Neighborhood Poverty, Volume 1

Context and Consequences for Children


Author: Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 9780871541451

Category: Social Science

Page: 356

View: 5296

Perhaps the most alarming phenomenon in American cities has been the transformation of many neighborhoods into isolated ghettos where poverty is the norm and violent crime, drug use, out-of-wedlock births, and soaring school dropout rates are rampant. Public concern over these destitute areas has focused on their most vulnerable inhabitants—children and adolescents. How profoundly does neighborhood poverty endanger their well-being and development? Is the influence of neighborhood more powerful than that of the family? Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children approaches these questions with an insightful and wide-ranging investigation into the effect of community poverty on children's physical health, cognitive and verbal abilities, educational attainment, and social adjustment. This two-volume set offers the most current research and analysis from experts in the fields of child development, social psychology, sociology and economics. Drawing from national and city-based sources, Volume I reports the empirical evidence concerning the relationship between children and community. As the essays demonstrate, poverty entails a host of problems that affects the quality of educational, recreational, and child care services. Poor neighborhoods usually share other negative features—particularly racial segregation and a preponderance of single mother families—that may adversely affect children. Yet children are not equally susceptible to the pitfalls of deprived communities. Neighborhood has different effects depending on a child's age, race, and gender, while parenting techniques and a family's degree of community involvement also serve as mitigating factors. Volume II incorporates empirical data on neighborhood poverty into discussions of policy and program development. The contributors point to promising community initiatives and suggest methods to strengthen neighborhood-based service programs for children. Several essays analyze the conceptual and methodological issues surrounding the measurement of neighborhood characteristics. These essays focus on the need to expand scientific insight into urban poverty by drawing on broader pools of ethnographic, epidemiological, and quantitative data. Volume II explores the possibilities for a richer and more well-rounded understanding of neighborhood and poverty issues. To grasp the human cost of poverty, we must clearly understand how living in distressed neighborhoods impairs children's ability to function at every level. Neighborhood Poverty explores the multiple and complex paths between community, family, and childhood development. These two volumes provide and indispensible guide for social policy and demonstrate the power of interdisciplinary social science to probe complex social issues.

Neighborhood Planning and Community-Based Development

The Potential and Limits of Grassroots Action


Author: William Peterman

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761911999

Category: Political Science

Page: 191

View: 9840

Exploring the promise and limits of grassroots strategies for community organizing, development and planning, this book looks at how they can be used in the revitalization and maintenance of urban neighborhoods. The book presents a number of case studies from the United States, analyzing the reasons for success and failure, and concludes with recommendations in the form of a "tool kit" for planners and community leaders.

Neighborhood Upgrading

A Realistic Assessment


Author: David P. Varady

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780887062995

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

View: 9882

Neighborhood Upgrading examines the effectiveness of government-subsidized housing rehabilitation programs in reversing patterns of neighborhood decline. Varady takes a realistic look at the dilemma facing policy planners attempting to effect changes on a local level. His is the first study to assess the impact of neighborhood ethnic and social class changes on mobility and investment decisions. There has been little empirical research on neighborhood upgrading where improvement results from the efforts of existing residents aides by government assistance. Varady' study makes a major contribution in illuminating the variables of this process. Focusing on the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Urban Homesteading Demonstration (UHD), he presents disturbing findings that are applicable to other neighborhood preservation programs such as the Neighborhood Housing Service (NHS) and the Community Development Block Grant Program. He argues that the future success of such programs lies in the ability of planners and policy makers to develop and implement policies addressing the issues that cause neighborhood decline--poverty, crime, and discrimination.

Neighborhood Tokyo


Author: Theodore C. Bestor

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804717974

Category: Social Science

Page: 347

View: 6857

In the vastness of Tokyo these are tiny social units, and by the standards that most Americans would apply, they are perhaps far too small, geographically and demographically, to be considered "neighborhoods." Still, to residents of Tokyo and particularly to the residents of any given subsection of the city, they are socially significant and geographically distinguishable divisions of the urban landscape. In neighborhoods such as these, overlapping and intertwining associations and institutions provide an elaborate and enduring framework for local social life, within which residents are linked to one another not only through their participation in local organizations, but also through webs of informal social, economic, and political ties. This book is an ethnographic analysis of the social fabric and internal dynamics of one such neighborhood: Miyamoto-cho, a pseudonym for a residential and commercial district in Tokyo where the author carried out fieldwork from June 1979 to May 1981, and during several summers since. It is a study of the social construction and maintenance of a neighborhood in a society where such communities are said to be outmoded, even antithetical to the major trends of modernization and social change that have transformed Japan in the last hundred years. It is a study not of tradition as an aspect of historical continuity, but of traditionalism: the manipulation, invention, and recombination of cultural patterns, symbols, and motifs so as to legitimate contemporary social realities by imbuing them with a patina of venerable historicity. It is a study of often subtle and muted struggles between insiders and outsiders over those most ephemeral of the community's resources, its identity and sense of autonomy, enacted in the seemingly insubstantial idioms of cultural tradition.

