Search results for: increasing-climate-variability-and-change

Increasing Climate Variability and Change

Author : James Salinger
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This book reviews the latest assessments of climate variability and climate change, and their impacts on agriculture and forestry, and recommends appropriate adaptation strategies for reducing the vulnerability of agriculture and forestry to climate variability and climate change. Among other solutions, the text offers management strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from different agroecosystems, and proposes the use of seasonal climate forecasts to reduce climate risk.

Climate Variability and Change

Author : R. Selvaraju
File Size : 71.37 MB
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The impacts of increasing climatic variability and change are global concerns but in Bangladesh, where large numbers of people are chronically exposed and vulnerable to a range of natural hazards, they are particularly critical. This resource book, Climate variability and change: adaptation to drought in Bangladesh, has been tested and prepared as a reference and guide for further training and capacity building of agricultural extension workers and development professionals to deal with climate change impacts and adaptation, using the example of drought-prone areas of Bangladesh. It also presents suggestions for a three-day training course that would be readily adaptable for any areas of Bangladesh affected by climate-related risks. The information presented on climate change adaptation would enable participants to prepare, demonstrate and implement location-specific adaptation practices and, thus, to improve the adaptive capacity of rural livelihoods to climate change in agriculture and allied sectors.

Increasing Resilience to Climate Variability and Change

Author : Cecilia Tortajada
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This book highlights the role that both infrastructure and governance play in the context of resilience and adaptation to climate variability and change. Eleven case studies analyze in-depth impacts of extreme events in projects, basins and regions in the Arid Americas (Unites States and Mexico), Australia, Brazil, China, Egypt, France, Nepal, Mexico, Pakistan, Turkey and South Africa. They discuss the importance of infrastructure (mainly reservoirs) in adaptation strategies, how planning and management aspects should improve in response to changing climatic, economic, social and environmental situations and what the management, institutional and financial challenges would be for their implementation. Governance aspects (policies, institutions and decision making) and technical and knowledge limitations are a substantial part of the analyses. The case studies argue that reservoirs are essential to build resilience contributing to adaptation to climate variability and change. However, that for them to be effective, they need to be planned and managed within a governance framework that considers long-term perspectives and multi-sector and multi-level actor needs and perspectives.

Biometeorology for Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change

Author : Kristie L. Ebi
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Biometeorology continues to grow as a discipline. It is increasingly recognised for its importance in providing science of relevance to society and well being of the environment. This book is the first in a new book series on Biometeorology. The purpose of the new series is to communicate the interdisciplinary philosophy and science of biometeorology to as wide an audience as possible, introduce scientists and policy makers to the societal relevance of and recent developments in its s- fields and demonstrate how a biometeorological approach can provide insights to the understanding and possible solution of cross-cutting environmental issues. One such cross-cutting environmental issue is climate change. While the literature on the science of climate change, climate change mitigation and the impacts of climate change is voluminous, that on adaptation to climate change is meagre in comparison. The purpose of this book is to partly redress this imbalance by providing insights from a biometeorological perspective. The book acknowledges that society has a long history of adapting to the impacts associated with climatic variability and change but makes the point that climate change poses a real threat to already strained coping systems. Therefore there is a need to realign human use systems with changing climate conditions.

The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources

Author : National Assessment Synthesis Team (U.S.). Coastal Areas and Marine Resources Sector Team
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Climate Variability Drought and Drought Management in Morocco s Agricultural Sector

Author : Dorte Verner
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Droughts in Morocco are increasing in frequency and intensity. Associated with global climate change, this trend will likely be more evident in the future. Drought damage to the agricultural sector affects both rural livelihoods and the national economy as a whole. This report examinesdrought and climate variability impacts on agricultural and livestock activities in Morocco. It relies on original research on the citrus and olive value chains, which are both priorities in the government's current agricultural strategy, known as the "Green Plan" or Plan Maroc Vert (PMV). The report also considers drought impacts on cereal production, traces the government's efforts to address drought, and suggests actions to strength these efforts. Long-term climate change is making Morocco, which already faces rural water scarcity, more vulnerable to extreme weather events. Recurrent atmospheric climate events, known as teleconnections, such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), may further exacerbate this situation. This study finds that ENSO had limited impacts on the 2015-2016 droughts in Morocco, but other teleconnections, specifically the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO), had greater impacts. Increased climate variability leads to stronger droughts, which adversely affect livestock andrainfed crops. Moreover, Morocco's average temperatures are rising and rainfall is becoming more sporadic, both affecting certain parts of the country more than others. Agriculture and agribusiness activities generate over 30 percent of employment in Morocco. The agricultural sector also produces 20 percent of GDP and 35 percent of exports. Rainfed crops, like wheat, are critical for domestic food security and livestock survival, but are also most affected by climatevariability. As such, increasing droughts represent a "contingent liability" for the Moroccan economy. This impacts Morocco's trade balance as agricultural exports fall and food and fodder imports rise to meet increased domestic demand. This report suggests further drought management actions. Currently, the government is carrying out important monitoring and crop insurance programs, but more can be done to share information and strengthen inter-governmental and interagency coordination, especially with governments at the river basin level.

