Search results for: models-and-modeling-in-the-sciences

Models and Modeling in the Sciences

Author : Stephen M. Downes
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Biologists, climate scientists, and economists all rely on models to move their work forward. In this book, Stephen M. Downes explores the use of models in these and other fields to introduce readers to the various philosophical issues that arise in scientific modeling. Readers learn that paying attention to models plays a crucial role in appraising scientific work. This book first presents a wide range of models from a number of different scientific disciplines. After assembling some illustrative examples, Downes demonstrates how models shed light on many perennial issues in philosophy of science and in philosophy in general. Reviewing the range of views on how models represent their targets introduces readers to the key issues in debates on representation, not only in science but in the arts as well. Also, standard epistemological questions are cast in new and interesting ways when readers confront the question, "What makes for a good (or bad) model?" All examples from the sciences and positions in the philosophy of science are presented in an accessible manner. The book is suitable for undergraduates with minimal experience in philosophy and an introductory undergraduate experience in science. Key features: The book serves as a highly accessible philosophical introduction to models and modeling in the sciences, presenting all philosophical and scientific issues in a nontechnical manner. Students and other readers learn to practice philosophy of science by starting with clear examples taken directly from the sciences. While not comprehensive, this book introduces the reader to a wide range of views on key issues in the philosophy of science.

Models and Modeling

Author : Myint Swe Khine
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The process of developing models, known as modeling, allows scientists to visualize difficult concepts, explain complex phenomena and clarify intricate theories. In recent years, science educators have greatly increased their use of modeling in teaching, especially real-time dynamic modeling, which is central to a scientific investigation. Modeling in science teaching is being used in an array of fields, everything from primary sciences to tertiary chemistry to college physics, and it is sure to play an increasing role in the future of education. Models and Modeling: Cognitive Tools for Scientific Enquiry is a comprehensive introduction to the use of models and modeling in science education. It identifies and describes many different modeling tools and presents recent applications of modeling as a cognitive tool for scientific enquiry.

Formal Modeling in Social Science

Author : Carol Mershon
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A formal model in the social sciences builds explanations when it structures the reasoning underlying a theoretical argument, opens venues for controlled experimentation, and can lead to hypotheses. Yet more importantly, models evaluate theory, build theory, and enhance conjectures. Formal Modeling in Social Science addresses the varied helpful roles of formal models and goes further to take up more fundamental considerations of epistemology and methodology. The authors integrate the exposition of the epistemology and the methodology of modeling and argue that these two reinforce each other. They illustrate the process of designing an original model suited to the puzzle at hand, using multiple methods in diverse substantive areas of inquiry. The authors also emphasize the crucial, though underappreciated, role of a narrative in the progression from theory to model. Transparency of assumptions and steps in a model means that any analyst will reach equivalent predictions whenever she replicates the argument. Hence, models enable theoretical replication, essential in the accumulation of knowledge. Formal Modeling in Social Science speaks to scholars in different career stages and disciplines and with varying expertise in modeling.

Models and Modeling

Author : Jerry P. Fairley
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An Introduction to Models and Modeling in the Earth and Environmental Sciences offers students and professionals the opportunity to learn about groundwater modeling, starting from the basics. Using clear, physically-intuitive examples, the author systematically takes us on a tour that begins with the simplest representations of fluid flow and builds through the most important equations of groundwater hydrology. Along the way, we learn how to develop a conceptual understanding of a system, how to choose boundary and initial conditions, and how to exploit model symmetry. Other important topics covered include non-dimensionalization, sensitivity, and finite differences. Written in an eclectic and readable style that will win over even math-phobic students, this text lays the foundation for a successful career in modeling and is accessible to anyone that has completed two semesters of Calculus. Although the popular image of a geologist or environmental scientist may be the rugged adventurer, heading off into the wilderness with a compass and a hand level, the disciplines of geology, hydrogeology, and environmental sciences have become increasingly quantitative. Today’s earth science professionals routinely work with mathematical and computer models, and career success often demands a broad range of analytical and computational skills. An Introduction to Models and Modeling in the Earth and Environmental Sciencesis written for students and professionals who want to learn the craft of modeling, and do more than just run “black box” computer simulations.

Model Based Inference in the Life Sciences

Author : David R. Anderson
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This textbook introduces a science philosophy called "information theoretic" based on Kullback-Leibler information theory. It focuses on a science philosophy based on "multiple working hypotheses" and statistical models to represent them. The text is written for people new to the information-theoretic approaches to statistical inference, whether graduate students, post-docs, or professionals. Readers are however expected to have a background in general statistical principles, regression analysis, and some exposure to likelihood methods. This is not an elementary text as it assumes reasonable competence in modeling and parameter estimation.