The World's Richest Neighborhood

How Pittsburgh's East Enders Forged American Industry


Author: Quentin R. Skrabec

Publisher: Algora Publishing

ISBN: 0875867952

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 233

View: 5652

The residents of Pittsburgh's East End controlled as much a 40% of America's assets at the turn of the last century. Mail was delivered seven times a day to keep America's greatest capitalists in touch with their factories, banks, and markets. The neighborhood had its own private station of the Pennsylvania Railroad with a daily non-stop express to New York's financial district. Many of the world's most powerful men — princes, artists, politicians, scientists, and American Presidents such as William McKinley, Teddy Roosevelt, William Taft, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover, came to visit the hard-working and high-flying captains of industry. Two major corporations, Standard Oil and ALCOA Aluminum were formed in East End homes. It was the first neighborhood to adopt the telephone with direct lines from the homes to the biggest banks in Pittsburgh, which at the time was America's fifth largest city. The story of this neighborhood is a story of America at its greatest point of wealth and includes rags-to-riches stories, political corruption, scandals, and greed. The history of this unique piece of American geography makes for enjoyable reading that will satisfy a large cross section of readers.

Neighborhood Challenge

European Union and Its Neighbors


Author: Bezen Balamir-Coskun,Birgül Demirtaş-Coşkun

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 1599429683

Category: History

Page: 423

View: 3020

One of the intriguing questions of the post-Cold War era has been whether the EU will play a major global role in world politics as non-traditional threats and challenges came to the forefront. Launching new policies such as the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the European Security and Defence Policy and the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) have been considered important steps in the EU's evolution as a regional and possibly global actor. Neighborhood Challenge analyzes critical aspects of the European Union's relations with its neighbours, by extending its analysis beyond the ENP. Unlike existing books on the subject, the volume covers the entire neighborhood from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus to North Africa; from the Western Balkans to the South Caucasus and Central Asia. Such an extensive overview of EU policies toward its neighbors is a timely and valuable contribution to European Studies literature. This book can be used as a tool for both academicians and practitioners who specialize in European foreign and security policy; as a textbook in European Union foreign policy courses both at the undergraduate and graduate level; and as a comprehensive reference book for postgraduate students writing dissertations on European foreign and security policy in general and European Neighborhood Policy in particular. The contributions analyze challenges and prospects posed by countries neighboring the EU and the effectiveness of EU policy in dealing with these agendas. Region-focused chapters examine the EU's politics toward the Western Balkans, Middle East, CIS, and the Black Sea; country-focused chapters explore aspects of Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Iran, Bosnia, Kosovo; and thematically-focused chapters deal with energy security, organized crime, and other issues. Neighborhood Challenge is intended to contribute to the existing literature on EU foreign and security policy in two ways: First, its material is not restricted to the ENP. Instead, it addresses all EU neighbors in a large region and their position in European security. The authors argue that not only the countries in the immediate neighborhood of the EU but also those located in relatively far away regions have a role to play in European Union foreign affairs. Secondly, many of the contributions were written by experts living in countries which neighbor the EU. Their contributions lend new ideas and insight to the relevant literature on EU security and foreign policy.

Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence

The Role of Business Improvement Districts in Los Angeles


Author: John Michael MacDonald

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833046632

Category: Political Science

Page: 117

View: 5677

Business improvement districts (BIDs) collect assessments and invest in local service provisions and activities, such as place promotion, street cleaning, and public safety. Such activities can help reduce crime and youth violence by increasing informal social control, reducing signs of disorder and blight, improving order maintenance, and enriching job opportunities. This report examines BIDs1 impact on crime and youth violence in Los Angeles.

Neighborhood Context and the Development of African American Children


Author: Maria Loreto Martinez

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780815335382

Category: Social Science

Page: 153

View: 6080

Perceived Neighborhood Scale -- Neighborhood Influences on Development -- Strengths of the Study -- Limitations of the Study -- Directions for Future Research -- Implications for Intervention -- Appendix 1. Structural Equation Modeling -- Appendix 2. Pearson Correlations Coefficients for Variables in Longitudinal Models -- Appendix 3. Pearson Correlation Coefficients for Variables in Cross-sectional Models -- References -- Index

Neighborhood Statistics

Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Census and Population of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives, Ninety-fifth Congress, First Session, on H.R. 3789 ... April 20, 1977


Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. Subcommittee on Census and Population

Publisher: N.A


Category: Community organization

Page: 71

View: 8711

Neighborhood Structure, Crime, and Fear of Crime

Testing Bursik and Grasmick's Neighborhood Control Theory


Author: Clete Snell

Publisher: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC

ISBN: 9781931202077

Category: Law

Page: 159

View: 7843

The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a test of Bursik and Grasmick's systemic theory of neighborhood crime control. This study is important for several reasons. The first is because Shaw and McKay were among the first criminologists to identify a relationship between ecologically disadvantaged neighborhoods and crime rates. However, their explanation for the process of why neighborhoods are important for understanding crime has been challenged. Bursik and Grasmick's theory has the promise of explaining the mechanisms by which neighborhoods influence crime. A second rationale for this research is that tests of two different dependent variables are conducted, crime rates and fear of crime, with the same theoretical model. Third, with this research, a test is conducted of a relatively new, important theory that has not yet been fully tested. Finally, this book utilizes two different statistical techniques, ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and hierarchical linear analysis, to test the same theoretical model. This has the potential to contribute to the statistical debate concerning the better method to test neighborhood or community-level theories. With hierarchical linear analysis, models of two or three levels of analysis can be tested. The method also allows for an understanding of neighborhood versus individual effects.