Search results for: labs-on-chip

Labs on Chip

Author : Eugenio Iannone
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Labs on Chip: Principles, Design and Technology provides a complete reference for the complex field of labs on chip in biotechnology. Merging three main areas— fluid dynamics, monolithic micro- and nanotechnology, and out-of-equilibrium biochemistry—this text integrates coverage of technology issues with strong theoretical explanations of design techniques. Analyzing each subject from basic principles to relevant applications, this book: Describes the biochemical elements required to work on labs on chip Discusses fabrication, microfluidic, and electronic and optical detection techniques Addresses planar technologies, polymer microfabrication, and process scalability to huge volumes Presents a global view of current lab-on-chip research and development Devotes an entire chapter to labs on chip for genetics Summarizing in one source the different technical competencies required, Labs on Chip: Principles, Design and Technology offers valuable guidance for the lab-on-chip design decision-making process, while exploring essential elements of labs on chip useful both to the professional who wants to approach a new field and to the specialist who wants to gain a broader perspective.

Algorithms for Sample Preparation with Microfluidic Lab on Chip

Author : Bhattacharjee, Sukanta
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Recent microfluidic technologies have brought a complete paradigm shift in automating biochemical processing on a tiny lab-on-chip (a.k.a. biochip) that replaces expensive and bulky instruments traditionally used in implementing bench-top laboratory protocols. Biochips have already made a profound impact on various application domains such as clinical diagnostics, DNA analysis, genetic engineering, and drug discovery, among others. They are capable of precisely manipulating micro-/pico-liter quantities of fluids, and provide integrated support for mixing, storage, transportation, and sensing, on-chip. In almost all bioprotocols, sample preparation plays an important role, which includes dilution and mixing of several fluids satisfying certain volumetric ratios. However, designing algorithms that minimize reactant-cost and sample-preparation time suited for microfluidic chips poses a great challenge from the perspective of protocol mapping, scheduling, and physical design. Algorithms for Sample Preparation with Microfluidic Lab-on-Chip attempts to bridge the widening gap between biologists and engineers by introducing, from the fundamentals, several state-of-the-art computer-aided-design (CAD) algorithms for sample preparation with digital and flow-based microfluidic biochips. Technical topics discussed in the book include: Basics of digital and flow-based microfluidic lab-on-chipComprehensive review of state-of-the-art sample preparation algorithmsSample-preparation algorithms for digital microfluidic lab-on-chipSample-preparation algorithms for flow-based microfluidic lab-on-chip

CMOS Capacitive Sensors for Lab on Chip Applications

Author : Ebrahim Ghafar-Zadeh
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1.1 Overview of Lab-on-Chip Laboratory-on-Chip (LoC) is a multidisciplinary approach used for the miniaturization, integration and automation of biological assays or procedures in analytical chemistry [1–3]. Biology and chemistry are experimental sciences that are continuing to evolve and develop new protocols. Each protocol offers step-by-step laboratory instructions, lists of the necessary equipments and required biological and/or chemical substances [4–7]. A biological or chemical laboratory contains various pieces of equipment used for performing such protocols and, as shown in Fig. 1.1, the engineering aspect of LoC design is aiming to embed all these components in a single chip for single-purpose applications. 1.1.1 Main Objectives of LoC Systems Several clear advantages of this technology over conventional approaches, including portability, full automation, ease of operation, low sample consumption and fast assays time, make LoC suitable for many applications including. Highly Throughput Screening To conduct an experiment, a researcher fills a well with the required biological or chemical analytes and keeps the sample in an incubator for some time to allowing the sample to react properly. Afterwards, any changes can be observed using a microscope. In order to quickly conduct millions of biochemical or pharmacolo- cal tests, the researchers will require an automated highly throughput screening (HTS) [8], comprised of a large array of wells, liquid handling devices (e.g., mic- channel, micropump and microvalves [9–11]), a fully controllable incubator and an integrated sensor array, along with the appropriate readout system.

Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Minichannels and Microchannels

Author : Satish Kandlikar
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Heat exchangers with minichannel and microchannel flow passages are becoming increasingly popular due to their ability to remove large heat fluxes under single-phase and two-phase applications. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Minichannels and Microchannels methodically covers gas, liquid, and electrokinetic flows, as well as flow boiling and condensation, in minichannel and microchannel applications. Examining biomedical applications as well, the book is an ideal reference for anyone involved in the design processes of microchannel flow passages in a heat exchanger. Each chapter is accompanied by a real-life case study New edition of the first book that solely deals with heat and fluid flow in minichannels and microchannels Presents findings that are directly useful to designers; researchers can use the information in developing new models or identifying research needs

Organ on a chip

Author : Julia Hoeng
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Organ-on-a-Chip: Engineered Microenvironments for Safety and Efficacy Testing contains chapters from world-leading researchers in the field of organ on a chip development and applications, with perspectives from life sciences, medicine, physiology and engineering. The book contains an overview of the field, with sections covering the major organ systems and currently available technologies, platforms and methods. As readers may also be interested in creating biochips, materials and engineering best practice, these topics are also described. Users will learn about the limitations of 2D in-vitro models and the available 3D in-vitro models (what benefits they offer and some examples). Finally, the MOC section shows how the organ on a chip technology can be adapted to improve the physiology of in-vitro models. Includes case studies of other organs on a chip that have been developed and successfully used Provides insights into functional microphysiological organ on a chip platforms for toxicity and efficacy testing, along with opportunities for translational medicine Presented fields (PK/PD, physiology, medicine, safety) are given a definition followed by the challenges and potential of organs on a chip

Electrokinetics in Microfluidics

Author : Dongqing Li
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A lab-on-a-chip device is a microscale laboratory on a credit-card sized glass or plastic chip with a network of microchannels, electrodes, sensors and electronic circuits. These labs on a chip can duplicate the specialized functions as performed by their room-sized counterparts, such as clinical diagnoses, PCR and electrophoretic separation. The advantages of these labs on a chip include significant reduction in the amounts of samples and reagents, very short reaction and analysis time, high throughput and portability. Generally, a lab-on-a-chip device must perform a number of microfluidic functions: pumping, mixing, thermal cycling/incubating, dispensing, and separating. Precise manipulation of these microfluidic processes is key to the operation and performance of labs on a chip. The objective of this book is to provide a fundamental understanding of the interfacial electrokinetic phenomena in several key microfluidic processes, and to show how these phenomena can be utilised to control the microfluidic processes. For this purpose, this book emphasises the theoretical modelling and the numerical simulation of these electrokinetic phenomena in microfluidics. However, experimental studies of the electrokinetic microfluidic processes are also highlighted in sufficient detail. The first book which systematically reviews electrokinetic microfluidics processes for lab-on-a chip applications Covers modelling and numerical simulation of the electrokinetic microfluidics processes Providing information on experimental studies and details of experimental techniques, which are essential for those who are new to this field

Exact Design of Digital Microfluidic Biochips

Author : Oliver Keszocze
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This book presents exact, that is minimal, solutions to individual steps in the design process for Digital Microfluidic Biochips (DMFBs), as well as a one-pass approach that combines all these steps in a single process. All of the approaches discussed are based on a formal model that can easily be extended to cope with further design problems. In addition to the exact methods, heuristic approaches are provided and the complexity classes of various design problems are determined. Presents exact methods to tackle a variety of design problems for Digital Microfluidic Biochips (DMFBs); Describes an holistic, one-pass approach solving different design steps all at once; Based on a formal model of DMFBs that is easily adaptable to deal with further design tasks.

DNA and Biotechnology

Author : Molly Fitzgerald-Hayes
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Appropriate for a wide range of disciplines, from biology to non-biology, law and nursing majors, DNA and Biotechnology uses a straightforward and comprehensive writing style that gives the educated layperson a survey of DNA by presenting a brief history of genetics, a clear outline of techniques that are in use, and highlights of breakthroughs in hot topic scientific discoveries. Engaging and straightforward scientific writing style Comprehensive forensics chapter Parallel Pedagogic material designed to help both readers and teachers. Highlights in the latest scientific discoveries Outstanding full-color illustration that walk reader through complex concepts

Crime Labs

Author : Rebecca Stefoff
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Examples of actual cases accompany an exploration of the history of crime labs, discussing the equipment and techniques used in various types of forensic analysis.

