Search results for: mathematical-models


Author : Jerzy A. Filar
File Size : 42.45 MB
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Mathematical Models is a component of Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciences in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Mathematical Models discusses matters of great relevance to our world such as: Basic Principles of Mathematical Modeling; Mathematical Models in Water Sciences; Mathematical Models in Energy Sciences; Mathematical Models of Climate and Global Change; Infiltration and Ponding; Mathematical Models of Biology; Mathematical Models in Medicine and Public Health; Mathematical Models of Society and Development. These three volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Mathematical Models and Their Analysis

Author : Frederick Y. M. Wan
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A great deal can be learned through modeling and mathematical analysis about real-life phenomena, even before numerical simulations are used to accurately portray the specific configuration of a situation. Scientific computing also becomes more effective and efficient if it is preceded by some preliminary analysis. These important advantages of mathematical modeling are demonstrated by models of historical importance in an easily understandable way. The organization of Mathematical Models and Their Analysis groups models by the issues that need to be addressed about the phenomena. The new approach shows how mathematics effective for one modeled phenomenon can be used to analyze another unrelated problem. For instance, the mathematics of differential equations useful in understanding the classical physics of planetary models, fluid motion, and heat conduction is also applicable to the seemingly unrelated phenomena of traffic flow and congestion, offshore sovereignty, and regulation of overfishing and deforestation. The formulation and in-depth analysis of these and other models on modern social issues, such as the management of exhaustible and renewable resources in response to consumption demands and economic growth, are of increasing concern to students and researchers of our time. The modeling of current social issues typically starts with a simple but meaningful model that may not capture all the important elements of the phenomenon. Predictions extracted from such a model may be informative but not compatible with all known observations; so the model may require improvements. The cycle of model formulation, analysis, interpretation, and assessment is made explicit for the modeler to repeat until a model is validated by consistency with all known facts.

Mathematical Models for Dental Materials Research

Author : Alex Fok
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This book presents a mechanistic approach—mathematical modeling—for carrying out dental materials research. This approach allows researchers to go beyond the null hypothesis and obtain a solution that is more general and therefore predictive for conditions other than those considered in a study. Hence it can be used either on its own or to complement the commonly used statistical approach. Through a series of practical problems with wide-ranging application, the reader will be guided on: How to construct a mathematical model for the behavior of dental materials by making informed assumptions of the physical, chemical, or mechanical situation How to simplify the model by making suitable simplifications How to calibrate the model by calculating the values of key parameters using experimental results How to refine the model when there are discrepancies between predictions and experiments Only elementary calculus is required to follow the examples and all the problems can be solved by using MS Excel© spreadsheets. This is an ideal book for dental materials researchers without a strong mathematical background who are interested in applying a more mechanistic approach to their research to give deeper insight into the problem at hand. Advance praise for Mathematical Models for Dental Materials Research: “This is a nice addition for research students on how to conduct their work and how to manage data analysis. It brings together a number of important aspects of dental materials investigations which has been missing in the literature. The practical examples make it much easier to understand.” – Michael F. Burrow, Clinical Professor in Prosthodontics, The University of Hong Kong “The great strengths of this volume are the real world examples of dental materials research in the successive chapters. In turn, this is an outcome of the outstanding expertise of both authors. I warmly recommend this book to the dental biomaterials community worldwide.” – David C. Watts, Professor of Biomaterials Science, University of Manchester, UK

Simple Mathematical Models of Gene Regulatory Dynamics

Author : Michael C. Mackey
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This is a short and self-contained introduction to the field of mathematical modeling of gene-networks in bacteria. As an entry point to the field, we focus on the analysis of simple gene-network dynamics. The notes commence with an introduction to the deterministic modeling of gene-networks, with extensive reference to applicable results coming from dynamical systems theory. The second part of the notes treats extensively several approaches to the study of gene-network dynamics in the presence of noise—either arising from low numbers of molecules involved, or due to noise external to the regulatory process. The third and final part of the notes gives a detailed treatment of three well studied and concrete examples of gene-network dynamics by considering the lactose operon, the tryptophan operon, and the lysis-lysogeny switch. The notes contain an index for easy location of particular topics as well as an extensive bibliography of the current literature. The target audience of these notes are mainly graduates students and young researchers with a solid mathematical background (calculus, ordinary differential equations, and probability theory at a minimum), as well as with basic notions of biochemistry, cell biology, and molecular biology. They are meant to serve as a readable and brief entry point into a field that is currently highly active, and will allow the reader to grasp the current state of research and so prepare them for defining and tackling new research problems.

