Search results for: microorganisms-in-foods-6

Microorganisms in Foods 6

Author : International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)
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Intended for those interested in applied aspects of food microbiology, for 17 commodity areas, this book describes the initial microbial flora and the prevalence of pathogens, the microbiological consequences of processing, spoilage patterns, episodes implicating those commodities with foodborne illness, and measures to control pathogens.

Microorganisms in Foods 6

Author : International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)
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The second edition ofMicrobiologyofFoods6:MicrobialEcologyofFoodCommodities was written by the ICMSF, comprising 16 scientists from 11 countries, plus consultants and other contributors to chapters. The intention of the second edition was to bring the ?rst edition (published in 1996) up to date, taking into account developments in food processing and packaging, new products, and recognition of new pathogens and their control acquired since the ?rst edition. Theoverallstructure ofthechapters hasbeen retained,vizeachcovers(i)theimportantpropertiesof thefoodcommoditythataffectitsmicrobialcontentandecology,(ii)theinitialmicro?oraatslaughteror harvest, (iii) the effects of harvesting, transportation, processing, and storage on the microbial content, and (iv) an assessment of the hazards and risks of the food commodities and (v) the processes applied to control the microbial load. In 1980s, control of food safety was largely by inspection and compliance with hygiene regulations, together with end-product testing.MicroorganismsinFoods2:SamplingforMicrobiologicalAnalysis: PrinciplesandSpeci?cApplications(2nded.1986)putsuchtestingonasounderstatisticalbasisthrough samplingplans,whichremainusefulwhenthereisnoinformationontheconditionsunderwhichafood has been produced or processed, e.g. at port-of-entry. At an early stage, the Commission recognized that no sampling plan can ensure the absence of a pathogen in food. Testing foods at ports of entry, or elsewhere in the food chain, cannot guarantee food safety.

Micro organisms in Foods 6

Author : Icmsf
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Microorganisms in Foods 6: Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities is the sixth volume to be published by the International Commission for the Microbiological Specifications of Foods (ICMSF). It is a comprehensive review of the microbiology of specific commodity groups. Each chapter covers the important properties of the food commodity that affect the microbial contents; the initial microbial flora on flesh foods at slaughter or on vegetable foods at harvest; the effects of harvest, transport, processing, and storage on the microbial contents; and the means of controlling the processing and the microbial content. It will be an invaluable reference to those interested in applied aspects of food microbiology, namely food processors, food microbiologists, food technologists, quality safety managers, public health workers and regulatory officials.

Microorganisms in Foods 8

Author : International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)
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Microorganisms in Foods 8: Use of Data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance is written by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods with assistance from a limited number of consultants. The purpose of this book is to provide guidance on appropriate testing of food processing environments, processing lines, and finished product to enhance the safety and microbiological quality of the food supply. Microorganisms in Foods 8 consists of two parts. Part I, Principles of Using Data in Microbial Control, builds on the principles of Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management (2002), which illustrates how HACCP and Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) provide greater assurance of safety than microbiological testing, but also identifies circumstances where microbiological testing may play a useful role. Part II, Specific Applications to Commodities, provides practical examples of criteria and other tests and is an updated and expanded version of Part II of Microorganisms in Foods 2: Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications (2nd ed. 1986). Part II also builds on the 2nd edition of Microorganisms in Foods 6: Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities (2005) by identifying appropriate tests to evaluation the effectiveness of controls.

Microorganisms in Foods 8

Author : International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)
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Microorganisms in Foods 8: Use of Data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance is written by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods with assistance from a limited number of consultants. The purpose of this book is to provide guidance on appropriate testing of food processing environments, processing lines, and finished product to enhance the safety and microbiological quality of the food supply. Microorganisms in Foods 8 consists of two parts. Part I, Principles of Using Data in Microbial Control, builds on the principles of Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management (2002), which illustrates how HACCP and Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) provide greater assurance of safety than microbiological testing, but also identifies circumstances where microbiological testing may play a useful role. Part II, Specific Applications to Commodities, provides practical examples of criteria and other tests and is an updated and expanded version of Part II of Microorganisms in Foods 2: Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications (2nd ed. 1986). Part II also builds on the 2nd edition of Microorganisms in Foods 6: Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities (2005) by identifying appropriate tests to evaluation the effectiveness of controls.

