate two different types of responses into a single coherent response involving the coordinated action of both systems, neural and immune. During long time it was thought that both systems worked separately and in divergent pathways. The brain was considered an immunoprivileged site and the immune organs were deemed as independent of any neural influence and also of nervous innervation. Time has gone and has proven that the borders between both systems were merely artificial. Since the beginning of Neuroimmunology in the 1980s much work has been done to elucidate the gates and fences in neuro-immune interactions. Brain was shown to be under the continuous surveillance of the immune system, even under basal physiological conditions in the absence of any pathology. Likely, it was found a profuse nervous innervation of lymphoid organs and even of single immune cells. Gates for direct neural immune communication were found both centrally and peripherally. Centrally, the gates, but also the fences, were situated at the brain barriers, the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and at the circunventricular organs. Peripherally, the fences constituted the apparent diverse nature of molecules involved in neural and immune signaling; however, time proved that both system were capable of producing the same signaling molecules and also systematically responded to the molecules released by the other system. Therefore, the gates were open for direct neural-immune communication at the peripheral level. This Research Topic aimed to include original reports, reviews and technical reports regarding the description of the gates and fences in neural immune interactions. We intended to provide an extensive view of the mechanisms governing central and peripheral neural-immune interactions, and the role of the borders, the blood-neural barriers, in the regulation of the neural-immune communication.

Insights to Neuroimmune Biology

Author : Istvan Berczi
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Insights to Neuroimmune Biology, Second Edition discusses the systemic regulatory network, coordination, organization, and interpretation of the rapidly accumulating knowledge on the topic of neuroimmune biology, with an ultimate goal of helping readers understand the function of higher organisms, including man, in their entire complexity. This publication provides assessments and interpretations of accumulated experimental evidence, enabling the scientific community to keep abreast of essential advancements of existing knowledge as we search for greater understanding of the biology of higher organisms. Provides information on the importance and applicability of the field of neuroimmunology Describes subjects that have shown significant recent developments Introduces a whole new dimension to neuroimmunology by discussing Epigenetic Immunoregulation Investigates the mechanisms and functions of the Neuroimmune Regulatory Supersystem Promotes translational research in the field of neuroimmune biology Covers challenges, such as dealing with problems of e.g., hypothalamic regulation of immune functions, interrelationships of stress and disease, epigenetic immunoregulation, neuroprotection, and neuroimmune regulation in pregnancy.

The Microbiome and the Brain

Author : David Perlmutter
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Brain related disorders are among the most challenging health issues of our time. The development of effective therapeutic and preventive strategies for these disorders relies on a comprehensive understanding of the underlying causative mechanisms. And, until recently, these mechanisms have remained somewhat elusive. The newly discovered pivotal role of the intestinal microbiome in brain health, functionality, and resistance to disease is revolutionizing neuroscience. The Microbiome and the Brain, through the contributions of some of the most forward thinking researchers and clinicians in the field, comprehensively reveals the leading edge of our understanding of the fundamental role of gut microbes and their metabolites in a wide array of seemingly diverse brain issues including Alzheimer’s disease, autism, multiple sclerosis, and mood disorders. In addition, mechanisms defining these relationships are explored along with a presentation of the state-of-the-art as it relates to interpretation of relevant laboratory assessments. Finally, novel therapeutic opportunities, derived from this exciting science are presented. Readers will learn: The highly validated relationship between alterations of gut microbes and their metabolites, and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. The important link between autism and intestinal dysbiosis. Appropriate interpretation of available laboratory assessments of the intestinal microbiome. The potential role of fecal microbial transplant in neurological diseases. The influence of diet and other lifestyle choices on the microbiome as it relates to brain health and functionality.

The Autoimmune Fix

Author : Tom O'Bryan
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Do you have crud in the blood? Millions of people suffer from autoimmunity whether they know it or not. The root cause of most weight gain, brain and mood problems, and fatigue, autoimmunity can take years—or even decades—for symptoms and a clear diagnosis to arise. Through years of research, Dr. Tom O’Bryan has discovered that autoimmunity is actually a spectrum, and many people experiencing general malaise are already on it. And while autoimmune diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, Multiple Sclerosis, osteoporosis, diabetes, and lupus, have become the third leading cause of death behind heart disease and cancer, many people affected are left in the dark. The good news is that many autoimmune conditions can be reversed through a targeted protocol designed to heal the autoimmune system, 70 percent of which is located in the gut. The Autoimmune Fix includes two comprehensive 3-week plans: In the first 3 weeks, you’ll follow a Paleo-inspired diet during which you cut out gluten, sweets, and dairy—the three primary culprits behind autoimmunity. Once the dietary changes have been addressed, The Autoimmune Fix focuses on the other causes of autoimmunity such as genetics, other dietary issues, and microbiome. The Autoimmune Fix provides a practical and much-needed guide to navigating these increasingly common conditions to help you feel better and develop a plan that works for you.