Handbook of Mathematical Models in Computer Vision

Author : Nikos Paragios
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Abstract Biological vision is a rather fascinating domain of research. Scientists of various origins like biology, medicine, neurophysiology, engineering, math ematics, etc. aim to understand the processes leading to visual perception process and at reproducing such systems. Understanding the environment is most of the time done through visual perception which appears to be one of the most fundamental sensory abilities in humans and therefore a significant amount of research effort has been dedicated towards modelling and repro ducing human visual abilities. Mathematical methods play a central role in this endeavour. Introduction David Marr's theory v^as a pioneering step tov^ards understanding visual percep tion. In his view human vision was based on a complete surface reconstruction of the environment that was then used to address visual subtasks. This approach was proven to be insufficient by neuro-biologists and complementary ideas from statistical pattern recognition and artificial intelligence were introduced to bet ter address the visual perception problem. In this framework visual perception is represented by a set of actions and rules connecting these actions. The emerg ing concept of active vision consists of a selective visual perception paradigm that is basically equivalent to recovering from the environment the minimal piece information required to address a particular task of interest.

Mathematical Models in Boundary Layer Theory

Author : V.N. Samokhin
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Since Prandtl first suggested it in 1904, boundary layer theory has become a fundamental aspect of fluid dynamics. Although a vast literature exists for theoretical and experimental aspects of the theory, for the most part, mathematical studies can be found only in separate, scattered articles. Mathematical Models in Boundary Layer Theory offers the first systematic exposition of the mathematical methods and main results of the theory. Beginning with the basics, the authors detail the techniques and results that reveal the nature of the equations that govern the flow within boundary layers and ultimately describe the laws underlying the motion of fluids with small viscosity. They investigate the questions of existence and uniqueness of solutions, the stability of solutions with respect to perturbations, and the qualitative behavior of solutions and their asymptotics. Of particular importance for applications, they present methods for an approximate solution of the Prandtl system and a subsequent evaluation of the rate of convergence of the approximations to the exact solution. Written by the world's foremost experts on the subject, Mathematical Models in Boundary Layer Theory provides the opportunity to explore its mathematical studies and their importance to the nonlinear theory of viscous and electrically conducting flows, the theory of heat and mass transfer, and the dynamics of reactive and muliphase media. With the theory's importance to a wide variety of applications, applied mathematicians-especially those in fluid dynamics-along with engineers of aeronautical and ship design will undoubtedly welcome this authoritative, state-of-the-art treatise.

Mathematical Models for Society and Biology

Author : Edward Beltrami
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Mathematical Modeling for Society and Biology engagingly relates mathematics to compelling real-life problems in biology and contemporary society. It shows how mathematical tools can be used to gain insight into these modern, common problems to provide effective, real solutions. Beltrami's creative, non-threatening approach draws on a wealth of interesting examples pertaining to current social and biological issues. Central ideas appear again in different contexts throughout the book, showing the general unity of the modeling process. The models are strikingly novel and based on issues of real concern. Most have never appeared in book form. Through the relevance of these models mathematics becomes not just figures and numbers, but a means to a more refined understanding of the world.

Mathematical Models

Author : Henry Martyn Cundy
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This is the classic book of detailed instructions for making a wide variety of mathematical models of all kinds. Complete nets are given for all regular Archimedean and stellated polyhedra together with a number of interesting compounds. There are sections on paper folding, dissections, curve stitching, linkages, the drawing of loci and envelopes and the construction of plane tessellations. The volume is fully illustrated with diagrams and photographs of models in paper and other materials and all have been successfully made and tested. Note, for books that provide the nets and instructions to make various solids, look at Make Shapes 1, Make Shapes 2, and Paper Polyhedra in Colour. Cundy and Rollett provides both a wider range of nets but not in ready-made form.

Some Mathematical Models in Biology

Author : Robert McDowell Thrall
File Size : 66.43 MB
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Mathematical Models of the Economy

Author : Richard Stone
File Size : 85.29 MB
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