Search results for: language-dominance-in-bilinguals

Language Dominance in Bilinguals

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Bilingual Language Development The Role of Dominance

Author : Cornelia Hamann
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It has long been established that bilingual speakers are rarely balanced in their languages so that one language is dominant. The contributions to the Research Topic “Bilingual Language Development: The Role of Dominance” focus on the potential effects of language dominance on the competence and processing of bilinguals, covering a large variety of language combinations and domains. Important aspects of such work are the interplay of L1-maintenance/attrition and possible L2-dominance, the direction of cross-linguistic influence (CLI) or code-mixing, as well as the effects of bilingualism on cognitive development, each addressed in several contributions. However, such research presupposes a definition of dominance, which is far from being settled. This gives rise to considerable differences in the operationalization of the concept across studies. The studies in this Research Topic present a multifaceted picture of the role of language dominance for L1-maintenance/attrition, L2-development and CLI. Though a unified story cannot emerge for such a complex subject, interesting new venues are explored including the impact of dominance shift during L1-re-exposure, comparisons of different types of bilingual groups, or operationalization of dominance through experiential measures. The variety of approaches and results is in part owed to the many language combinations studied and the fact that bilingual children, adults and atypical speakers are investigated. This diversity constitutes the interest of this Research Topic.

Encoding Motion Events

Author : Till Woerfel
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Children who grow up as second- or third-generation immigrants typically acquire and speak the minority language at home and the majority language at school. Recurrently, these children have been the subject of controversial debates about their linguistic abilities in relation to their educational success. However, such debates fail to recognise that variation in bilinguals’ language processing is a phenomenon in its own right that results from the dynamic influence of one language on another. This volume provides insight into cross-linguistic influence in Turkish-German and Turkish-French bilingual children and uncovers the nature of variation in L1 and L2 oral motion event descriptions by evaluating the impact of language-specific patterns and language dominance. The results indicate that next to typological differences between the speakers’ L1 and L2, language dominance has an impact on the type and direction of influence. However, the author argues that most variation can be explained by L1/L2 usage preferences. Bilinguals make frequent use of patterns that exist in both languages, but are unequally preferred by monolingual speakers. This finding underlines the importance of usage-based approaches in SLA.

Bilingual Sentence Processing

Author : Eva M. Fernández
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This title looks at the representation of semitic words in the mental lexicon of semitic language speakers. It asks: should we see semitic words' morphology as root-based or word-based?.

Language Mixing in Infant Bilingualism

Author : Elizabeth Lanza
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This book addresses the issue of language contact in the context of child language acquisition. Elizabeth Lanza examines in detail the simultaneous acquisition of Norwegian and English by two first-born children in families living in Norway in which the mother is American and the father Norwegian. She connects psycholinguistic arguments with sociolinguistic evidence, adding a much-needed dimension of real language-use in context to the psycholinguistic studies which have dominated the field. She draws upon evidence from other studies to support her claims concerning language dominance and the child's differentiation between the two languages in relation to the situation, interlocutor, and the communicative demands of the context. She also addresses the question of whether or not the language mixing of infant bilingualism is conceptually different from the codeswitching of older bilinguals, thus helping to bridge the gap between these two fields of study.

Bilingual Education in the 21st Century

Author : Ofelia García
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Bilingual Education in the 21st Century examines languages and bilingualism as individual and societal phenomena, presents program types, variables, and policies in bilingual education, and concludes by looking at practices, especially pedagogies and assessments. This thought-provoking work is an ideal textbook for future teachers as well as providing a fresh view of the subject for school administrators and policy makers. Provides an overview of bilingual education theories and practices throughout the world Extends traditional conceptions of bilingualism and bilingual education to include global and local concerns in the 21st century Questions assumptions regarding language, bilingualism and bilingual education, and proposes a new theoretical framework and alternative views of teaching and assessment practices Reviews international bilingual education policies, with separate chapters dedicated to US and EU language policy in education Gives reasons why bilingual education is good for all children throughout the world, and presents cases of how this is being carried out

Between The Languages Code Switching in Bilingual Communication

Author : Anastasia Schmidt
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This book is about the use of two languages in everyday life. Bilingualism is a facet of nearly every country in the world and code-switching is a widespread characteristic of bilingual speech. An obvious and at the same time interesting aspect is that bilinguals will, of course, stay within one language when talking to monolinguals. However, when talking to other bilinguals, they will probably use both languages. Thus, in bilingual conversations, they often switch from one language to another and frequently even within an utterance. Such kinds of switches call for a special competence of the two languages involved. But how well the bilinguals have to know each of the languages is a justifiable question. These switches are not arbitrary since they may depend on the situation of the conversation, the topic of the conversation, the emotional aspects involved, the language preference of the speaker and the need to express the own identity. The goal of this book is to look in detail at code-switching in bilingual communication with the help of the present study on Russian-German bilinguals.

Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education

Author : Colin Baker
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This encyclopedia is divided into three sections: individual bilingualism; bilingualism in society and bilingual education. It includes many pictures, graphs, maps and diagrams. The book concludes with a comprehensive bibliography on bilingualism.

Outstanding Dissertations in Bilingual Education 1981

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Phonology in the Bilingual and Bidialectal Lexicon

Author : Isabelle Darcy
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A conversation between two people can only take place if the words intended by each speaker are successfully recognized. Spoken word recognition is at the heart of language comprehension. This automatic and smooth process remains a challenge for models of spoken word recognition. Both the process of mapping the speech signal onto stored representations for words, and the format of the representation themselves are subject to debate. So far, existing research on the nature of spoken word representations has focused mainly on native speakers. The picture becomes even more complex when looking at spoken word recognition in a second language. Given that most of the world’s speakers know and use more than one language, it is crucial to reach a more precise understanding of how bilingual and multilingual individuals encode spoken words in the mental lexicon, and why spoken word recognition is more difficult in a second language than in the native language. Current models of native spoken word recognition operate under two assumptions: (i) that listeners’ perception of the incoming speech signal is optimal; and (ii) that listeners’ lexical representations are accurate. As a result, lexical representations are easily activated, and intended words are successfully recognized. However, these assumptions are compromised when applied to a later-learned second language. For a variety of reasons (e.g., phonetic/phonological, orthographic), second language users may not perceive the speech signal optimally, and they may still be refining the motor routines needed for articulation. Accordingly, their lexical representations may differ from those of native speakers, which may in turn inhibit their selection of the intended word forms. Second language users also have to solve a larger selection challenge—having words in more than one language to choose from. Thus, for second language users, the links between perception, lexical representations, orthography, and production are all but clear. Even for simultaneous bilinguals, important questions remain about the specificity and interdependence of their lexical representations and the factors influencing cross-language word activation. This Frontiers Research Topic seeks to further our understanding of the factors that determine how multilinguals recognize and encode spoken words in the mental lexicon, with a focus on the mapping between the input and lexical representations, and on the quality of lexical representations.

Dissertation Abstracts International

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Life with Two Languages

Author : François Grosjean
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Many people consider bilinguals to be exceptional, yet almost half the world's population speaks more than one language. Bilingualism is found in every country of the world, in every class of society, in all age groups. Life with Two Languages is the first book to provide a complete and authoritative look at the nature of the bilingual experience. François Grosjean, himself a bilingual, covers the topic from each of its many angles in order to provide a balanced introduction to this fascinating phenomenon. Grosjean discusses the political and social situations that arise when languages come into contact and the policies nations have established toward their linguistic minorities in the domains of education and governance. Of particular interest is his detailed account of the psychological and social factors that lead a bilingual to choose one of her languages when speaking to another bilingual or to use both languages in the fascinating phenomenon of code-switching. The author explains how children become bilingual as quickly as they become monolingual, describes the organization of languages in the bilingual brain, and examines the legacy of bilingualism on language, as exemplified in word borrowings. Above all, Life with Two Languages puts the emphasis on the bilingual person. In a series of first-hand reports scattered throughout the book, bilinguals tell what it is like to live with two languages and describe the educational and social experiences they have undergone. Written in a clear and informative style, Life with Two Languages will appeal to professionals and students in linguistics, education, sociology, and psychology, as well as to the more casually curious.

Language Development in a Bilingual Setting

Author : Eugène John Brière
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The publication brings together the latest thinking in five areas important to bilingual education. Part one, legal aspects, deals with limitations and capabilities of the judicial process, interpretations of major court decisions, and implications of these decisions in terms of community members, educators, and school boards. Philosophies, discussed in part two, encompasses the need for philosophical diversity to account for the needs of marked and unmarked population differences, clarification of philosophical disagreements, and suggests bilingual education will contribute to the assimilation process rather than to cultural and linguistic pluralism. The third part deals with social factors: sociology of language, ethnography of speaking, and pragmatics of natural languages; ethnographic monitoring, and bilingualism and biculturalism in education. Part four covers language and content in bilingual education: language acquisition and language learning in late-entry programs, a Canadian bilingual education program, curriculum development in L1 and L2 in a maintenance program, and curriculum/language contexts. Part five, assessment, encompasses: problems in assessment of the effect of language education policies in a multilingual society; language dominance and pedagogical considerations; and criteria to assess Spanish reading instructional materials. The last section describes the activities of the National Network of Centers for Bilingual Education. (AH)

