Search results for: knowing-knowledge-and-beliefs

Knowing Knowledge and Beliefs

Author : Myint Swe Khine
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Bringing together prominent educators and researchers, this book focuses on conceptual and methodological issues relevant to the nature of knowledge and learning. It offers a state-of-the-art theoretical understanding of epistemological beliefs from both educational and psychological perspectives. Readers discover recent advances in conceptualization and epistemological studies across diverse cultures. This is an unbeatable resource for academics and researchers alike.

Personal Epistemology

Author : Barbara K. Hofer
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This is the first book to provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of personal epistemology from a psychological and educational perspective. Both theory building and empirical research have grown dramatically in the past decade but, until now, this work has not been pulled together in a single volume. That is the mission of this volume whose state-of-the-art theory and research are likely to define the field for the next 20 years. Key features of this important new book include: *Pioneering Contributors--The book provides current perspectives of each of the major theoreticians and researchers who pioneered this growing field, as well as contributions from new researchers. *Diverse Perspectives--The contributors represent a variety of perspectives, including education, educational psychology, developmental psychology, higher education, and science and mathematics education. *Editorial Integration--Opening and closing chapters by the editors set out key issues confronting the field.

Knowing Knowledge

Author : George Siemens
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Why does so much of our society look as it did in the past? Our schools,our government, our religious organizations, our media - while more complex, have maintained their general structure and shape. Classroomstructure today, with the exception of a computer or an LCD projector, looks remarkably unchanged: teacher at the front, students i n rows. Our business processes are still built on theories and viewpoints that existed over a century ago (with periodic amendments from thinkers like Drucker 2). In essence, we have transferred (not transformed) our physical identity to online spaces and structures.

Conceptions of Knowledge Creation Knowledge and Knowing

Author : Yuh Huann Tan
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This book responds to calls for further advancing knowledge creation in schools. It examines sixteen Chinese Language teachers from Singapore, since language teachers are primarily responsible for the basic literacy that is the foundation of students’ lifelong learning. Positing that people’s cultural beliefs and the language(s) they use are inseparable, the book argues that Chinese language teachers possess a unique understanding of the various phenomena that reflect the influences of Chinese culture by virtue of the language they speak and teach. For the purposes of the investigation, it employs phenomenography — a methodology aimed at finding and systematising how people interpret the world around them — to determine and describe Chinese language teachers’ conceptions of these phenomena.

Making Sense of Pedagogical Knowledge Media An Analysis of How Modal Composition Influences Epistemological Beliefs

Author : Philippa (Pip). Mules
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This doctoral thesis is about knowledge and knowing. It considers how the medium by whichknowledge is stored and shared influences perceptions about the value and validity ofknowledge. The analysis is based on the idea that the unique material composition of theknowledge media of the time, rather than being merely a conduit for transmitting ideationalcontent, deeply influences beliefs about knowledge.A number of theorists (Eisenstein, 2013; McLuhan, 1962, 1969, 1994; Postman, 2005; Ong,1977a, 2004, 2012) have analysed how the material composition of mass-print has influencedperceptions of knowledge. Walter Ong (2004) conducted an extensive analysis of early formsof textbooks. In this analysis he found that textbooks have profoundly influencedepistemological beliefs since the Enlightenment, but their influence arose not as a result ofgood pedagogical design, but as an unintended consequence of the unique affordances andconstraints of the highly mechanised production cycles associated with mass-printed texts. As aresult of the mechanical processes associated with mass-printing beliefs about knowing andknowledge were based on representations of the world laid out on the printed page (Ong,2012).Until approximately 35 years ago the Western world used mainly the same primary media forrepresenting, storing and disseminating pedagogical knowledge that had been used for theprevious 500 years. In other words the material composition of the media by which knowledgehas been transacted has been stable. But it is clear that a period of intense change is occurringas knowledge media are increasingly digitised at all stages of their production, distribution andconsumption cycles. As a result of the processes of digitisation knowledge media are moremultimodal, increasingly dispersed beyond one certified knowledge medium and increasinglylocated outside the nexus of the classroom.Media ecologists, particularly McLuhan (1994) and Ong (1977a, 2004, 2012), have speculatedabout the epistemological changes that the digitised knowledge environment would bring, butthey tended to take a hypothetical approach to considering these changes. This research seeksto bring a more fine-grained methodological approach to these speculations by developing amedia-based methodology (or lens) that shows how knowledge seekers’ incremental sensoryinteractions with the modal composition of knowledge media are mediating changes to beliefsabout knowledge.This research compares three specific examples of knowledge media diachronically along thematerial axes of time, space and the extent to which the authentic voice of the ‘others’ who aremutually engaged in the knowledge transaction can be heard. The three media are: a 1960sclassroom textbook—Vernon, A. (1965). Human interaction: An introduction to sociology.New York, NY: The Ronald Press Company; a classroom textbook from 2010—Carl, J.(2010). Think sociology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall; and the Wikibook—Introduction to Sociology (http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Sociology).The research finds that, as knowledge media are becoming increasingly digitised, a number ofsubtle epistemological changes are emerging: knowing is increasingly becoming a process ofemotional connection with others rather than intellectual engagement with complex analyticcategories; personal stories are becoming valued as a way of coming to know; andinterpersonal connectedness and trust are increasingly perceived as valued sources of authority.In other words, the digitised knowledge environment is, rather serendipitously, increasinglyfacilitating more constructivist beliefs about knowledge.Despite this increased capacity for digitised knowledge media to mediate more constructivistpersonal epistemological beliefs, this research finds, rather alarmingly, that there are parallelsbetween Ong’s (2004) findings and the current epistemological period: new knowledge mediaare being incorporated into classroom practice with limited attention to the influence that theirmodal composition is having on beliefs about knowledge and knowing. This inattention hassignificant implications for learning and teaching at this time of large-scale investment in newknowledge media. The research provides insight into how the characteristics of the ‘packaging’of knowledge shapes perceptions of it. It provides a lens to help teachers, educational policymakers and planners avoid sleepwalking into the 21st century with 19th century perceptions(McLuhan, Fiore & Agel, 1967), and to advance academic consideration of these matters. Read less