Models and Modelling in the Sciences

Author : Stephen M. Downes
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"Biologists, climate scientists and economists all rely on models to move their work forward. In this book, Stephen M. Downes explores the use of models in these and other fields to introduce readers to the various philosophical issues that arise in scientific modeling. Readers learn that paying attention to models plays a crucial role in appraising scientific work. This book first presents a wide range of models from a number of different scientific disciplines. After assembling some illustrative examples, Downes demonstrates how models shed light on many perennial issues in philosophy of science and in philosophy in general. Reviewing the range of views on how models represent their targets introduces readers to the key issues in debates on representation, not only in science but in the arts as well. Also, standard epistemological questions are cast in new and interesting ways when readers confront the question "What makes for a good (or bad) model?" All examples from the sciences and positions in the philosophy of science are presented in an accessible manner. The book is suitable for undergraduates with minimal experience in philosophy and an introductory undergraduate experience in science. Key features: The book serves as a highly accessible philosophical introduction to models and modeling in the sciences, presenting all philosophical and scientific issues in a nontechnical manner. Students and other readers learn to practice philosophy of science by starting with clear examples taken directly from the sciences. While not comprehensive, this book introduces reader to a wide range of views on key issues in the philosophy of science"--

Modeling in Applied Sciences

Author : Nicola Bellomo
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Modeling complex biological, chemical, and physical systems, in the context of spatially heterogeneous mediums, is a challenging task for scientists and engineers using traditional methods of analysis. Modeling in Applied Sciences is a comprehensive survey of modeling large systems using kinetic equations, and in particular the Boltzmann equation and its generalizations. An interdisciplinary group of leading authorities carefully develop the foundations of kinetic models and discuss the connections and interactions between model theories, qualitative and computational analysis and real-world applications. This book provides a thoroughly accessible and lucid overview of the different aspects, models, computations, and methodology for the kinetic-theory modeling process. Topics and Features: * Integrated modeling perspective utilized in all chapters * Fluid dynamics of reacting gases * Self-contained introduction to kinetic models * Becker–Doring equations * Nonlinear kinetic models with chemical reactions * Kinetic traffic-flow models * Models of granular media * Large communication networks * Thorough discussion of numerical simulations of Boltzmann equation This new book is an essential resource for all scientists and engineers who use large-scale computations for studying the dynamics of complex systems of fluids and particles. Professionals, researchers, and postgraduates will find the book a modern and authoritative guide to the topic.

Springer Handbook of Model Based Science

Author : Lorenzo Magnani
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This handbook offers the first comprehensive reference guide to the interdisciplinary field of model-based reasoning. It highlights the role of models as mediators between theory and experimentation, and as educational devices, as well as their relevance in testing hypotheses and explanatory functions. The Springer Handbook merges philosophical, cognitive and epistemological perspectives on models with the more practical needs related to the application of this tool across various disciplines and practices. The result is a unique, reliable source of information that guides readers toward an understanding of different aspects of model-based science, such as the theoretical and cognitive nature of models, as well as their practical and logical aspects. The inferential role of models in hypothetical reasoning, abduction and creativity once they are constructed, adopted, and manipulated for different scientific and technological purposes is also discussed. Written by a group of internationally renowned experts in philosophy, the history of science, general epistemology, mathematics, cognitive and computer science, physics and life sciences, as well as engineering, architecture, and economics, this Handbook uses numerous diagrams, schemes and other visual representations to promote a better understanding of the concepts. This also makes it highly accessible to an audience of scholars and students with different scientific backgrounds. All in all, the Springer Handbook of Model-Based Science represents the definitive application-oriented reference guide to the interdisciplinary field of model-based reasoning.

Systems Science and Modeling for Ecological Economics

Author : Alexey A. Voinov
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Modeling is a key component to sciences from mathematics to life science, including environmental and ecological studies. By looking at the underlying concepts of the software, we can make sure that we build mathematically feasible models and that we get the most out of the data and information that we have. Systems Science and Modeling for Ecological Economics shows how models can be analyzed using simple math and software to generate meaningful qualitative descriptions of system dynamics. This book shows that even without a full analytical, mathematically rigorous analysis of the equations, there may be ways to derive some qualitative understanding of the general behavior of a system. By relating some of the modeling approaches and systems theory to real-world examples the book illustrates how these approaches can help understand concepts such as sustainability, peak oil, adaptive management, optimal harvest and other practical applications. Relates modeling approaches and systems theory to real-world examples Teaches students to build mathematically feasible models and get the most out of the data and information available Wide range of applications in hydrology, population dynamics, market cycles, sustainability theory, management, and more