Neuroimmunology

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The volumes in this series include contemporary techniques significant to a particular branch of neuroscience. They are an invaluable aid to the student as well as the experienced researcher not only in developing protocols in neuroscience but in disciplines where research is becoming closely related to neuroscience. Each volume of Methods in Neurosciences contains an index, and each chapter includes references. Dr. Conn became Editor-in-Chief of the series beginning with Volume 15, so each subsequent volume could be guest-edited by an expert in that specific field. This further strengthens the depth of coverage in Methods in Neurosciences for students and researchers alike. Comprehensive protocols included for the study of: The brain-immune system The neuroimmune system: Effects of the brain on the peripheral immune system Neuroimmune effects from substances of abuse (e.g. cocaine) to hypnosis Measurement of interferons, cytokines, natural killer cells, and major histocompatibility complex molecules Immunohistochemistry methods in the brain Neuropeptides as immunomodulators

Selected Papers from CUBANNI 2017 The Fourth International Workshop of Neuroimmunology

Author : Maria De los Angeles Robinson Agramonte
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Selected Papers from CUBANNI 2017—“The Fourth International Workshop of Neuroimmunology” " that was published in Behavioral Sciences

Autonomic Neuroimmunology

Author : John Bienenstock
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While it may appear that the nervous and immune systems exist as two separate entities, groundbreaking observations have positively identified anatomic connections between elements of the nervous system and cells of adaptive immunity. Building on this research, Autonomic Neuroimmunology presents a scientific discussion of the current understanding of these vital neuroimmunological interactions and their implications for normal psychology and disease states. Contributors document the cell biological mechanisms for the neuropeptide activation of mast cells, and analyze how one or more adrenergenic and peptidergic messengers modulate immunity. They also explain the pathways by which cholinergic factors may suppress immunological inflammation. The potential implications of organ system-selective neuroimmunology for host defense and diseases are thoroughly discussed for the skin, the intestines, the bladder, and the lungs. With modern neuroimmunology now firmly established as a scientific discipline, this volume supports this promising science as a pathway to novel diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for diseases of the neural, immune, and endocrine systems.

Neuroimmune Pharmacology

Author : Tsuneya Ikezu
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The second edition of Neuroimmune Pharmacology bridges the disciplines of neuroscience, immunology and pharmacology from the molecular to clinical levels with particular thought made to engage new research directives and clinical modalities. Bringing together the foremost field authorities from around the world, Neuroimmune Pharmacology will serve as an invaluable resource for the basic and applied scientists of the current decade and beyond.

Psychogastroenterology for Adults

Author : Simon R. Knowles
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The brain-gut connection has been increasingly implicated in biopsychosocial well-being. While there are numerous factors that directly and indirectly impact on how the gut and the brain interact, there is a growing awareness that gastrointestinal conditions need to be viewed and treated as part of a multidisciplinary approach. Psychogastroenterology for Adults: A Handbook for Mental Health Professionals is the first book to provide mental health professionals with an evidence-based, practical guide for working with patients living with gastrointestinal conditions. Timely and accessibly written, this book provides a unique, comprehensive introduction to psychogastroenterology, offering a step-by-step guide to evidence-based psychological treatment protocols. Broad in scope and expertise, the book is divided into four parts. It opens with an overview of the field, moving on to outline psychological concerns and conditions in gastroenterological (GI) cohorts. Further, it covers various approaches to psychogastroenterology, including psychopharmacological and eHealth practices. In closing, the book looks to the future, providing guidance on supervision in psychogastroenterology, and exploring challenges in the field. Written by experts in the field, this book will be an indispensable resource for those who wish to enhance their knowledge and practice of psychogastroenterology in the mental health profession, including psychologists, psychiatrists, psychosomatic medicine specialists, nurses and social workers.

