Introduction to Semi-supervised Learning


Author: Xiaojin Zhu,Andrew B. Goldberg

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1598295470

Category: Computers

Page: 116

View: 5262

Semi-supervised learning is a learning paradigm concerned with the study of how computers and natural systems such as humans learn in the presence of both labeled and unlabeled data. Traditionally, learning has been studied either in the unsupervised paradigm (e.g., clustering, outlier detection) where all the data are unlabeled, or in the supervised paradigm (e.g., classification, regression) where all the data are labeled. The goal of semi-supervised learning is to understand how combining labeled and unlabeled data may change the learning behavior, and design algorithms that take advantage of such a combination. Semi-supervised learning is of great interest in machine learning and data mining because it can use readily available unlabeled data to improve supervised learning tasks when the labeled data are scarce or expensive. Semi-supervised learning also shows potential as a quantitative tool to understand human category learning, where most of the input is self-evidently unlabeled. In this introductory book, we present some popular semi-supervised learning models, including self-training, mixture models, co-training and multiview learning, graph-based methods, and semi-supervised support vector machines. For each model, we discuss its basic mathematical formulation. The success of semi-supervised learning depends critically on some underlying assumptions. We emphasize the assumptions made by each model and give counterexamples when appropriate to demonstrate the limitations of the different models. In addition, we discuss semi-supervised learning for cognitive psychology. Finally, we give a computational learning theoretic perspective on semi-supervised learning, and we conclude the book with a brief discussion of open questions in the field. Table of Contents: Introduction to Statistical Machine Learning / Overview of Semi-Supervised Learning / Mixture Models and EM / Co-Training / Graph-Based Semi-Supervised Learning / Semi-Supervised Support Vector Machines / Human Semi-Supervised Learning / Theory and Outlook

Semi-Supervised Learning and Domain Adaptation in Natural Language Processing


Author: Anders Søgaard

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1608459861

Category: Computers

Page: 103

View: 6155

This book introduces basic supervised learning algorithms applicable to natural language processing (NLP) and shows how the performance of these algorithms can often be improved by exploiting the marginal distribution of large amounts of unlabeled data. One reason for that is data sparsity, i.e., the limited amounts of data we have available in NLP. However, in most real-world NLP applications our labeled data is also heavily biased. This book introduces extensions of supervised learning algorithms to cope with data sparsity and different kinds of sampling bias. This book is intended to be both readable by first-year students and interesting to the expert audience. My intention was to introduce what is necessary to appreciate the major challenges we face in contemporary NLP related to data sparsity and sampling bias, without wasting too much time on details about supervised learning algorithms or particular NLP applications. I use text classification, part-of-speech tagging, and dependency parsing as running examples, and limit myself to a small set of cardinal learning algorithms. I have worried less about theoretical guarantees ("this algorithm never does too badly") than about useful rules of thumb ("in this case this algorithm may perform really well"). In NLP, data is so noisy, biased, and non-stationary that few theoretical guarantees can be established and we are typically left with our gut feelings and a catalogue of crazy ideas. I hope this book will provide its readers with both. Throughout the book we include snippets of Python code and empirical evaluations, when relevant.

Semisupervised Learning for Computational Linguistics


Author: Steven Abney

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420010800

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 2638

The rapid advancement in the theoretical understanding of statistical and machine learning methods for semisupervised learning has made it difficult for nonspecialists to keep up to date in the field. Providing a broad, accessible treatment of the theory as well as linguistic applications, Semisupervised Learning for Computational Linguistics offers self-contained coverage of semisupervised methods that includes background material on supervised and unsupervised learning. The book presents a brief history of semisupervised learning and its place in the spectrum of learning methods before moving on to discuss well-known natural language processing methods, such as self-training and co-training. It then centers on machine learning techniques, including the boundary-oriented methods of perceptrons, boosting, support vector machines (SVMs), and the null-category noise model. In addition, the book covers clustering, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, related generative methods, and agreement methods. It concludes with the graph-based method of label propagation as well as a detailed discussion of spectral methods. Taking an intuitive approach to the material, this lucid book facilitates the application of semisupervised learning methods to natural language processing and provides the framework and motivation for a more systematic study of machine learning.

Hands-On Artificial Intelligence with Java for Beginners

Build intelligent apps using machine learning and deep learning with Deeplearning4j


Author: Nisheeth Joshi

Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 1789531020

Category: Computers

Page: 144

View: 7890

Build, train, and deploy intelligent applications using Java libraries Key Features Leverage the power of Java libraries to build smart applications Build and train deep learning models for implementing artificial intelligence Learn various algorithms to automate complex tasks Book Description Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly in demand as well as relevant in the modern world, where everything is driven by technology and data. AI can be used for automating systems or processes to carry out complex tasks and functions in order to achieve optimal performance and productivity. Hands-On Artificial Intelligence with Java for Beginners begins by introducing you to AI concepts and algorithms. You will learn about various Java-based libraries and frameworks that can be used in implementing AI to build smart applications. In addition to this, the book teaches you how to implement easy to complex AI tasks, such as genetic programming, heuristic searches, reinforcement learning, neural networks, and segmentation, all with a practical approach. By the end of this book, you will not only have a solid grasp of AI concepts, but you'll also be able to build your own smart applications for multiple domains. What you will learn Leverage different Java packages and tools such as Weka, RapidMiner, and Deeplearning4j, among others Build machine learning models using supervised and unsupervised machine learning techniques Implement different deep learning algorithms in Deeplearning4j and build applications based on them Study the basics of heuristic searching and genetic programming Differentiate between syntactic and semantic similarity among texts Perform sentiment analysis for effective decision making with LingPipe Who this book is for Hands-On Artificial Intelligence with Java for Beginners is for Java developers who want to learn the fundamentals of artificial intelligence and extend their programming knowledge to build smarter applications.