Links Between Beliefs and Cognitive Flexibility

Author : Jan Elen
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With the world and its structures becoming ever more complex, and the nature of future employment becoming ever more unpredictable, the notion of ‘cognitive flexibility’ has a high profile in educational and psychological debate. The contributions in this volume analyze the nature of cognitive flexibility, as well as the impact of different types of beliefs on cognitive flexibility. Making adequate decisions requires considering input from a variety of continuously evolving sources rather than adhering to predetermined procedures. Adopting a position in a debate necessitates the critical evaluation of different alternatives, while solving a problem entails selecting appropriate problem-solving strategies. Meanwhile, studying requires students to integrate a range of interventions, and treating a patient involves making a differential diagnosis. The common factor, cognitive flexibility, lies at the core of effective functioning in complex, domain-specific environments. Cognitive flexibility can be described as the disposition to consider diverse information elements while deciding on how to solve a problem or to execute a learning-related task in a variety of domains. The concept of ‘disposition’ implies that individuals will not always demonstrate cognitive flexibility even if they are in principle able to act in a cognitively flexible way. The notion does not require that alternatives are always deliberately considered, which is why this volume’s tandem discussion of beliefs is key element of the discussion. Beliefs play a central role in cognitive flexibility and relate to what individuals consider to be important, valid and/or true. Of specific interest is the relationship between epistemological beliefs and cognitive flexibility, especially as a particular subset of epistemological beliefs seems to be a prerequisite to a cognitively flexible disposition.

Literature Belief and Knowledge in Early Modern England

Author : Subha Mukherji
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The primary aim of Knowing Faith is to uncover the intervention of literary texts and approaches in a wider conversation about religious knowledge: why we need it, how to get there, where to stop, and how to recognise it once it has been attained. Its relative freedom from specialised disciplinary investments allows a literary lens to bring into focus the relatively elusive strands of thinking about belief, knowledge and salvation, probing the particulars of affect implicit in the generalities of doctrine. The essays in this volume collectively probe the dynamic between literary form, religious faith and the process, psychology and ethics of knowing in early modern England. Addressing both the poetics of theological texts and literary treatments of theological matter, they stretch from the Reformation to the early Enlightenment, and cover a variety of themes ranging across religious hermeneutics, rhetoric and controversy, the role of the senses, and the entanglement of justice, ethics and practical theology. The book should appeal to scholars of early modern literature and culture, theologians and historians of religion, and general readers with a broad interest in Renaissance cultures of knowing.

Personal Epistemology

Author : Barbara K. Hofer
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This special issue brings the discussion of paradigmatic approaches to a wider audience in order to sharpen the conceptual understanding of personal epistemology and increase awareness of this important area of research for educators and educational psychologists. Its goal is to help bring clarity to the field by helping readers examine both the common ground in the various models and points of divergence, gain a better understanding of the educational relevance of personal epistemology, and learn more about the methodological approaches for investigating this construct and the research questions that need attention. As a result, this issue will help direct a new wave of studies that will shape the future of research in this field.

