Search results for: integration-requirements-for-immigrants-in-europe

The Politics of Immigrant Integration in Post enlargement Europe Migrants

Author : Roxana Barbulescu
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In migration studies, it is taken for granted that states do not only attempt to control overall numbers of immigrants, but also establish different regulatory regimes for refugees, labour migrants, family reunification, co-ethnics and many other categories of migrants. In studies of immigrant integration, however, most analyses have assumed that each state pursues a single and coherent national approach. The aim of this dissertation is to challenge this assumption by examining how states pursue integration differently for different categories of migrants in post-enlargement Europe. In addition to third country nationals I consider also migrants who have a special cultural and historical bond with their host countries, such as emigrants and descendants of emigrants or migrants from the former colonies (co-ethnics), as well as European Union citizens from old and new member states. The dissertation builds on empirical evidence collected from 1985 to 2012 at national, regional and city levels in two new countries of immigration in Western Europe: Italy and Spain. The first main finding is that both Italy and Spain chose to distance themselves from the integration policies of the more traditional countries of immigration in Europe, which they classify as failures. Instead, the new immigration countries searched for their "own" integration strategy, which they consider a token of sovereignty just as much as immigration control. Secondly, both states have introduced different integration policies and integration requirements for different categories of migrants. Rather than pursuing only one integration strategy, the states examined use their resources and abilities to simultaneously pursue different integration strategies for European citizens, co-ethnics and third country nationals. These strategies range from less to more restrictive (from laissez-faire to mandatory, sanction-based policies, such as the Italian integration agreement and language test). European Union citizens enjoy many rights in when residing in other member states without being included in their integration programmes, while third country nationals enjoy far fewer rights which they risk to lose if they do not comply with demanding integration programmes. Co-ethnics in turn are included in integration programmes but have more rights than other third country nationals and, in some areas such as access to citizenship and enrolment in the army, they have even more rights than European citizens. Finally, this dissertation finds a negative correlation between immigrants' social class in the host society and their rights and integration requirements: the lower the socio-economic position of the immigrant group, the fewer its rights and the more demanding the integration requirements it faces.

Integration Requirements for Immigrants in Europe

Author : Tamar de Waal
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"Based on legal-philosophical research informed by insights gleaned from empirical case studies, this book sets out three central claims about integration requirements as conditions for attaining increased rights (ie family migration, permanent residency and citizenship) in Europe: (1) That the recent proliferation of these (mandatory) integration requirements is rooted in a shift towards 'individualised' conceptions of integration. (2) That this shift is, on the one side, counterproductive as it puts barriers to participation and inclusion of newcomers (who will most likely permanently settle) and on the other, normatively problematic, insofar as it produces status hierarchies between native-born and immigrant citizens. (3) That the remedy for this situation is a firewall that disconnects integration policy from access to rights. The book draws on perspectives on immigrant integration in multiple EU Member States and includes legal and political reactions to the refugee/migrant crisis"--

Immigrant Integration in Europe

Author : Angela Paparusso
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Integration Requirements for Immigrants in Europe

Author : Tamar de Waal
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Based on legal-philosophical research, and informed by insights gleaned from empirical case studies, this book sets out three central claims about integration requirements as conditions for attaining increased rights (ie family migration, permanent residency and citizenship) in Europe: (1) That the recent proliferation of these (mandatory) integration requirements is rooted in a shift towards 'individualised' conceptions of integration. (2) That this shift is counterproductive as it creates barriers to participation and inclusion for newcomers (who will most likely permanently settle); and is normatively problematic insofar as it produces status hierarchies between native-born and immigrant citizens. (3) That the remedy for this situation is a firewall that disconnects integration policy from access to rights. The book draws on perspectives on immigrant integration in multiple EU Member States and includes legal and political reactions to the refugee/migrant crisis.

Migration and European Integration

Author : Dietrich Thrunhardt
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1980-93, by John Foot

Migration and the Externalities of European Integration

Author : Sandra Lavenex
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"Migration and the Externalities of European Integration analyzes the extra-European dimension of the European Union's (EU) migration policies and the mechanisms developed to enforce the EU's policy decisions. While previous scholarship has tended to overlook the consequences of Europeanization on actors outside the EU this work scrutinizes the foreign policy dimension in EU migration policies and highlights the Union's complex role as an international actor. Written by scholars of migration policy, the essays discuss the impact of EU asylum and refugee policy on Norway, Switzerland, Eastern Europe, Euro-Mediterranean, and EU-Turkish relations and the effect of migration on European immigration controls and welfare policy. This comprehensive treatment of transnational migration will be a valuable resource for students of international affairs, European integration, and international organization."