A Journey in Languages and Cultures

Author : François Grosjean
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This book explores the life and experiences of one of the world's most renowned and well-respected experts in bilingualism. Francois Grosjean takes us through his life, from his monolingual childhood in a small village outside Paris to the long periods of time he spent in Switzerland, England, France, and the United States, becoming bilingual and bicultural in the process. During his life, his dominant language has changed many times between English and French, and he has also acquired, and subsequently lost, other languages, including American Sign Language. Throughout the book, he combines his personal accounts and anecdotes with insights from and reflections on his extensive scholarly research in bilingualism and biculturalism, which has, in turn, been heavily influenced by his own experiences. Written in an engaging and accessible style, the book will appeal to general readers interested in bilingualism and language contact, educators and parents of bilingual children, researchers working on bilingualism, and to bilinguals themselves.

Code switching in Bilingual Children

Author : Katja F. Cantone
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This volume demonstrates that mixed utterances in young bilinguals can be analyzed in the same way as adult code-switching. It provides new insights not only in the field of code-switching and of language mixing in young bilinguals, but also in issues concerning general questions on linguistic theory which are difficult to be answered with monolingual data.

The Handbook of Bilingualism

Author : Tej K. Bhatia
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The Handbook of Bilingualism provides state-of-the-art treatments of the central issues that arise in consideration of the phenomena of bilingualism ranging from the representation of the two languages in the bilingual individual's brain to the various forms of bilingual education, including the status of bilingualism in each area of the world. Provides state-of-the-art coverage of a wide variety of topics, ranging from neuro- and psycho-linguistic research to studies of media and psychological counseling. Includes latest assessment of the global linguistic situation with particular emphasis on those geographical areas which are centers of global conflict and commerce. Explores new topics such as global media and mobile and electronic language learning. Includes contributions by internationally renowned researchers from different disciplines, genders, and ethnicities.

The Bilingual Child

Author : Virginia Yip
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How does a child become bilingual? The answer to this intriguing question remains largely a mystery, not least because it has been far less extensively researched than the process of mastering a first language. Drawing on new studies of children exposed to two languages from birth (English and Cantonese), this book demonstrates how childhood bilingualism develops naturally in response to the two languages in the children's environment. While each bilingual child's profile is unique, the children studied are shown to develop quite differently from monolingual children. The authors demonstrate significant interactions between the children's developing grammars, as well as the important role played by language dominance in their bilingual development. Based on original research and using findings from the largest available multimedia bilingual corpus, the book will be welcomed by students and scholars working in child language acquisition, bilingualism and language contact.

Multilingualism and Bilingualism

Author : Sammy Beban Chumbow
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Research in the area of bilingualism and multilingualism invariably produces fascinating insights. In the Europe of yesteryears, the paradigm of one nation one language was dominant and fashionable as a nation-building ideology that multilingualism was considered a curse, a demon that had to be exorcised. Today, the avalanche of empirical evidence of research findings has established multilingualism and pluralism as an ideal for national development. The nine chapters of this book provide further elucidations of the issue of benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism and also provide original research findings on developments in the areas of psychological dimensions of bilingualism and bilingualism in information retrieval systems. The book by its illuminating description and insightful analysis of issues of bilingualism will be of significant interest to scholars, researchers, and all concerned with bilingualism and multilingualism from whatever perspective.

Bilingualism through Schooling

Author : Arnulfo G. Ramirez
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Bilingualism Through Schooling is a comprehensive survey of bilingual education. It shows how bilingual schooling can have a double impact by providing students with functional second-language competence, and also contributing to their deeper understanding of culture and history. Concerned with both ethnolinguistic minority children and majority, English-speaking pupils, the book approaches bilingualism from a variety of perspectives--linguistic, psychological, and socio-cultural. Among the many topics discussed are: goals and consequences of bilingualism, sociolinguistic contexts, language attitudes, and proficiency assessment. Ramirez explores the various types of programs and techniques used to facilitate second-language acquisition and also provides guidelines for the preparation and certification of bilingual instructors. Bibliographies are included.

Resources in Education

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