News Credibility Through an Epistemological Lens

Author : Craig T. Robertson
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In recent years, there have been renewed challenges to the credibility of news. Journalists and their way of knowing have been contested on a number of fronts and trust in news in the United States, and beyond, is in decline. Against this backdrop, several pertinent questions have been posed: How can we trust what journalists say? How do we know that it is true? What makes news valid? These are important epistemological questions that have not been fully addressed in the literature on news credibility. With this in mind, the purpose of this dissertation is to explore what makes news, from an audience perspective, credible or not. It does this by exploring credibility through an epistemological lens, considering audience views on news as a form of knowledge and journalism as a way of knowing. The central argument is that the epistemological beliefs that individuals hold with respect to journalism matter when it comes to perceptions of news credibility; that beliefs about the nature of valid knowledge and knowing in journalism inform perceptions of what are 'good' and 'bad' journalistic practices.In light of this, the present dissertation explores three key questions: 1) What are individuals' epistemological beliefs as they relate to news and journalism? 2) How is the epistemology of journalism, as it is practiced, viewed by individuals? 3) How do the epistemological beliefs and perceptions of individuals relate to or shape views of news credibility? To examine these questions, I draw on data from semi-structured interviews with 65 people from diverse backgrounds in the United States.I find that, first, most people articulate core beliefs which see valid news as certain, simple, primary-sourced, and justified by a correspondence between factual claims and reality. However, these beliefs shift according to the epistemological context. As news contexts become more interpretive, individuals emphasize how journalists ought to balance relative truths rooted in different perspectives, sets of facts, or ways of knowing. These beliefs constitute an idealized form of straightforward objective, impartial, and balanced news which may not necessarily be attainable but which individuals compare real news to. Second, I find there is often a disjuncture between the idealized beliefs of individuals and the perceived epistemological approaches of news sources. Journalists are often seen to diverge from audience expectations, failing to remain objective, include all relevant information or perspectives, and demonstrate how the claims made match with the facts of the external world. Third, I observe that this disjuncture - an epistemic incongruency - has important implications for news credibility. Journalism, as a profession and institution, relies on credibility for its legitimacy, authority, and social and political relevance. But this credibility is both under threat and in decline. I argue this occurs because of an incongruency between what audiences say they want (their epistemological beliefs) and what they see journalists doing (their epistemological perceptions). The findings suggest that, based on what audiences say, to gain credibility, journalism may need to pull back from interpretive or evaluative styles of news, instead revisiting more traditional notions of objectivity, impartiality, and balance. On the other hand, audiences may need to recognize issues in their beliefs and idealized views of news, tempering their expectations and acknowledging the epistemic limitations of journalism and of traditional norms. Findings point to possibilities for both journalistic and audience reflection and education at a time when questions have been raised about notions of fact and truth.

Dewey s Theory of Knowing

Author : Georges Dicker
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Knowing How Essays on Knowledge Mind and Action

Author : John Bengson
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Knowledge how to do things is a pervasive and central element of everyday life. Yet it raises many difficult questions that must be answered by philosophers and cognitive scientists aspiring to understand human cognition and agency. What is the connection between knowing how and knowing that? Is knowledge how simply a type of ability or disposition to act? Is there an irreducibly practical form of knowledge? What is the role of the intellect in intelligent action? This volume contains fifteen state of the art essays by leading figures in philosophy and linguistics that amplify and sharpen the debate between intellectualists and anti-intellectualists about mind and action, highlighting the conceptual, empirical, and linguistic issues that motivate and sustain the conflict. The essays also explore various ways in which this debate informs central areas of ethics, philosophy of action, epistemology, philosophy of language, and philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Knowing How covers a broad range of topics dealing with tacit and procedural knowledge, the psychology of skill, expertise, intelligence and intelligent action, the nature of ability, the syntax and semantics of embedded questions, the mind-body problem, phenomenal character, epistemic injustice, moral knowledge, the epistemology of logic, linguistic competence, the connection between knowledge and understanding, and the relation between theory and practice. This is the book on knowing how--an invaluable resource for philosophers, linguists, psychologists, and others concerned with knowledge, mind, and action.

