Search results for: micrornas-key-regulators-of-oncogenesis

MicroRNAs Key Regulators of Oncogenesis

Author : Sadegh Babashah
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Aberrant expression and function of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer have added a new layer of complexity to the understanding of development and progression of the disease state. It has been demonstrated that miRNAs have a crucial function in oncogenesis by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. The expression signatures of miRNAs provide exciting opportunities in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of cancer. Since miRNAs can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in oncogenesis, the potential of using these small RNAs as therapeutic targets opens up new opportunities for cancer therapy by either inhibiting or augmenting their activity.

The Involvement of MicroRNAs in Autocrine HGH mediated Oncogenesis

Author : Mikhail Pertziger
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short 17-25 nucleotide RNAs which are ubiquitous regulators of gene expression. Regulation of miRNA expression has recently been highlighted as a key aspect affecting the pathogenesis of many types of malignancies, including breast and colon cancer. Furthermore, regulation of the enzymes involved in miRNA processing has also been implicated in the development and progression of several cancers, including breast cancer. The human growth hormone (hGH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis has emerged as an important mediator of tumour development. Tumoral hGH expression positively correlates with lymph node metastasis, tumour stage, HER-2 status and poor outcome in breast cancer patients. Recent reports suggest that the hGH/IGF-1 axis may influence the expression of miRNAs and this study investigates whether miRNA expression, and the expression of key proteins involved in miRNA processing, are affected by autocrine hGH in breast and colon cancer cells. The study also assessed the functional implications of autocrine hGH expression in colon carcinoma cells. Our initial findings demonstrate that forced expression of hGH in colon carcinoma cells increases total cell number by increasing cell proliferation and survival, and stimulates anchorage-independent cell growth and motility. Conversely, functional inhibition of endogenously expressed hGH decreases total cell number, due to reduced proliferation and survival, and inhibits anchorage-independent cell growth and motility. Autocrine hGH modulates miRNA expression profiles in both breast and colon cancer cells, increasing expression of several oncogenic miRNAs and reducing expression of tumour-suppressive miRNAs. One consequence of such deregulation is increased Nuclear Factor-KappaB (NFkB) activity in hGH-expressing breast cancer cells. Furthermore, autocrine hGH decreases the expression of components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, Drosha and Dicer, and modulates the expression of Ago1 and Ago2 in mammary carcinoma cells. Our findings demonstrate that autocrine hGH enhances the oncogenicity of colon carcinoma cells. In addition, autocrine hGH regulates the expression of a subset of miRNAs in breast and colon carcinoma cells and regulates the expression of key proteins involved in miRNA processing in breast cancer cells. Thus deregulation of miRNA physiology may be one mechanism whereby autocrine hGH contributes to tumour progression.

Information Resources in Toxicology

Author : Steve Gilbert
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This new fifth edition of Information Resources in Toxicology offers a consolidated entry portal for the study, research, and practice of toxicology. Both volumes represents a unique, wide-ranging, curated, international, annotated bibliography, and directory of major resources in toxicology and allied fields such as environmental and occupational health, chemical safety, and risk assessment. The editors and authors are among the leaders of the profession sharing their cumulative wisdom in toxicology’s subdisciplines. This edition keeps pace with the digital world in directing and linking readers to relevant websites and other online tools. Due to the increasing size of the hardcopy publication, the current edition has been divided into two volumes to make it easier to handle and consult. Volume 1: Background, Resources, and Tools, arranged in 5 parts, begins with chapters on the science of toxicology, its history, and informatics framework in Part 1. Part 2 continues with chapters organized by more specific subject such as cancer, clinical toxicology, genetic toxicology, etc. The categorization of chapters by resource format, for example, journals and newsletters, technical reports, organizations constitutes Part 3. Part 4 further considers toxicology’s presence via the Internet, databases, and software tools. Among the miscellaneous topics in the concluding Part 5 are laws and regulations, professional education, grants and funding, and patents. Volume 2: The Global Arena offers contributed chapters focusing on the toxicology contributions of over 40 countries, followed by a glossary of toxicological terms and an appendix of popular quotations related to the field. The book, offered in both print and electronic formats, is carefully structured, indexed, and cross-referenced to enable users to easily find answers to their questions or serendipitously locate useful knowledge they were not originally aware they needed. Among the many timely topics receiving increased emphasis are disaster preparedness, nanotechnology, -omics, risk assessment, societal implications such as ethics and the precautionary principle, climate change, and children’s environmental health. Introductory chapters provide a backdrop to the science of toxicology, its history, the origin and status of toxicoinformatics, and starting points for identifying resources. Offers an extensive array of chapters organized by subject, each highlighting resources such as journals, databases,organizations, and review articles. Includes chapters with an emphasis on format such as government reports, general interest publications, blogs, and audiovisuals. Explores recent internet trends, web-based databases, and software tools in a section on the online environment. Concludes with a miscellany of special topics such as laws and regulations, chemical hazard communication resources, careers and professional education, K-12 resources, funding, poison control centers, and patents. Paired with Volume Two, which focuses on global resources, this set offers the most comprehensive compendium of print, digital, and organizational resources in the toxicological sciences with over 120 chapters contributions by experts and leaders in the field.