Illiberal Liberal States

Author : Elspeth Guild
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Understanding the dynamics of the illiberal practices of liberal states is increasingly important in Europe today. This book examines the changing relationship between immigration, citizenship and integration at the European and national arenas. It studies some of the main effects and questions the comprehensiveness of the exchange and coordination of public responses to the inclusion of third country nationals in Europe, as well as their compatibility with a common European immigration policy driven by a rights-based approach and the respect of the principles of fair and equal treatment of third country nationals. The volume reviews key national experiences of immigration and citizenship laws, the use of integration and the 'moving of ideas' between national arenas. The framing of integration in immigration and citizenship law and the ways in which policy convergence is being achieved through the EU framework on integration raises a number of conceptual dilemmas and a set of definitional premises in need of reflection and consideration.

Integration Processes and Policies in Europe

Author : Blanca Garcés-Mascareñas
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In this open access book, experts on integration processes, integration policies, transnationalism, and the migration and development framework provide an academic assessment of the 2011 European Agenda for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals, which calls for integration policies in the EU to involve not only immigrants and their society of settlement, but also actors in their country of origin. Moreover, a heuristic model is developed for the non-normative, analytical study of integration processes and policies based on conceptual, demographic, and historical accounts. The volume addresses three interconnected issues: What does research have to say on (the study of) integration processes in general and on the relevance of actors in origin countries in particular? What is the state of the art of the study of integration policies in Europe and the use of the concept of integration in policy formulation and practice? Does the proposal to include actors in origin countries as important players in integration policies find legitimation in empirical research? A few general conclusions are drawn. First, integration policies have developed at many levels of government: nationally, locally, regionally, and at the supra-national level of the EU. Second, a multitude of stakeholders has become involved in integration as policy designers and implementers. Finally, a logic of policymaking—and not an evidence-based scientific argument—can be said to underlie the European Commission’s redefinition of integration as a three-way process. This book will appeal to academics and policymakers at international, European, national, regional, and local levels. It will also be of interest to graduate and master-level students of political science, sociology, social anthropology, international relations, criminology, geography, and history.

Paradoxes of Integration Female Migrants in Europe

Author : Floya Anthias
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This timely and innovative book analyses the lives of new female migrants in the EU with a focus on the labour market, domestic work, care work and prostitution in particular. It provides a comparative analysis embracing eleven European countries from Northern (UK, Germany, Sweden, France), Southern (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Cyprus) and Eastern Europe (Poland, Slovenia), i.e. old and new immigration countries as well as old and new market economies. It maps labour market trends, welfare policies, migration laws, patterns of employment, and the working and social conditions of female migrants in different sectors of the labour market, formal and informal. It is particularly concerned with the strategies women use to counter the disadvantages they face. It analyses the ways in which gender hierarchies are intertwined with other social relations of power, providing a gendered and intersectional perspective, drawing on the biographies of migrant women. The book highlights policy relevant issues and tries to uncover some of the contradictory assumptions relating to integration which it treats as a highly normative and problematic concept. It reframes integration in terms of greater equalisation and democratisation (entailed in the parameters of access, participation and belonging), pointing to its transnational and intersectional dimensions.

Which Integration Policies for Migrants

Author : Yves Pascouau
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Integration policies are at the forefront of EU and national debates. At the EU level, integration issues have gained extensive importance in the framework of the development of an EU migration policy. At the national level, discourses about failed integration policies have put integration policies under high pressure in political and legislative debates. Thereby, an interaction between the EU level and the national level can be observed. A general trend emerges where immigration and integration policies become increasingly interconnected. More precisely, migrants' access to a (stronger) legal status is becoming dependent on their level of integration. This book contains the updated outcomes of a conference where these interactions have been scrutinized. The first part demonstrates that several instruments are adopted at the EU level that frame the emergence of a European Integration Policy which has an effect on national policies. The second section outlines a trend in Member States to require third country nationals to fulfill integration obligations. If such a trend is fuelled by growing EU attention, EU rules may also limit their effect. Part three analyzes three national models as examples of integration policies with mandatory elements. The final part explores the effects of such integration requirements on the position of migrants: their integration and their residence rights.

Labour Migration in Europe Volume I

Author : Francesca Fauri
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In this book, Fauri and Tedeschi bring together contributions that outline the movement of job seekers and ethnic minority entrepreneurs in Europe, to analyse the overall impact of different forms of migration on European economies in the last 100 years. Contributions address a broad range of themes, from the motivations of migrants and the process of their integration into their destination country, to their overall social and economic impact onto said country at a structural level. In addressing questions as to why some ethnic groups seem to compete more successfully in business, as well as addressing questions about how skilled labour can be attracted and retained, this volume forms part of a very important multidisciplinary dialogue on labour migration. The policy implications of answering such questions are also discussed, as contributors ultimately examine whether skills-dependent migration policy needs to form part of a common strategy, either at a national or an international level.