Clean Air Act

Author : United States
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Climate Variability and Change and Sea level Rise in the Pacific Islands Region

Author : John E. Hay
File Size : 63.95 MB
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Bringing Climate Change Into Natural Resource Management

Author :
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Livelihood Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change in Drought prone Areas of Bangladesh

Author : R. Selvaraju
File Size : 31.98 MB
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The impacts of climate variability and change are global concerns but in Bangladesh they are particularly critical. FAO and the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre are guiding a project to assess livelihood adaptation to climate variability and change in the drought-prone areas of Northwest Bangladesh. It covers: the characterisation of livelihood systems; profiling of vulnerable groups; assessment of past and current climate impacts; and understanding of local perceptions of climate impacts, local coping capacities and existing adaptation strategies. It also is developing a good practice adaptation option menu, evaluating and field testing locally selected options, and introducing long-lead climate forecasting, capacity building and training of Department of Agricultural Extension staff and community representatives. This report summarises the project methodology and discusses interim findings and recommendations.

Climate Change to the Year 2000

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Effects of Climate Change and Variability on Agricultural Production Systems

Author : Otto C. Doering III
File Size : 81.66 MB
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Effects of Climate Change and Viarability on the Agricultural Production Systems provides an integrated assessment of global climate change's impact on agriculture at the farm level, in the context of farm level adaptation decisions. Ten agricultural areas in the Upper Midwest region - the heart of the United States' corn belt - were subjected to climate change and changing climate variability scenarios through simulations of future climate using results from general circulation models. Crop growth models, calibrated to the study sites, were used to simulate yields under varying climate conditions. Farm level production and economic analyses were performed to determine what adaptation strategies might be best utilized to maintain production and profitability for producers under conditions of global climate change and changing climate variability. Similar integrated analyses from Australia and Argentina provide comparisons from different regions.

Adapting to Climate Variability and Change in Ontario

Author : Jamie Vernon Smith
File Size : 61.98 MB
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This report summarizes the most recent literature describing the impacts of current climate and the potential effects of anticipated climate change on the environment and on those social and economic sectors in Ontario most likely to undergo significant changes. After the introduction, chapter 2 describes the physical and socio-economic resources of Ontario. Chapter 3 details current climatic conditions in the province, including variability and recent trends. Chapter 4 reviews the impacts of the current climate on the following sectors: water resources, human and ecosystem health, the built environment, and industries such as energy, transportation, tourism and recreation, agriculture, forestry, construction, and finance. This chapter also examines the relationship between climate and regional air issues. Chapter 5 surveys future climate scenarios and assesses the impacts and opportunities arising from these scenarios for the same sectors addressed in chapter 4. Chapter 6 reviews the research and application of adaptive measures in five areas: water resources, human and ecosystem health, the built environment, industry, and regional air issues. The chapter also reviews Ontario's adaptation capacity with respect to these sectors. The final chapter summarizes knowledge gaps and research priorities for Ontario in the areas of climate variability and change, impacts and adaptation.

Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Pastoralist Women in Sub Saharan Africa

Author : Melese Getu
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The term climate change is used to denote any significant but extended change in the measures of climate. The changes could be due to natural variability or as a result of human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels to produce energy, deforestation, industrial processes, and some agricultural practices. Such activities release large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere that hang like a blanket around the earth, thus trapping energy in the atmosphere and causing it to warm up. This results increasingly in climate variability, which is characterised by extreme seasonal, annual, temporal and non-spatial variability in temperature, vagaries of precipitation (rainfall patterns and amounts) and/or wind patterns occurring over a prolonged period of time. The last decade (2001 - 2010) has been the warmest on record; with the average temperatures reaching 0.46∞C, above the 1961 - 1990 mean, and 0.21∞C warmer than the 1991 - 2000 period. It has been proved that the African continent is warming up faster, all year-round, than the global avera≥ a trend that is likely to continue. By the year 2100, it is predicted that temperature changes will fall into ranges of about 1.4∞C to nearly 5.8∞C increase in mean surface temperature compared to 1990, and the mean sea level will rise between 10cm to 90 cm (AMCEN 2011). The interior of semiarid margins of the Sahara and central southern Africa will be the most affected by such warming (AMCEN 2011). To tackle the phenomenon of climate change effectively, human societies have put in place a combination of mitigation and adaptation mechanisms and strategies. Whereas mitigation aims at avoiding or lessening the impacts of the unmanageable, the goal of adaptation is to manage the unavoidable. That men and women are affected differently by climate change suggests that they also differ in terms of the adaptation mechanisms they employ. Despite the existence of gender-based differences in the effects of climate change and in adaptation and coping strategies, studies on the gender differential impacts of climate change and variability on women in general and pastoralist women in particular in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. This volume offers insights and knowledge that pastoralist women developed on climate change adaptation through their experiences in their households and communities and thereby tries to narrow this gap.