The Long and Short Non coding RNAs in Cancer Biology

Author : Erwei Song
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The book conveys a comprehensive knowledge of long and short ncRNAs in cancer regulation and their potentials as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Topics covered include the molecular mechanisms of various classes of ncRNAs (with emphasis on long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs) in cancer, the functional roles of ncRNAs in regulating different cancer hallmarks (including proliferation, apoptosis, stem-cell properties, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, metabolism, angiogenesis, tumor-host interactions and therapeutic resistance), the role of ncRNAs in regulating cancer signaling circuitry programs (highlighting their involvement in c-myc, p53 and NFkB signaling), a systemic summary of clinical and preclinical studies that evaluate the potential of ncRNA signatures for cancer diagnosis and prognosis and strategies to delivery short ncRNAs as therapeutic molecules for cancer treatment. This book may serve as a comprehensive resource for researchers, graduate students and oncologists in ncRNA and cancer research and help drug development by identifying ncRNA targets.

Cancer Stem Cells Emerging Concepts and Future Perspectives in Translational Oncology

Author : Sadegh Babashah
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The concept of cancer stem cells has great clinical implications. This is due to the fact that small subpopulations of these cells have been identified in a variety of neoplastic conditions ranging from solid tumors to liquid malignancies. Although there are some huge gaps in our current understanding of the role played by cancer stem cells in cancer biology, a growing body of evidence provides strong support for the principal functions of these cells in tumorigenesis. This has represented the potential of cancer stem cells in the development of novel and innovative tools for the treatment of metastatic tumors. This book aims to offer a broad framework for obtaining insight into the state-of-the-art knowledge on cancer stem cell biology and highlight the therapeutic implications of these cells in the future of clinical oncology.

Principles of Tumors

Author : Leon P. Bignold
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Principles of Tumors covers all of the fundamental aspects of tumors, including their definitions, incidences, causation, pathogenesis, treatments, and prevention. The book provides a unique approach, integrating a wide range of basic bioscience findings with clinico-pathological observations and phenomena encountered in their treatment. As tumors are studied in fairly separate, broad areas, such as basic biological sciences, pathology, oncology, and epidemiology, this book brings together these perspectives, providing an all-inclusive text that benefits all researchers, while also providing an avenue for translational research. Integrates both cell mechanisms and tumor physiopathology Brings together research and perspectives from basic biological sciences, pathology, oncology, and epidemiology, providing an all-inclusive text Provides a concise tumor reference for the tumor researcher and oncologist Includes appendices for foundational material Brings out the cell detail of tumors

Plant Epigenetics Coming of Age for Breeding Applications

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Epigenetics and Breeding, Volume 88, the latest release in the Advances in Botanical Research series, brings together the experiences and critical information teachers, researchers and managers must consider from both scientific and legal points-of-view as they relate to biotechnology. New chapters in this updated volume include sections on Epigenetic Mechanisms in Plants, Epigenomic Diversity and Applications to Breeding, Epigenetics in Breeding, EpiRILs: Lessons from Arabidopsis, Transposable Elements as a Tool for Plant Improvement, Epigenome Editing, Epigenetics and Grafting, Sexual and Non-sexual reproduction, Epigenetics in Cereals, and more. Encompasses various aspects of botanical research, including its historical background, current status, recent research outcomes and potential future developments Written by highly competent authors from all continents Provides data that is based on facts and written in a dispassionate and non-polemical tone

Drug Targeting and Stimuli Sensitive Drug Delivery Systems

Author : Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
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Drug Targeting and Stimuli Sensitive Drug Delivery Systems covers recent advances in the area of stimuli sensitive drug delivery systems, providing an up-to-date overview of the physical, chemical, biological and multistimuli-responsive nanosystems. In addition, the book presents an analysis of clinical status for different types of nanoplatforms. Written by an internationally diverse group of researchers, it is an important reference resource for both biomaterials scientists and those working in the pharmaceutical industry who are looking to help create more effective drug delivery systems. Shows how the use of nanomaterials can help target a drug to specific tissues and cells Explores the development of stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems Includes case studies to showcase how stimuli responsive nanosystems are used in a variety of therapies, including camptothecin delivery, diabetes and cancer therapy

Epigenetic Alterations in Oncogenesis

Author : Adam R. Karpf
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The purpose of this book is to provide an up to date review of the nature and consequences of epigenetic changes in cancer. Epigenetics literally means “above” genetics, and consists of heritable gene expression or other phenotypic states not accounted for by DNA base sequence. Epigenetic changes are now known to make a large contribution to various aspects of tumorigenesis. These changes include alterations in global and promoter specific DNA methylation, activating and repressive histone modifications, and changes in higher order chromatin structures. Each of these topics will be covered in this book.

Micro RNA 145 is a Putative Tumor Suppressor Gene

Author : Mohit Sachdeva
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by interacting with the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of a target gene. To date, over 600 human miRNAs have been identified. Recent miRNA profiling studies reveal that while some miRNAs are overexpressed, the others are underexpressed in tumors compared to normal tissues, suggesting that they could play a key role in oncogenesis. Indeed, functional analyses indicate that miRNAs can act to either promote oncogenesis or suppress tumor suppressors. However, our understanding of miRNA-mediated gene regulation and its impact on oncogenesis is still at an early stage. This study profiled miRNAs in matched breast and colon tumor specimens by real-time RT-PCR and found that mir-145 was underexpressed in both breast and colon tumors compared to the matched normal tissues, suggesting that mir-145 is a potential tumor suppressor gene. The results suggest that mir-145 is capable of regulating both tumor growth and invasiveness through suppression of multiple oncogenes.