The Civic Citizens of Europe

Author : Moritz Jesse
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In this work Moritz Jesse analyses the legal framework within which inclusion of immigrants into the receiving societies can take place. The inclusion of immigrants cannot be enforced by law. However, legislation must provide the room within which integration can take place legally. By studying residence titles, procedures and other sources in a comparative and critical way, Jesse wants to discover whether the legal potential for integration in the EU and the three Member States is sufficient for the inclusion of immigrants.

Integration Requirements in EU Migration Law

Author : Karin De Vries
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In recent years, integration requirements have come to play a role in EU immigration law. Several directives - the Family Reunification Directive (2003/86), the Long-Term Residents Directive (2003/109) and the Blue Card Directive (2009/50) - allow Member States to demand third country nationals' compliance with such requirements. A definition of integration requirements has not, however, been provided. This paper distinguishes between two functions of integration requirements: one is to equip migrants with the right skills to further their participation in society, whereas the other is to operate as a selection criterion, determining, which third country nationals are granted admission, residence or access to other rights, and who is to be excluded. An analysis of the three directives shows that the integration clauses in those directives do not all have the same function and that there is room for a more uniform and consistent concept of integration in EU immigration law. The paper also considers, on a more theoretical level, the role played by integration requirements in shaping a European concept of citizenship for third county nationals.

The Integration of Immigrants in European Societies

Author : Friedrich Heckmann
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Integrating Immigrants in Europe

Author : Peter Scholten
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This open access book explores how research and policymaking in the field of migrant integration have developed historically and how this interrelationship plays out in the strongly politicised climate of opinions on migration in Europe. It features interdisciplinary theoretical contributions as well as original empirical studies on research-policy dialogues at both the EU and country level. The chapters study not only how the dialogue between research and policy is structured (such as advisory bodies, research agencies, and ad-hoc committees), but also how these dialogues affect policymaking and the development of migrant integration research itself as well. The analysis reveals profound changes in the dialogue structures associated with the research-policy nexus in the domain of migrant integration. On the one hand, dialogue structures have become more ad-hoc, often established in response to distinct political events or to specific problems. On the other, politicisation has not thwarted all efforts to develop more institutionalised dialogue structures between producers and users of knowledge. In addition, research has contributed to policymaking in very different ways in various European countries. This edited volume is unique in this effort to reflect on the impact of research-policy dialogues both on the development of migrant integration policies as well as on migrant integration research. It will be of importance to scholars in this field as well as to policymakers and other stakeholders involved in migrant integration policymaking.

Cultural Integration of Immigrants in Europe

Author : Yann Algan
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This book seeks to address three issues: How do European countries differ in their cultural integration process and what are the different models of integration at work? How does cultural integration relate to economic integration? What are the implications for civic participation and public policies?

A Threat Against Europe

Author : J. Peter Burgess
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The concept of security has traditionally referred to the status of sovereign states in a closed international system. In this system the state is assumed to be both the object of security and the primary provider of security. Threats to the state's security are understood as threats to its political autonomy in the system. The major international institutions that emerged after the Second World War were built around this idea. When the founders of the United Nations spoke of collective security, they were referring primarily to state security and to the coordinated system that would be necessary in order to avoid the 'scourge of war'. But today, a wide range of security threats, both new and traditional, confront Europe, or at least as some would say.

Strangers No More

Author : Richard Alba
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An up-to-date and comparative look at immigration in Europe, the United States, and Canada Strangers No More is the first book to compare immigrant integration across key Western countries. Focusing on low-status newcomers and their children, it examines how they are making their way in four critical European countries—France, Germany, Great Britain, and the Netherlands—and, across the Atlantic, in the United States and Canada. This systematic, data-rich comparison reveals their progress and the barriers they face in an array of institutions—from labor markets and neighborhoods to educational and political systems—and considers the controversial questions of religion, race, identity, and intermarriage. Richard Alba and Nancy Foner shed new light on questions at the heart of concerns about immigration. They analyze why immigrant religion is a more significant divide in Western Europe than in the United States, where race is a more severe obstacle. They look at why, despite fears in Europe about the rise of immigrant ghettoes, residential segregation is much less of a problem for immigrant minorities there than in the United States. They explore why everywhere, growing economic inequality and the proliferation of precarious, low-wage jobs pose dilemmas for the second generation. They also evaluate perspectives often proposed to explain the success of immigrant integration in certain countries, including nationally specific models, the political economy, and the histories of Canada and the United States as settler societies. Strangers No More delves into issues of pivotal importance for the present and future of Western societies, where immigrants and their children form ever-larger shares of the population.

Integration of Migrants into the Labour Market in Europe

Author : Sylwia Przytuła
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Living and working in a host country is challenging both for the host country as well as for the incoming migrants. Therefore, integration activities are essential for easing the transition. This book examines various practices of integrating migrants in European countries from national, organizational and individual perspectives.

Conditional Belonging

Author : Tamar Mieke de Waal
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