Enhancement to Selective Incremental Approach for Transductive Nearest Neighbour Classification


Author: E. Madhusudhana Reddy

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3656341869

Category: Computers

Page: 133

View: 3064

Master's Thesis from the year 2012 in the subject Computer Science - Didactics, , course: COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, language: English, abstract: During the last years, semi-supervised learning has emerged as an exciting new direction in machine learning research. It is closely related to profound issues of how to do inference from data, as witnessed by its overlap with transductive inference. Semi-Supervised learning is the half-way between Supervised and Unsupervised Learning. In this majority of the patterns are unlabelled, they are present in Test set and knowed labeled patterns are present in Training set. Using these training set, we assign the labels for test set. Here our Proposed method is using Nearest Neighbour Classifier for Semi-Supervised learning we can label the unlabelled patterns using the labeled patterns and then compare these method with the traditionally Existing methods as graph mincut, spectral graph partisan, ID3,Nearest Neighbour Classifier and we are going to prove our Proposed method is more scalable than the Existing methods and reduce time complexity of SITNNC(Selective Incremental Approach for Transductive Nearest Neighbour Classifier) using Leaders Algorithm.

Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition


Author: Jun-Bao Li,Shu-Chuan Chu,Jeng-Shyang Pan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461401615

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 225

View: 4957

Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition covers the framework of kernel based face recognition. This book discusses the advanced kernel learning algorithms and its application on face recognition. This book also focuses on the theoretical deviation, the system framework and experiments involving kernel based face recognition. Included within are algorithms of kernel based face recognition, and also the feasibility of the kernel based face recognition method. This book provides researchers in pattern recognition and machine learning area with advanced face recognition methods and its newest applications.

Proceedings of the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems


Author: Hisashi Handa,Hisao Ishibuchi,Yew-Soon Ong,Kay Chen Tan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319133594

Category: Computers

Page: 713

View: 4122

This book contains a collection of the papers accepted in the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2014), which was held in Singapore from 10-12th November 2014. The papers contained in this book demonstrate notable intelligent systems with good analytical and/or empirical results.

Graph-Based Semi-Supervised Learning


Author: Amarnag Subramanya,Partha Pratim Talukdar

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 162705202X

Category: Computers

Page: 125

View: 3980

While labeled data is expensive to prepare, ever increasing amounts of unlabeled data is becoming widely available. In order to adapt to this phenomenon, several semi-supervised learning (SSL) algorithms, which learn from labeled as well as unlabeled data, have been developed. In a separate line of work, researchers have started to realize that graphs provide a natural way to represent data in a variety of domains. Graph-based SSL algorithms, which bring together these two lines of work, have been shown to outperform the state-of-the-art in many applications in speech processing, computer vision, natural language processing, and other areas of Artificial Intelligence. Recognizing this promising and emerging area of research, this synthesis lecture focuses on graph-based SSL algorithms (e.g., label propagation methods). Our hope is that after reading this book, the reader will walk away with the following: (1) an in-depth knowledge of the current state-of-the-art in graph-based SSL algorithms, and the ability to implement them; (2) the ability to decide on the suitability of graph-based SSL methods for a problem; and (3) familiarity with different applications where graph-based SSL methods have been successfully applied. Table of Contents: Introduction / Graph Construction / Learning and Inference / Scalability / Applications / Future Work / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies / Index

Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 19

Proceedings of the 2006 Conference


Author: Bernhard Schölkopf,John Platt,Thomas Hofmann

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262195682

Category: Computers

Page: 1643

View: 6844

The annual conference on NIPS is the flagship conference on neural computation. It draws top academic researchers from around the world & is considered to be a showcase conference for new developments in network algorithms & architectures. This volume contains all of the papers presented at NIPS 2006.

Dynamic Fuzzy Machine Learning


Author: Fanzhang Li,Li Zhang,Zhao Zhang

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110520656

Category: Computers

Page: 337

View: 820

Machine learning is widely used for data analysis. Dynamic fuzzy data are one of the most difficult types of data to analyse in the field of big data, cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and quantum information. At present, the processing of this kind of data is not very mature. The authors carried out more than 20 years of research, and show in this book their most important results. The seven chapters of the book are devoted to key topics such as dynamic fuzzy machine learning models, dynamic fuzzy self-learning subspace algorithms, fuzzy decision tree learning, dynamic concepts based on dynamic fuzzy sets, semi-supervised multi-task learning based on dynamic fuzzy data, dynamic fuzzy hierarchy learning, examination of multi-agent learning model based on dynamic fuzzy logic. This book can be used as a reference book for senior college students and graduate students as well as college teachers and scientific and technical personnel involved in computer science, artificial intelligence, machine learning, automation, data analysis, mathematics, management, cognitive science, and finance. It can be also used as the basis for teaching the principles of dynamic fuzzy learning.