Neuroimmune Signaling in Drug Actions and Addictions

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This well-established international series examines major areas of basic and clinical research within neuroscience, as well as emerging and promising subfields. This volume concentrates on Neuroimmune Signaling in Drug Actions and Addictions. This book looks at neuroimmune signaling in drug actions and addictions in the light of the newest scholarly discoveries and insights

New Insights to Neuroimmune Biology

Author : Istvan Berczi
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New Insights to Neuroimmune Biology investigates the mechanisms that and functions of the Neuroimmune Regulatory Supersystem. Covering molecular regulation of cytokines in brain astrocytes, immunoregulation by the sympathetic nervous system, circadian regulation of immune reactions, antigen recognition by the CNS, the modulation of the immune response by head injury, neurogenic inflammation, the role of tachykinins in asthma and allergic disease, defence and defeat reactions, cytokines, behavior and affective disorders, increased activity of type 1 helper T cell functions after reward stimulation. This book has relevance to the entire scientific community in Biology, Medicine and Veterinary medicine as it discusses molecular, cellular, organic and systemic aspects as well as the physological, pathophysiological and behavioral mechnisms which are involved in Neuroimmiune Biology.

A Comprehensive Overview of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Author : Jakub Fichna
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A Comprehensive Overview of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical and Basic Science Aspects presents up-to-date knowledge in the field and provides a comprehensive summary of this area of study, including an overview on IBS, starting from its pathogenesis, including genetic, microbial and physiological background, through symptom recognition, diagnosis and IBS treatment, both non-pharmacological and pharmacological. Compiles the most recent and comprehensive findings in pharmacological targets Highlights the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors involved in disease development Written by leading researchers in the field of Irritable Bowel Syndrome to address research challenges in the field Includes bonus information on symptom recognition and diagnosis

Neuroscience of Alcohol

Author : Victor R. Preedy
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Neuroscience of Alcohol: Mechanisms and Treatment presents the fundamental information necessary for a thorough understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol addiction and its effects on the brain. Offering thorough coverage of all aspects of alcohol research, treatment and prevention, and containing contributions from internationally recognized experts, the book provides students, early-career researchers, and investigators at all levels with a fundamental introduction to all aspects of alcohol misuse. Alcohol is one of the world’s most common addictive substances, with about two billion individuals worldwide consuming it in one form or another and three million annual deaths that are associated with alcohol misuse. Alcohol alters a variety of neurological processes, from molecular biology, to cognition. Moreover, addiction to alcohol can lead to numerous other health concerns and damage virtually every organ system in the body, making diagnosis and treatment of individuals addicted to alcohol of critical importance. Integrates cutting-edge research on the pharmacological, cellular and molecular aspects of alcohol use, along with its effects on neurobiological function Discusses alcohol use as a component of dual-use and poly addictions Outlines numerous screening and treatment strategies for alcohol misuse Covers both the physical and psychological effects of alcohol use and withdrawals to provide a fully-formed view of alcohol dependency and its effects

10 Years of Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Pharmacology

Author : Angelo A. Izzo
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Integrative Gastroenterology

Author : Gerard E. Mullin
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Digestive complaints have become increasingly common. Recent statistics show that gastrointestinal complaints account for nearly a third of all visits to primary care doctors and that nearly one in two Americans suffer from digestive disease. Millions more suffer from conditions such as migraine headaches, arthritis, mood disorders, chronic fatigue, asthma, allergies, and menstrual dysfunction, which are all related to a disorder in digestive health. Despite the evidence in support of integrative approaches to treatment and prevention of digestive symptoms, these approaches are largely overlooked in treating gastrointestinal disorders. Rather, treatment plans tend to be exclusively pharmacologically based and have appreciable toxicity. Integrative Gastroenterology, Second edition, is a comprehensive guide to helping health care practitioners understand and appreciate how to manage patients with gastrointestinal conditions integrating conventional and complimentary approaches. This text reviews the latest advances in science and research with regards to the gut microbiome, physiology, and interconnections between the gut and other organ systems. Coverage includes a diverse range of treatment methods, such as probiotics, meditation, massage, yoga, supplements, special diets, energy medicine, homeopathy, and acupuncture, as well as a special section devoted to mind-body medicine in digestive health and disease. In discussing unconventional treatments, the authors address many of the controversies that surround the remedies.