Microscale Heat Transfer Fundamentals and Applications

Author : S. Kakaç
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This volume contains an archival record of the NATO Advanced Institute on Microscale Heat Transfer – Fundamental and Applications in Biological and Microelectromechanical Systems held in Çesme – Izmir, Turkey, July 18–30, 2004. The ASIs are intended to be high-level teaching activity in scientific and technical areas of current concern. In this volume, the reader may find interesting chapters and various Microscale Heat Transfer Fundamental and Applications. The growing use of electronics, in both military and civilian applications has led to the widespread recognition for need of thermal packaging and management. The use of higher densities and frequencies in microelectronic circuits for computers are increasing day by day. They require effective cooling due to heat generated that is to be dissipated from a relatively low surface area. Hence, the development of efficient cooling techniques for integrated circuit chips is one of the important contemporary applications of Microscale Heat Transfer which has received much attention for cooling of high power electronics and applications in biomechanical and aerospace industries. Microelectromechanical systems are subject of increasing active research in a widening field of discipline. These topics and others are the main themeof this Institute.

The Third International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam

Author : Vo Van Toi
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Vietnam is a rapidly developing, socially dynamic country, where interest in biomedical engineering activities has grown considerably in recent years. The leadership of the Vietnamese government, and of research and educational institutions, are well aware of the importance of this field for the development of the country and have instituted policies to promote its development. The political, economic and social environment within the country offers unique opportunities for the international community and this conference was intended to provide a vehicle for the sharing of experiences; development of support and collaboration networks for research; and exchange of ideas on how to improve the educational and entrepreneurial environment to better address the urgent needs of Vietnam. In January 2004, under the sponsorship of the U.S. National Science Foundation, a U.S. delegation that consisted of Biomedical Engineering professors from different universities in the United States, visited several universities and research institutions in Vietnam to assess the state of development of this field. This delegation proposed a five year plan that was enthusiastically embraced by the international scientific communities to actively develop collaborations with Vietnam. Within this framework, in July 2005, the First International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam was held in Ho Chi Minh City. From that conference a Consortium of Vietnam-International Universities was created to advise and assist the development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnamese universities.

Handbook of Optofluidics

Author : Aaron R. Hawkins
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Optofluidics is an emerging field that involves the use of fluids to modify optical properties and the use of optical devices to detect flowing media. Ultimately, its value is highly dependent on the successful integration of photonic integrated circuits with microfluidic or nanofluidic systems. Handbook of Optofluidics provides a snapshot of the s

BioMEMS and Biomedical Nanotechnology

Author : Rashid Bashir
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Offers a review of key aspects of BioMEMS sensors, including BioMEMS sensors and materials, means of manipulating biological entities at the microscale, and micro-fluidics and characterization.

Handbook of Spectroscopy

Author : G¿nter Gauglitz
File Size : 35.87 MB
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This second, thoroughly revised, updated and enlarged edition provides a straightforward introduction to spectroscopy, showing what it can do and how it does it, together with a clear, integrated and objective account of the wealth of information that may be derived from spectra. It also features new chapters on spectroscopy in nano-dimensions, nano-optics, and polymer analysis. Clearly structured into sixteen sections, it covers everything from spectroscopy in nanodimensions to medicinal applications, spanning a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum and the physical processes involved, from nuclear phenomena to molecular rotation processes. In addition, data tables provide a comparison of different methods in a standardized form, allowing readers to save valuable time in the decision process by avoiding wrong turns, and also help in selecting the instrumentation and performing the experiments. These four volumes are a must-have companion for daily use in every lab.

Lab on a Chip

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Biological Identification

Author : R. Paul Schaudies
File Size : 56.95 MB
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Biological Identification provides a detailed review of, and potential future developments in, the technologies available to counter the threats to life and health posed by natural pathogens, toxins, and bioterrorism agents. Biological identification systems must be fast, accurate, reliable, and easy to use. It is also important to employ the most suitable technology in dealing with any particular threat. This book covers the fundamentals of these vital systems and lays out possible advances in the technology. Part one covers the essentials of DNA and RNA sequencing for the identification of pathogens, including next generation sequencing (NGS), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, isothermal amplification, and bead array technologies. Part two addresses a variety of approaches to making identification systems portable, tackling the special requirements of smaller, mobile systems in fluid movement, power usage, and sample preparation. Part three focuses on a range of optical methods and their advantages. Finally, part four describes a unique approach to sample preparation and a promising approach to identification using mass spectroscopy. Biological Identification is a useful resource for academics and engineers involved in the microelectronics and sensors industry, and for companies, medical organizations and military bodies looking for biodetection solutions. Covers DNA sequencing of pathogens, lab-on-chip, and portable systems for biodetection and analysis Provides an in-depth description of optical systems and explores sample preparation and mass spectrometry-based biological analysis

Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation

Author : Giancarlo Mauri
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation, UCNC 2013, held in Milan, Italy, in July 2013. The 30 papers (28 full papers, 8 poster papers, and 2 invited papers) were carefully reviewed and selected from 46 submissions. The topics of the volume include: quantum, cellular, molecular, neural, DNA, membrane, and evolutionary computing; cellular automata; computation based on chaos and dynamical systems; massive parallel computation; collective intelligence; computation based on physical principles such as relativistic, optical, spatial, collision-based computing; amorphous computing; physarum computing; hypercomputation; fuzzy and rough computing; swarm intelligence; artificial immune systems; physics of computation; chemical computation; evolving hardware; the computational nature of self-assembly, developmental processes, bacterial communication, and brain processes.

Thermal Nanosystems and Nanomaterials

Author : Sebastian Volz
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Heat transfer laws for conduction, radiation and convection change when the dimensions of the systems in question shrink. The altered behaviours can be used efficiently in energy conversion, respectively bio- and high-performance materials to control microelectronic devices. To understand and model those thermal mechanisms, specific metrologies have to be established. This book provides an overview of actual devices and materials involving micro-nanoscale heat transfer mechanisms. These are clearly explained and exemplified by a large spectrum of relevant physical models, while the most advanced nanoscale thermal metrologies are presented.

Advanced Materials and Technologies for Micro Nano Devices Sensors and Actuators

Author : Evgeni Gusev
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A NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) entitled “Advanced Materials and Technologies for Micro/Nano Devices, Sensors and Actuators” was held in St. Petersburg, Russia, from June 29 to July 2, 2009. The main goal of the Workshop was to examine (at a fundamental level) the very complex scientific issues that pertain to the use of micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), devices and technologies in next generation commercial and defen- related applications. Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems represent rather broad and diverse technological areas, such as optical systems (micromirrors, waveguides, optical sensors, integrated subsystems), life sciences and lab equipment (micropumps, membranes, lab-on-chip, membranes, microfluidics), sensors (bio-sensors, chemical sensors, gas-phase sensors, sensors integrated with electronics) and RF applications for signal transmission (variable capacitors, tunable filters and antennas, switches, resonators). From a scientific viewpoint, this is a very multi-disciplinary field, including micro- and nano-mechanics (such as stresses in structural materials), electronic effects (e. g. charge transfer), general electrostatics, materials science, surface chemistry, interface science, (nano)tribology, and optics. It is obvious that in order to overcome the problems surrounding next-generation MEMS/NEMS devices and applications it is necessary to tackle them from different angles: theoreticians need to speak with mechanical engineers, and device engineers and modelers to listen to surface physicists. It was therefore one of the main objectives of the workshop to bring together a multidisciplinary team of distinguished researchers.

The Biotech Investor

Author : Tom Abate
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A sophisticated investor's practical tool kit for analyzing the science, business, opportunities, and risks in the century's most promising industry The world is entering a biotechnology boom-but only informed investors will prosper in the incredibly complex biotech business. Separating the bioengineered wheat from the chaff, San Francisco Chronicle science and technology columnist Tom Abate, one of the top objective authorities on biotech, gives investors the analytical foundation to understand the science, finances, time horizon, and technological and commercial potential of this burgeoning industry. In The Biotech Investor, Abate provides sophisticated business analysis, guidelines for assessing company leadership, easy-to-digest reports from the labs, and indispensable investor tools and metrics. He explains how breaking news, medical conferences, U.S. Food and Drug Administration approvals, and the patent process affect investing strategies. Finally, he looks beyond medicine to review the financial opportunities presented by biotechnology advances in everything from agriculture to jean manufacturing, and shows investors how to identify "coattail" industries such as instrumentation and software development that will benefit from biotech successes. The Biotech Investor is the comprehensive, expert source for successful and intelligent investing in one of the twenty-first century's most promising industries.