Knowing Persons

Author : Lloyd P. Gerson
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Lloyd P. Gerson is a 2011 Fellow of The Royal Society of Canada. Knowing Persons is an original study of Plato's account of personhood. For Plato, embodied persons are images of a disembodied ideal. The ideal person is a knower. Hence, the lives of embodied persons need to be understood according to Plato's metaphysics of imagery. For Gerson, Plato's account of embodied personhood is not accurately conflated with Cartesian dualism. Plato's dualism is more appropriately seen in the contrast between the ideal disembodied person and the embodied one than in the contrast between mind or soul and body. This study argues that Plato's analysis of personhood is intended to cohere with his two-world metaphysics as well as a radical separation of knowledge and belief. Gerson demonstrates that Plato's account of persons plays a key role not just in his theory of mind, but in his theory of knowledge, his metaphysics, and his ethics. A proper understanding of Plato's account of personsmust therefore place it in the context of his doctrines in these areas. Knowing Persons fills a significant gap by showing the way to such an understanding.

Personal Epistemology and Teacher Education

Author : Jo Brownlee
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Personal Epistemology and Teacher Education, edited by Joanne Brownlee, Gregg Schraw and Donna Berthelsen, provides an international perspective on teachers’ personal epistemology, or beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing. Research from The Netherlands, Cyprus, Australia, United States, Canada, Norway, and Taiwan is presented to provide diverse viewpoints on personal epistemology for early childhood, primary, secondary and tertiary teaching contexts. The text provides a platform for cutting-edge theory and research about how personal epistemology can be applied to the context of teacher education, thereby making explicit the connection between personal epistemology and teaching and students’ learning outcomes. Topics include: Cultural differences in teacher epistemology and the impact on students’ learning Teachers’ epistemological beliefs and inclusion Teachers’ epistemology and reading lessons, citizenship education, and teaching science Epistemology in a social context Teachers’ epistemological beliefs and student autonomy Teacher education and analysis of preservice and practicing teachers Implications of teachers’ epistemological beliefs Connections to future practice Teacher education and teacher behaviours are fore-grounded across the topics, with an emphasis on the origin and composition of teachers’ epistemological beliefs and how universities motivate change through formal teacher education. Teaching behaviours are discussed in relation to how teachers’ beliefs are related to the curricular and pedagogical choices that they make in their classrooms, assessment of learning outcomes, and classroom management practices.

Knowing knowledge

Author : Diana Jayne Nicholson
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Inquiry into youth's beliefs about knowledge -- what knowledge means, where knowledge comes from, who knows (and who doesn't) -- was undertaken to gain insight into how knowledge is known and the effects of conceptions of knowledge on daily living. Through bringing together the voices of youth with the voices of other thinking friends, the relevance and significance of youth's insights into how knowledge is known is made apparent, and is also foregrounded in proposed considerations for teaching-learning encounters.

Knowing Other Minds

Author : Anita Avramides
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How do we acquire knowledge of the thoughts and feelings of others? Knowing Other Minds brings together ten original essays that address various questions in philosophy and in empirical cognitive science which arise from our everyday social interaction with other people.

The Islamic Quarterly

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Knowing and Seeing

Author : Michael Ayers
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What is knowledge? What, if anything, can we know? In Knowing and Seeing, Michael Ayers recovers the insight in the traditional distinction between knowledge and belief, according to which 'knowledge' stems from direct and perspicuous cognitive contact with ('seeing') its object, whereas 'belief' relies on 'extraneous' justification. He conducts a careful phenomenological analysis of what it is to perceive one's environment as one's environment, the result of which is not only direct realism, but recognition that in being perceptually aware of anything we are at the same time perceptually aware of how we are aware of it. Perceptual knowing comes with knowing how you know. Some other forms of knowledge are similarly direct and perspicuous, but not all; a distinction is accordingly drawn between primary and secondary knowledge, and Ayers argues that no secondary knowledge is possible without some primary knowledge. Perceptual knowledge supplies the paradigm to which other cases of knowledge are diversely analogous - hence the notorious difficulty of defining knowledge. These conclusions, supported by a detailed examination of the relations between different grammatical constructions in which 'know', 'believe' and 'see' occur, fuel extended critiques of two lines of thought influential in contemporary epistemology: John McDowell's conceptualist and intellectualist account of perceptual knowledge, and Fred Dretske's 'externalist' employment of sceptical argument. Ayers unpicks the arguments for these other views, explains the failure of recent attempts at a comprehensive definition of knowledge, explores the tight relation between knowledge and certainty, and gives an account of how 'defeasibility' should and should not be understood in epistemology.

Beyond Skepticism and Certainty

Author : Paul R. Dunn
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Work Culture and Efficiency with Special Reference to Indriyas

Author :
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Contributed research papers presented at a National Seminar organized under the joint auspices of Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, Tirupati and Indian Council of Social Science Research, New Delhi from 27th to 29th March 2004 at R.S. Vidyapeeth, Tirupati.

Science Its Nature Method and Scope Delivered on March 22 1947 at Berkeley California

Author : Curt John Ducasse
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