Bioactive Compounds from Microbes

Author : Roberto Mazzoli
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Microorganisms have had a long and surprising history. They were “invisible” until invention of microscope in the 17th century. Until that date, although they were extensively (but inconsciously) employed in food preservation, beer and wine fermentation, cheese, vinegar, yogurt and bread making, as well as being the causative agents of infectious diseases, they were considered as “not-existing”. The work of Pasteur in the middle of the 19th century revealed several biological activities performed by microorganisms including fermentations and pathogenicity. Due to the urgent issue to treat infectious diseases (the main cause of death at those times) the “positive potential” of the microbial world has been neglected for about one century. Once the fight against the “evil” strains was fulfilled also thanks to the antibiotics, industry began to appreciate bacteria’s beneficial characteristics and exploit selected strains as starters for both food fermentations and aroma, enzyme and texturing agent production. However, it was only at the end of the 20th century that the probiotic potential of some bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria was fully recognized. Very recently, apart from the probiotic activity of in toto bacteria, attention has begun to be directed to the chemical mediators of the probiotic effect. Thanks also to the improvement of techniques such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, several bioactive compounds are continuously being discovered. Bioactive molecules produced by bacteria, yeasts and virus-infected cells proved to be important for improving or impairing human health. The most important result of last years’ research concerns the discovery that a very complex network of signals allows communication between organisms (from intra-species interactions to inter-kingdom signaling). Based on these findings a completely new approach has arisen: the system biology standpoind. Actually, the different organisms colonizing a certain environmental niche are not merely interacting with each other as individuals but should be considered as a whole complex ecosystem continuously exchanging information at the molecular level. In this context, this topic issue explores both antagonistic compounds (i.e. antibiotics) and “multiple function” cooperative molecules improving the physiological status of both stimulators and targets of this network. From the applicative viewpoint, these molecules could be hopefully exploited to develop new pharmaceuticals and/or nutraceuticals for improving human health.

Neuroimmune Interface in Health and Diseases

Author : Ihssane Zouikr
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It is now well appreciated that the immune system, in addition to its traditional role in defending the organism against pathogens, communicate in a well-organized fashion with the brain to maintain homeostasis and regulate a set of neural functions. Perturbation in this brain-immune interactions due to inflammatory responses may lead to psychiatric and neurological disorders. Microglia are one of the essential cells involved in the brain-immune interactions. Microglial cells are now not simply regarded as resident tissue macrophages in the brain. These cells are derived from myeloid progenitor cells in the yolk sac in early gestation, travel to the brain parenchyma and interact actively with neurons during the critical period of neurogenesis. Microglia provide a trophic support to developing neurons and take part in the neural wiring through the activity-dependent synapse elimination via direct neuron-microglia interactions. Altered microglial functions including changes in the gene expression due to early life inflammatory events or psychological and environmental stressors can be causally related to neurodevelopmental diseases and mental health disorders. This type of alterations in the neural functions can occur in the absence of infiltration of inflammatory cells in the brain parenchyma or leptomeninges. In this sense, the pathogenetic state underlying a significant part of psychiatric and neurological diseases may be similar to “para-inflammation”, an intermediate state between homeostatic and classical inflammatory states as defined by Ruslan Medzhitov (Nature 454:428-35, 2008). Therefore, it is important to study how systemic inflammation affects brain health and how local peripheral inflammation induces changes in the brain microenvironment. Chronic pain is also induced by disturbance in otherwise well-organized multisystem interplay comprising of reciprocal neural, endocrine and immune interactions. Especially, early-life insults including exposure to immune challenges can alter the neuroanatomical components of nociception, which induces altered pain response later in life. Recently the discrete roles of microglia and blood monocyte-derived macrophages are being defined. The distinction may be further highlighted by disorders in which the brain parenchymal tissue is damaged. Therefore, studies investigating the dynamics of immune cells in traumatic brain injury and neurotropic viral infections including human immunodeficiency virus, etc. as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are promising to clarify the interplay between the central nervous and immune systems. The understanding of the histological architecture providing the infrastructure of such neuro-immune interplay is also essential. This Frontiers research topic brings together fourteen articles and aims to create a platform for researchers in the field of psychoneuroimmunology to share the recent theories, hypotheses and future perspectives regarding open questions on the mechanisms of cell-cell interactions with chemical mediators among the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. We hope that this platform would reveal the relevance of the studies on multisystem interactions to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Neuroimmunology

Author : Amanda L. Piquet
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