Search results for: linking-expertise-and-naturalistic-decision-making

Linking Expertise and Naturalistic Decision Making

Author : Eduardo Salas
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This book contains selected papers presented at the 1998 conference on Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM). The objectives of the conference were to: *make American researchers more aware of NDM research being conducted abroad, particularly in Europe; *connect NDM research with work in management and industry, to stretch beyond the military and paramilitary focus; and *formulate a more explicit connection between NDM and expertise. These objectives are reflected in the chapters of this volume.

Linking Expertise and Naturalistic Decision Making

Author : Eduardo Salas
File Size : 33.9 MB
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This book contains selected papers presented at the 1998 conference on Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM). The objectives of the conference were to: *make American researchers more aware of NDM research being conducted abroad, particularly in Europe; *connect NDM research with work in management and industry, to stretch beyond the military and paramilitary focus; and *formulate a more explicit connection between NDM and expertise. These objectives are reflected in the chapters of this volume.

Naturalistic Decision Making and Macrocognition

Author : Laura Militello
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This book presents the latest work in the area of naturalistic decision making (NDM) and its extension into the area of macrocognition. It contains 18 chapters relating research centered on the study of expertise in naturalistic settings, written by international experts in NDM and cognitive systems engineering. The objective of the book is to present the reader with exciting new developments in this field of research, which is characterized by its application-oriented focus. The work addresses only real-world problems and issues. For instance, how do multi-national teams collaborate effectively? How can surgeons best be supported by technology? How do detectives make sense of complex criminal cases? In all instances the studies have been carried out on experts within their respective domains. The traditional field of NDM is extended in this work by focusing on macrocognitive functions other than decision making, namely sense-making, coordination and planning. This has broadened the scope of the field. The book also contains a theoretical discussion of the macro-micro distinction. Naturalistic Decision Making and Macrocognition will be relevant to graduate students, researchers and professionals (including professionals and researchers in business, industry and government) who are interested in decision making, expertise, training methods and system design. The material may be used in two ways: theoretically, to advance understanding of the field of naturalistic decision making; and practically, to gain insight into how experts in various domains solve particular problems, understand and deal with issues and collaborate with others.

Safety at the Sharp End

Author : Rhona H. Flin
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Safety at the Sharp End is a general guide to the theory and practice of non-technical skills for safety. It covers the identification, training and evaluation of non-technical skills and has been written for use by individuals who are studying or training these skills on CRM and other safety or human factors courses. The material is also suitable for undergraduate and post-experience students studying human factors or industrial safety programmes.

The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance

Author : K. Anders Ericsson
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In this updated and expanded edition of The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance, some of the world's foremost experts on expertise share their scientific knowledge of expertise and expert performance and show how experts may differ from non-experts in terms of development, training, reasoning, knowledge, and social support. The book reviews innovative methods for measuring experts' knowledge and performance in relevant tasks. Sixteen major domains of expertise are covered, including sports, music, medicine, business, writing, and drawing, with leading researchers summarizing their knowledge about the structure and acquisition of expert skills and knowledge, and discussing future prospects. General issues that cut across most domains are reviewed in chapters on various aspects of expertise, such as general and practical intelligence, differences in brain activity, self-regulated learning, deliberate practice, aging, knowledge management, and creativity.

Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security 4 Volume Set

Author : John G. Voeller
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The Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security is an essential and timely collection of resources designed to support the effective communication of homeland security research across all disciplines and institutional boundaries. Truly a unique work this 4 volume set focuses on the science behind safety, security, and recovery from both man-made and natural disasters has a broad scope and international focus. The Handbook: Educates researchers in the critical needs of the homeland security and intelligence communities and the potential contributions of their own disciplines Emphasizes the role of fundamental science in creating novel technological solutions Details the international dimensions of homeland security and counterterrorism research Provides guidance on technology diffusion from the laboratory to the field Supports cross-disciplinary dialogue in this field between operational, R&D and consumer communities

Integrated Uncertainty in Knowledge Modelling and Decision Making

Author : Yongchuan Tang
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Symposium on Integrated Uncertainty in Knowledge Modeling and Decision Making, IUKM 2011, held in Hangzhou, China, in October 2011. The 21 revised full papers presented together with 1 keynote lecture and 5 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 55 submissions. The papers provide a wealth of new ideas and report both theoretical and applied research on integrated uncertainty modeling and management.

The Oxford Handbook of Expertise

Author : Paul Ward
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The study of expertise weaves its way through various communities of practice, across disciplines, and over millennia. To date, the study of expertise has been primarily concerned with how human beings perform at a superior level in complex environments and sociotechnical systems, and at the highest levels of proficiency. However, more recent research has continued the search for better descriptions, and causal mechanisms that explain the complexities of expertise in context, with a view to translating this understanding into useful predictions and interventions capable of improving the performance of human systems as efficiently as possible. The Oxford Handbook of Expertise provides a comprehensive picture of the field of Expertise Studies. It offers both traditional and contemporary perspectives, and importantly, a multidiscipline-multimethod view of the science and engineering research on expertise. The book presents different perspectives, theories, and methods of conducting expertise research, all of which have had an impact in helping us better understand expertise across a broad range of domains. The Handbook also describes how researchers and practitioners have addressed practical problems and societal challenges. Throughout, the authors have sought to demonstrate the heterogeneity of approaches and conceptions of expertise, to place current views of expertise in context, to show how these views can be used to address current issues, and to examine ways to advance the study of expertise. The Oxford Handbook of Expertise is an essential resource both to those wanting to gain an up-to-date knowledge of the science of expertise and those wishing to study experts.