Micro Organisms in Foods

Author : International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods Staff
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Microbiology of Foods 6: Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities was written by the ICMSF, compris ing 19 scientists from II countries, plus 12 consultants and 12 chapter contributors. This book brings up to date Microbial Ecology of Foods, Volume 2: Food Commodities (1980, Academic Press), taking account of developments in food processing and packaging, new ranges of products, and foodborne pathogens that have emerged since 1980. The overall structure of each of the chapters has been retained, viz. they cover: (i) the important properties of the food commodity that affect its microbial content; (ii) the initial microbial flora at slaughter or harvest; (iii) the effect of harvesting, transportation, processing and storage on the microbial content; and (iv) the means of controlling processes and the microbial content. The section on Choice of Case has not been included in this 2nd edition, reflecting the changed emphasis in ensuring the microbi ological safety of foods. At the time of publication of Microbial Ecology of Foods, Volume 2: Food Commodities, control of food safety was largely by inspection and compliance with hygiene regulations, coupled with end-product testing. Such testing was put on a sound statistical basis through sampling plans introduced in Microorganisms in Foods 2: Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications (2nd edition 1986, University of Toronto Press).

Micro Organisms in Foods

Author : International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods Staff
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Microbiology of Foods 6: Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities was written by the ICMSF, compris ing 19 scientists from II countries, plus 12 consultants and 12 chapter contributors. This book brings up to date Microbial Ecology of Foods, Volume 2: Food Commodities (1980, Academic Press), taking account of developments in food processing and packaging, new ranges of products, and foodborne pathogens that have emerged since 1980. The overall structure of each of the chapters has been retained, viz. they cover: (i) the important properties of the food commodity that affect its microbial content; (ii) the initial microbial flora at slaughter or harvest; (iii) the effect of harvesting, transportation, processing and storage on the microbial content; and (iv) the means of controlling processes and the microbial content. The section on Choice of Case has not been included in this 2nd edition, reflecting the changed emphasis in ensuring the microbi ological safety of foods. At the time of publication of Microbial Ecology of Foods, Volume 2: Food Commodities, control of food safety was largely by inspection and compliance with hygiene regulations, coupled with end-product testing. Such testing was put on a sound statistical basis through sampling plans introduced in Microorganisms in Foods 2: Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications (2nd edition 1986, University of Toronto Press).

Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities

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"Microorganisms in Foods 6, Second Edition provides an updated and complete assessment of the microbial properties of every major food commodity, written by acknowledged experts in the field." --CHIPS.

Food Microbiology

Author : Karl R. Matthews
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Authoritative coverage presented in a format designed to facilitate teaching and learning.

Food Microbiology

Author : Neelam Khetarpaul
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Today Food Microbiology has become an interesting and challenging subject. The present book covers important main aspects of interaction between microorganisms, food borne illness and food fermentations. This book covers almost all the aspects of modern food microbiology in the context of changing global scenario. It has been divided into 16 chapters which mainly cover role of microorganisms, effects of food processing and preservation on microorganisms, methods of detecting microorganisms, microflora of different foods, food spoilage, food borne illness, role of probiotics in health and disease, food hygiene and sanitation, food safety and HACCP etc. The most current works on these aspects have been chosen that can provide a greater overview to the primary literature. This book is directed primarily for the students of Food Microbiology, Food Biotechnology and Food Science and Nutrition but can also be a ready reference for research scholars. Contents Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: The Role of Microorganisms in Foods; Chapter 3: Effect of Food Preservation on Microorganisms; Chapter 4: Microorganisms in Meat and Meat Products; Chapter 5: Influence of Microorganisms on Food Products; Chapter 6: Bacterial Food Poisoning; Chapter 7: The Examination of Foods; Chapter 8: The Methods of Detecting Microorganisms; Chapter 9: Non-bacterial Illness; Chapter 10: Food Hazards and Illness; Chapter 11: Food Spoilage and the Microflora; Chapter 12: The Fermented Foods; Chapter 13: Probiotic Fermented Foods: The New Face of an Old Tradition; Chapter 14: Food Borne Diseases, Food Hygiene and Sanitation; Chapter 15: Food Borne Illness: Implications for the Future; Chapter 16: Food Borne Disease Control: A Transnational Challenge.

Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities

Author : International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods
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Since the publication of the second volume of Microorganisms in Foods, technological changes in food production and processing, increases in convenience and ready-to-eat foods, the globalization of the food industry and the recognition of new pathogenic microorganisms have necessitated an updated examination of the spoilage and safety aspects of foods. The recent escalation of media interest and public concern about food poisoning has highlighted the need for thorough and coherent, information to be provided to food microbiologists working in industry, government and education.