Models and Modeling in the Sciences

Author : Stephen M. Downes
File Size : 30.24 MB
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Biologists, climate scientists, and economists all rely on models to move their work forward. In this book, Stephen M. Downes explores the use of models in these and other fields to introduce readers to the various philosophical issues that arise in scientific modeling. Readers learn that paying attention to models plays a crucial role in appraising scientific work. This book first presents a wide range of models from a number of different scientific disciplines. After assembling some illustrative examples, Downes demonstrates how models shed light on many perennial issues in philosophy of science and in philosophy in general. Reviewing the range of views on how models represent their targets introduces readers to the key issues in debates on representation, not only in science but in the arts as well. Also, standard epistemological questions are cast in new and interesting ways when readers confront the question, "What makes for a good (or bad) model?" All examples from the sciences and positions in the philosophy of science are presented in an accessible manner. The book is suitable for undergraduates with minimal experience in philosophy and an introductory undergraduate experience in science. Key features: The book serves as a highly accessible philosophical introduction to models and modeling in the sciences, presenting all philosophical and scientific issues in a nontechnical manner. Students and other readers learn to practice philosophy of science by starting with clear examples taken directly from the sciences. While not comprehensive, this book introduces the reader to a wide range of views on key issues in the philosophy of science.

Models of Science Dynamics

Author : Andrea Scharnhorst
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Models of Science Dynamics aims to capture the structure and evolution of science, the emerging arena in which scholars, science and the communication of science become themselves the basic objects of research. In order to capture the essence of phenomena as diverse as the structure of co-authorship networks or the evolution of citation diffusion patterns, such models can be represented by conceptual models based on historical and ethnographic observations, mathematical descriptions of measurable phenomena, or computational algorithms. Despite its evident importance, the mathematical modeling of science still lacks a unifying framework and a comprehensive study of the topic. This volume fills this gap, reviewing and describing major threads in the mathematical modeling of science dynamics for a wider academic and professional audience. The model classes presented cover stochastic and statistical models, system-dynamics approaches, agent-based simulations, population-dynamics models, and complex-network models. The book comprises an introduction and a foundational chapter that defines and operationalizes terminology used in the study of science, as well as a review chapter that discusses the history of mathematical approaches to modeling science from an algorithmic-historiography perspective. It concludes with a survey of remaining challenges for future science models and their relevance for science and science policy.

The Art of Modeling in Science and Engineering with Mathematica

Author : Diran Basmadjian
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Modeling is practiced in engineering and all physical sciences. Many specialized texts exist - written at a high level - that cover this subject. However, students and even professionals often experience difficulties in setting up and solving even the simplest of models. This can be attributed to three difficulties: the proper choice of model, the absence of precise solutions, and the necessity to make suitable simplifying assumptions and approximations. Overcoming these difficulties is the focus of The Art of Modeling in Science and Engineering. The text is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and practicing professionals in the sciences and engineering with an interest in Modeling based on Mass, Energy and Momentum or Force Balances. The book covers a wide range of physical processes and phenomena drawn from chemical, mechanical, civil, environmental sciences and bio- sciences. A separate section is devoted to "real World" industrial problems. The author explains how to choose the simplest model, obtain an appropriate solution to the problem and make simplifying assumptions/approximations.

Causal Models in the Social Sciences

Author : Jr. Blalock
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Causal models are formal theories stating the relationships between precisely defined variables, and have become an indispensable tool of the social scientist. This collection of articles is a course book on the causal modeling approach to theory construction and data analysis. H. M. Blalock, Jr. summarizes the then-current developments in causal model utilization in sociology, political science, economics, and other disciplines. This book provides a comprehensive multidisciplinary picture of the work on causal models. It seeks to address the problem of measurement in the social sciences and to link theory and research through the development of causal models.Organized into five sections (Simple Recursive Models, Path Analysis, Simultaneous Equations Techniques, The Causal Approach to Measurement Error, and Other Complications), this volume contains twenty-seven articles (eight of which were specially commissioned). Each section begins with an introduction explaining the concepts to be covered in the section and links them to the larger subject. It provides a general overview of the theory and application of causal modeling.Blalock argues for the development of theoretical models that can be operationalized and provide verifiable predictions. Many of the discussions of this subject that occur in other literature are too technical for most social scientists and other scholars who lack a strong background in mathematics. This book attempts to integrate a few of the less technical papers written by econometricians such as Koopmans, Wold, Strotz, and Fisher with discussions of causal approaches in the social and biological sciences. This classic text by Blalock is a valuable source of material for those interested in the issue of measurement in the social sciences and the construction of mathematical models.