Decision Making in Complex Environments

Author : Malcolm James Cook
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Many complex systems in civil and military operations are highly automated with the intention of supporting human performance in difficult cognitive tasks involving information processing. The complex systems can involve teams or individuals working on real-time tasks where a number of constraints must be satisfied. Decision Making in Complex Environments addresses the role of the human, the technology and the processes in complex socio-technical and technological systems.

Accelerated Expertise

Author : Robert R. Hoffman
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Speed in acquiring the knowledge and skills to perform tasks is crucial. Yet, it still ordinarily takes many years to achieve high proficiency in countless jobs and professions, in government, business, industry, and throughout the private sector. There would be great advantages if regimens of training could be established that could accelerate the achievement of high levels of proficiency. This book discusses the construct of ‘accelerated learning.’ It includes a review of the research literature on learning acquisition and retention, focus on establishing what works, and why. This includes several demonstrations of accelerated learning, with specific ideas, plans and roadmaps for doing so. The impetus for the book was a tasking from the Defense Science and Technology Advisory Group, which is the top level Science and Technology policy-making panel in the Department of Defense. However, the book uses both military and non-military exemplar case studies. It is likely that methods for acceleration will leverage technologies and capabilities including virtual training, cross-training, training across strategic and tactical levels, and training for resilience and adaptivity. This volume provides a wealth of information and guidance for those interested in the concept or phenomenon of "accelerating learning"— in education, training, psychology, academia in general, government, military, or industry.

Using Knowledge and Evidence in Health Care

Author : François Champagne
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At the clinical, management, and policy levels, the use of knowledge and evidence in health care has become a worldwide priority. The contributors to Using Knowledge and Evidence in Health Care seek to broaden our understanding of the complexity involved in health care decision-making by integrating social science knowledge and exploring some of the challenges and limits of evidence in different health care contexts. Louise Lemieux-Charles and François Champagne have brought together an esteemed group of scholars to provide a conceptual framework that illustrates the factors critical to analysing and optimizing the use of knowledge and evidence. Previous studies have focused primarily on the medical literature without acknowledging the social sciences tradition. With its integration of works from political science, public policy, informatics, and other disciplines, Using Knowledge and Evidence in Health Care provides a bridge between both worlds. By bringing together different views on the topic, the volume goes beyond strict disciplinary boundaries to provide the fullest exploration of knowledge and evidence in health care.

The Routledge International Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology

Author : Dieter Hackfort
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The Routledge International Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology integrates the topics of motor control, physical education, exercise, adventure, performance in sports, and the performing arts, in several important ways and contexts, drawing upon diverse cultural perspectives. More than 90 overarching topics have been systematically developed by internationally renowned experts in theory, research, and practice. Each contribution delves into a thematic area with more nuanced vocabulary. The terminology drawn upon integrates traditional discourse and emerging topic matter into a state-of-the-art two-volume set. Volume 1: Theoretical and Methodological Concepts is comprised of theoretical topic matter, spanning theories and terminology from psychology contextualized to sport and physical activity, sport psychology-focused theories, and expansive discussions related to philosophy of science and methodology. Volume 2: Applied and Practical Measures draws upon practical concepts that bridge theory and research and practice. Broader issues that extend beyond sport and physical activity participants are embedded within the entries, intended to augment physical, mental, and social well-being. This expansive encyclopedia is a must-have resource for all professionals, scholars, and students in the fields of sport psychology and sport science.

Psychological Investigations of Competence in Decision Making

Author : Kip Smith
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The premise of this book is that most activity in everyday life and work is based on tasks that are novel, infrequent in our experience, or variable with respect to the action to be taken. Such tasks require decisions to be made and actions taken in the face of ambiguous or incomplete information. Time pressure is frequently great and penalties for failure are severe. Examples include investing in markets, controlling industrial accidents, and detecting fraud. The environments in which such tasks occur defy a definition of optimal performance, yet the benefits of successful decision making are considerable. The authors refer to domains without criteria for optimal performance as competency-based and describe the able behaviour of individuals who work in them by the term competence. The chapters examine the propositions that metacognitive processes give structure to otherwise ill-structured tasks and are fundamental enablers of decision-making performance.