Food Spoilage Microorganisms

Author : Clive de W Blackburn
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The control of microbiological spoilage requires an understanding of a number of factors including the knowledge of possible hazards, their likely occurrence in different products, their physiological properties and the availability and effectiveness of different preventative measures. Food spoilage microorganisms focuses on the control of microbial spoilage and provides an understanding necessary to do this. The first part of this essential new book looks at tools, techniques and methods for the detection and analysis of microbial food spoilage with chapters focussing on analytical methods, predictive modelling and stability and shelf life assessment. The second part tackles the management of microbial food spoilage with particular reference to some of the major food groups where the types of spoilage, the causative microorganisms and methods for control are considered by product type. The following three parts are then dedicated to yeasts, moulds and bacteria in turn, and look in more detail at the major organisms of significance for food spoilage. In each chapter the taxonomy, spoilage characteristics, growth, survival and death characteristics, methods for detection and control options are discussed. Food spoilage microorganisms takes an applied approach to the subject and is an indispensable guide both for the microbiologist and the non-specialist, particularly those whose role involves microbial quality in food processing operations. Looks at tools, techniques and methods for the detection and analysis of microbial food spoilage Discusses the management control of microbial food spoilage Looks in detail at yeasts, moulds and bacteria

Microorganisms and Biotechnology

Author : Jane Taylor
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These topic books cover the most frequently studied options for Biology at Advanced Level. The clear format of these texts will aid students' understanding, whilst extending their knowledge.

HACCP

Author : Sara Mortimore
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HACCP: A Practical Approach, 3rd edition has been updated to include the current best practice and new developments in HACCP application since the last edition was published in 1998. This book is intended to be a compendium of up-to-date thinking and best practice approaches to the development, implementation, and maintenance of HACCP programs for food safety management. Introductory chapters set the scene and update the reader on developments on HACCP over the last 15 years. The preliminary stages of HACCP, including preparation and planning and system design, are covered first, followed by a consideration of food safety hazards and their control. Prerequisite program coverage has been significantly expanded in this new edition reflecting its development as a key support system for HACCP. The HACCP plan development and verification and maintenance chapters have also been substantially updated to reflect current practice and a new chapter on application within the food supply chain has been added. Appendices provide a new set of case studies of practical HACCP application plus two new case studies looking at lessons learned through food safety incident investigation. Pathogen profiles have also been updated by experts to provide an up-to-date summary of pathogen growth and survival characteristics that will be useful to HACCP teams. The book is written both for those who are developing HACCP systems for the first time and for those who need to update, refresh and strengthen their existing systems. New materials and new tools to assist the HACCP team have been provided and the current situation on issues that are still undergoing international debate, such as operational prerequisite programs. All tools such as decision trees and record-keeping formats are provided to be of assistance and are not obligatory to successful HACCP. Readers are guided to choose those that are relevant to their situations and which they find are helpful in their HACCP endeavors.

Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low Moisture Foods

Author : Richard Podolak
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The first and only comprehensive reference/solutions manual for managing food safety in low-moisture foods The first book devoted to an increasingly critical public health issue, Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods reviews the current state of the science on the prevalence and persistence of bacterial pathogens in low-moisture foods and describes proven techniques for preventing food contamination for manufacturers who produce those foods. Many pathogens, such as Salmonella, due to their enhanced thermal resistance in dry environments, can survive the drying process and may persist for prolonged periods in low-moisture foods, especially when stored in refrigerated environments. Bacterial contamination of low-moisture foods, such as peanut butter, present a vexing challenge to food safety, and especially now, in the wake of widely publicized food safety related events, food processors urgently need up-to-date, practical information on proven measures for containing the risk of contamination. While much has been written on the subject, until now it was scattered throughout the world literature in scientific and industry journals. The need for a comprehensive treatment of the subject has never been greater, and now this book satisfies that need. Discusses a wide variety of foods and evaluates multiple processing platforms from the standpoint of process validation of all food safety objectives for finished food products Takes a practical approach integrating the latest scientific and technological advances in a handy working resource Presents all known sources and risk factors for pathogenic bacteria of concern in the manufacturing environment for low-moisture/water activity products Characterizes the persistence and thermal resistance of bacterial pathogens in both the environment and most low-moisture food products Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods is a much-needed resource for food microbiologists and food industry scientists, as well as managers and executives in companies that produce and use low-moisture foods. It also belongs on the reference shelves of food safety regulatory agencies worldwide.

Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management

Author : International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods Staff
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2. 11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 CHAPTER 3-MEETING THE FSO THROUGH CONTROL MEASURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3. 2 Control Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3. 3 Confirm That the FSO Is Technically Achievable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3. 4 Importance of Control Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3. 5 Performance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3. 6 Process and Product Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3. 7 The Use of Microbiological Sampling and Performance Criteria . . . . . . . . . 59 3. 8 Default Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3. 9 Process Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3. 10 Monitoring and Verifying Control Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3. 11 Examples of Control Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3. 12 Assessing Equivalency of Food Safety Management Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3. 13 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Appendix 3-A: Control Measures Commonly Applied to Foodborne Diseases . . 71 CHAPTER 4-SELECTION AND USE OF ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4. 2 Equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 4. 3 Establishment of Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 4. 4 Application of Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 4. 5 Determining Acceptance by Approval of Supplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4. 6 Examples To Demonstrate the Process of Lot Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4. 7 Auditing Food Operations for Supplier Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 4. 8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 CHAPTER 5-ESTABLISHMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR LOT ACCEPTANCE . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 99 5. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 5. 2 Purposes and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods . . . . . . . . . 10 1 5. 3 Definition of Microbiological Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1 5. 4 Types of Microbiological Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 5. 5 Application of Microbiological Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 5. 6 Principles for the Establishment of Microbiological Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 5. 7 Components of Microbiological Criteria for Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 5. 8 Examples of Microbiological Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Modelling Microorganisms in Food