Mathematical Modeling for the Life Sciences

Author : Jacques Istas
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Provides a wide range of mathematical models currently used in the life sciences Each model is thoroughly explained and illustrated by example Includes three appendices to allow for independent reading

Mathematical Methods and Models in Biomedicine

Author : Urszula Ledzewicz
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Mathematical biomedicine is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary field of research that connects the natural and exact sciences in an attempt to respond to the modeling and simulation challenges raised by biology and medicine. There exist a large number of mathematical methods and procedures that can be brought in to meet these challenges and this book presents a palette of such tools ranging from discrete cellular automata to cell population based models described by ordinary differential equations to nonlinear partial differential equations representing complex time- and space-dependent continuous processes. Both stochastic and deterministic methods are employed to analyze biological phenomena in various temporal and spatial settings. This book illustrates the breadth and depth of research opportunities that exist in the general field of mathematical biomedicine by highlighting some of the fascinating interactions that continue to develop between the mathematical and biomedical sciences. It consists of five parts that can be read independently, but are arranged to give the reader a broader picture of specific research topics and the mathematical tools that are being applied in its modeling and analysis. The main areas covered include immune system modeling, blood vessel dynamics, cancer modeling and treatment, and epidemiology. The chapters address topics that are at the forefront of current biomedical research such as cancer stem cells, immunodominance and viral epitopes, aggressive forms of brain cancer, or gene therapy. The presentations highlight how mathematical modeling can enhance biomedical understanding and will be of interest to both the mathematical and the biomedical communities including researchers already working in the field as well as those who might consider entering it. Much of the material is presented in a way that gives graduate students and young researchers a starting point for their own work.

Life Science Models

Author : H. Marcus-Roberts
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The purpose of this four volume series is to make available for college teachers and students samples of important and realistic applications of mathematics which can be covered in undergraduate programs. The goal is to provide illustrations of how modern mathematics is actually employed to solve relevant contemporary problems. Although these independent chapters were prepared primarily for teachers in the general mathematical sciences, th~y should prove valuable to students, teachers, and research scientists in many of the fields of application as well. Prerequisites for each chapter and suggestions for the teacher are provided. Several of these chapters have been tested in a variety of classroom settings, and all have undergone extensive peer review and revision. Illustrations and exercises are included in most chapters. Some units can be covered in one class, whereas others provide sufficient material for a few weeks of class time. Volume 1 contains 23 chapters and deals with differential equations and, in the last four chapters, problems leading to partial differential equations. Applications are taken from medicine, biology, traffic systems and several other fields. The 14 chapters in Volume 2 are devoted mostly to problems arising in political science, but they also address questions appearing in sociology and ecology. Topics covered include voting systems, weighted voting, proportional representation, coalitional values, and committees. The 14 chapters in Volume 3 emphasize discrete mathematical methods such as those which arise in graph theory, combinatorics, and networks.

How to Do Science with Models

Author : Axel Gelfert
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Taking scientific practice as its starting point, this book charts the complex territory of models used in science. It examines what scientific models are and what their function is. Reliance on models is pervasive in science, and scientists often need to construct models in order to explain or predict anything of interest at all. The diversity of kinds of models one finds in science – ranging from toy models and scale models to theoretical and mathematical models – has attracted attention not only from scientists, but also from philosophers, sociologists, and historians of science. This has given rise to a wide variety of case studies that look at the different uses to which models have been put in specific scientific contexts. By exploring current debates on the use and building of models via cutting-edge examples drawn from physics and biology, the book provides broad insight into the methodology of modelling in the natural sciences. It pairs specific arguments with introductory material relating to the ontology and the function of models, and provides some historical context to the debates as well as a sketch of general positions in the philosophy of scientific models in the process.

Mathematical Modeling in the Social and Life Sciences

Author : Michael Olinick
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Olinick’s Mathematical Models in the Social and Life Sciences concentrates not on physical models, but on models found in biology, social science, and daily life. This text concentrates on a relatively small number of models to allow students to study them critically and in depth, and balances practice and theory in its approach. Each chapter concluded with suggested projects that encourage students to build their own models, and space is set aside for historical and biographical notes about the development of mathematical models.

An Introduction to Optimal Control Problems in Life Sciences and Economics

Author : Sebastian Aniţa
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Combining control theory and modeling, this textbook introduces and builds on methods for simulating and tackling concrete problems in a variety of applied sciences. Emphasizing "learning by doing," the authors focus on examples and applications to real-world problems. An elementary presentation of advanced concepts, proofs to introduce new ideas, and carefully presented MATLAB® programs help foster an understanding of the basics, but also lead the way to new, independent research. With minimal prerequisites and exercises in each chapter, this work serves as an excellent textbook and reference for graduate and advanced undergraduate students, researchers, and practitioners in mathematics, physics, engineering, computer science, as well as biology, biotechnology, economics, and finance.

An Introduction to Models in the Social Sciences

Author : Charles A. Lave
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What is a model? How do you construct one? What are some common models in the social sciences? How can models be applied in new situations? What makes a model good? Focusing on answers to these and related questions, this multidisciplinary introduction to model building in the social sciences formulates interesting problems that involve students in creative model building and the process of invention. The book describes models of individual choice, exchange, adaptation, and diffusion. Throughout, student participation in analytical thinking is encouraged. Originally published in 1975 by HarperCollins Publishers.