How Professionals Make Decisions

Author : Henry Montgomery
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This volume is the fruit of the 5th conference on Naturalistic Decision Making which focused on the importance of studying people who have some degree of expertise in the domain in which they make decisions. The substantive concerns pertain to how individuals and groups make decisions in professional and organizational settings, and to develop suit

Human Performance on the Flight Deck

Author : Professor Don Harris
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Taking an integrated, systems approach to human performance issues on the flight deck of the modern airliner, this book describes the inter-relationships between the various application areas of human factors, recognising that the human contribution to the operation of an airliner does not fall into neat pigeonholes. The relationship between areas such as pilot selection, training, flight deck design and safety management is continually emphasised. It also affirms the upside of human factors in aviation and avoids placing undue emphasis on when the human component fails.

Human Factors Challenges in Emergency Management

Author : Dr Christine Owen
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The fire and emergency services is a particularly large industry - in Australia alone it employs 250,000 personnel - yet there is very little by way of published human factors books addressing this sector directly. This book provides an overview of state-of-the-art research that has been conducted within Australia, funded by the Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre. As Karl Weick once commented, emergency events do not 'play by the rules' and these research chapters tell us something about a potential future world of work that is highly dynamic, interdependent and for which improvisation and critical thinking and problem-solving are necessary pre-requisites.

Expertise Out of Context

Author : Robert R. Hoffman
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Researchers have revealed that real expertise, while applied to well-defined tasks with highly circumscribed contexts, often stretches beyond its routine boundaries. For example, a medical doctor may be called upon to diagnose a rare disease or perform emergency surgery outside his or her area of specialization because other experts are not available. Moreover, in some cases, the context for expertise is in a constant state of flux, such that no one case is identical. Expertise Out of Context is a culmination of some of the most insightful studies conducted by researchers in the fields of cognitive systems engineering and naturalistic decision making in the effort to better understand expertise and its development. Born out of the Sixth International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, a conference that gathers researchers who study cognition, perception, and reasoning outside of the traditional laboratory, this book is organized in five parts, the first of which provides an overview of the topic and presents varied perspectives. Consequent sections cover how to make sense of things, tools for thinking out of context, how to cope with uncertainty in a changing workplace, and teams operating out of context. As researchers in naturalistic decision making have investigated such areas as the knowledge and decision-making skills of expert firefighters, critical care nurses, military commanders, and aircraft pilots, this volume is of importance to an expansive audience, including individuals in business, government, industry, and society at large.

Technical Report

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Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Making

Author : Witold Pedrycz
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Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision-Making: Models, Algorithms and Applications addresses theoretical and practical gaps in considering uncertainty and multicriteria factors encountered in the design, planning, and control of complex systems. Including all prerequisite knowledge and augmenting some parts with a step-by-step explanation of more advanced concepts, the authors provide a systematic and comprehensive presentation of the concepts, design methodology, and detailed algorithms. These are supported by many numeric illustrations and a number of application scenarios to motivate the reader and make some abstract concepts more tangible. Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision-Making: Models, Algorithms and Applications will appeal to a wide audience of researchers and practitioners in disciplines where decision-making is paramount, including various branches of engineering, operations research, economics and management; it will also be of interest to graduate students and senior undergraduate students in courses such as decision making, management, risk management, operations research, numerical methods, and knowledge-based systems.

Range

Author : David Epstein
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'Fascinating . . . If you’re a generalist who has ever felt overshadowed by your specialist colleagues, this book is for you' – Bill Gates The instant Sunday Times Top Ten and New York Times bestseller Shortlisted for the Financial Times/McKinsey Business Book of the Year Award 2019 A Financial Times Essential Reads of 2019 pick A powerful argument for how to succeed in any field: develop broad interests and skills while everyone around you is rushing to specialize. From the ‘10,000 hours rule’ to the power of Tiger parenting, we have been taught that success in any field requires early specialization and many hours of deliberate practice. And, worse, that if you dabble or delay, you'll never catch up with those who got a head start. This is completely wrong. In this landmark book, David Epstein shows you that the way to succeed is by sampling widely, gaining a breadth of experiences, taking detours, experimenting relentlessly, juggling many interests – in other words, by developing range. Studying the world's most successful athletes, artists, musicians, inventors and scientists, Epstein demonstrates why in most fields – especially those that are complex and unpredictable – generalists, not specialists are primed to excel. No matter what you do, where you are in life, whether you are a teacher, student, scientist, business analyst, parent, job hunter, retiree, you will see the world differently after you've read Range. You'll understand better how we solve problems, how we learn and how we succeed. You'll see why failing a test is the best way to learn and why frequent quitters end up with the most fulfilling careers. As experts silo themselves further while computers master more of the skills once reserved for highly focused humans, Range shows how people who think broadly and embrace diverse experiences and perspectives will increasingly thrive and why spreading your knowledge across multiple domains is the key to your success, and how to achieve it. 'I loved Range' – Malcolm Gladwell 'Urgent and important. . . an essential read for bosses, parents, coaches, and anyone who cares about improving performance.' – Daniel H. Pink 'So much crucial and revelatory information about performance, success, and education.' – Susan Cain, bestselling author of Quiet