Author : Marcel Zwietering
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Encyclopedia of Food Safety

Author : Yasmine Motarjemi
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With the world’s growing population, the provision of a safe, nutritious and wholesome food supply for all has become a major challenge. To achieve this, effective risk management based on sound science and unbiased information is required by all stakeholders, including the food industry, governments and consumers themselves. In addition, the globalization of the food supply requires the harmonization of policies and standards based on a common understanding of food safety among authorities in countries around the world. With some 280 chapters, the Encyclopedia of Food Safety provides unbiased and concise overviews which form in total a comprehensive coverage of a broad range of food safety topics, which may be grouped under the following general categories: History and basic sciences that support food safety; Foodborne diseases, including surveillance and investigation; Foodborne hazards, including microbiological and chemical agents; Substances added to food, both directly and indirectly; Food technologies, including the latest developments; Food commodities, including their potential hazards and controls; Food safety management systems, including their elements and the roles of stakeholders. The Encyclopedia provides a platform for experts from the field of food safety and related fields, such as nutrition, food science and technology and environment to share and learn from state-of-the art expertise with the rest of the food safety community. Assembled with the objective of facilitating the work of those working in the field of food safety and related fields, such as nutrition, food science and technology and environment - this work covers the entire spectrum of food safety topics into one comprehensive reference work The Editors have made every effort to ensure that this work meets strict quality and pedagogical thresholds such as: contributions by the foremost authorities in their fields; unbiased and concise overviews on a multitude of food safety subjects; references for further information, and specialized and general definitions for food safety terminology In maintaining confidence in the safety of the food supply, sound scientific information is key to effectively and efficiently assessing, managing and communicating on food safety risks. Yet, professionals and other specialists working in this multidisciplinary field are finding it increasingly difficult to keep up with developments outside their immediate areas of expertise. This single source of concise, reliable and authoritative information on food safety has, more than ever, become a necessity

Hurdle Technologies Combination Treatments for Food Stability Safety and Quality

Author : Lothar Leistner
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Since centuries foods have been preserved by heating, chilling, drying, salting, conserving, acidification, oxygen-removal, fermenting, adding various preservatives, etc., and often these methods were applied in combinations. More recently the underlying principles of these traditional methods have been defined (i.e., F, t, aw, pH, Eh, competitive flora, various preservatives), and effective limits of these factors for microbial growth, survival, and death were established. Food preservation and also food quality depends in most cases on the empirical and now more often on the deliberate and intelligent application of combined preservative factors, i.e. on so-called hurdle technology. It also became obvious that futuristic food preservation methods (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure, high-intensity pulsed electric fields, high-intensity pulsed light, oscillating magnetic fields as well as food irradiation) are most effective in combination with additional hurdles. Thus, hurdle technology is also the key of food preservation in the future. Furthermore, basic aspects of hurdle technology (i.e., homeostasis, metabolic exhaustion, and stress reactions of microorganisms as well as the multitarget preservation of foods) have been recognized to be of fundamental importance and are increasingly studied in relation to hurdle technology. Different aspects of improvements of traditional foods and in the development of novel foods via hurdle technology have been covered recently in numerous articles and book chapters. However, Hurdle Technologies: Combination Treatments for Food Stability, Safety and Quality is the first work on hurdle technology in which all aspects, the possibilities and limitations of hurdle technology, are comprehensively outlined and evaluated. World-renowned on the subject, Leistner and Gould were instrumental in the development of the hurdle technology concept and in the last decades have obtained much practical experience in the application of this successful approach in the food industry worldwide.

Food Safety Management

Author : Olga Martín-Belloso
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Every food manufacturing and processing operation has inherent risks affecting the safety of food products. Non-thermally processed foods are not exempt of those risks. This chapter provides the reader with an overview of various non-thermal technologies (e.g. irradiation, pulsed electric fields, high hydrostatic pressure, intense pulsed lights, membrane filtration and hurdle technology). Each of these technologies has specific critical process parameters that must be monitored as part of critical control points. In-depth understanding of these technologies is the key while considering their implementation. The main challenge on non-thermal processes is standardization when compared to thermal treatments. Non-thermal processes seem to be product specific resulting in additional research work to define process parameters. Nevertheless, a significant amount of research data are available and specific process conditions can be found in the literature.