Regional Hydrological Impacts of Climatic Change Impact assessment and decision making

Author : Thorsten Wagener
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First considers the assessment of the hydrological impacts of future climate and then addresses decision making for mitigation/adaptation strategies, given the uncertainties associated with predictions by water resources and hydrological extremes models.

Impacts of Climate Change and Climate Variability on Hydrological Regimes

Author : Jan C. van Dam
File Size : 69.34 MB
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Examines the implications of possible climate changes and variability on both global and regional water resources.

Climate Change and a Global City

Author :
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Climate Change Adaptation Strategies In Agriculture And Allied Sectors

Author : Rao, GSLHV Prasad
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Weather related disasters like occurrence of floods, droughts, heat wave and cold waves is not uncommon across the Country. It is true world over. Increase in sea surface temperature and sea level has potential impact on monsoon uncertainties, water resources, shift in coastal population and marine products. Vulnerability to extreme weather events is higher than vulnerability to changing average climatic conditions. The society linked sectors like agriculture, biodiversity, fisheries, forestry, water resources, human and animal health and infrastructure are the worst sufferers in the event of weather uncertainties. As a result it is realized that food security is under threat due to global warming. The book deals with climate change impacts and adaptation strategies in agriculture, horticulture, plantation crops in the humid tropics, livestock, fisheries, forestry, water resources and biodiversity. The invited and research papers, included in the book, provide clues for developing adaptation and mitigation strategies in coping up with the expected climate change in future. Although global foodgrains production is likely to increase in tune with rising population and demand in ensuing decades, it may suffer unless new approaches to adapt crop plants to climate change are adopted. Therefore, “Research and education policy in climate change adaptation and mitigation is the need of the hour to address the climate issues in various sectors as the frequency of occurrence of floods and droughts, cold and heat waves are likely to increase under projected climate change scenarios and a threat to food security.

Climate Change and Conflict in East and the Horn of Africa

Author : Judi Wangalwa Wakhungu
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Africa is characterised by widespread and deeply entrenched poverty, armed conflict, slow economic development until recently, and agricultural systems proven to failure during frequent and persistent drought. With its tremendous natural resources and remarkable social and ecological diversity, the continent reflects a close dependency of people on natural resources. This background report illustrates that it is this dependency that will present Africa with potentially severe adaptive problems in dealing with the twin effects of climate change and population growth in future years. More than ever, Africa and its partners need to work together to turn deforestation around, to save its green lungs, to manage its cities and to grow food for its hungry millions.

Water related Disasters Climate Variability and Change

Author : Tomonori Matsuura
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Severe tropical storms and typhoons hit East Asia mainly from summer to autumn every year, bringing abundant water resources to the inhabitants. However, typhoons are among the most devastating of all natural disasters, causing the loss of many lives and giving rise to large economic losses. In Japan, the number of fatalities as a result of typhoons has been reduced because of new observation techniques, such as rawinsonde, meteorological satellites, radar, numerical forecasts, information services through radio and television, and the service of structures including river improvement and erosion and torrent control works. We have found, however, that recent severe tropical storms, the cyclone in Bangladesh in 1998 and Hurricane Katrina in the United States in 2005, generated massive destruction. In regard to typhoons, several time-period variations appear in the genetic numbers during 1951-2005: interannual frequency, interdecadal frequency, and long-term trends. This suggests that typhoons and hurricanes have become activated and this should relate to the recent global warming over the past 30 years. Therefore it is necessary to confirm how tropical storm activity will change in the future as a result of climate variability and fluctuation. The third report of the IPCC (the United Nation s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) indicates that water-related disasters resulting from severe weather will change in quality in association with global warming. With the recent development of satellite remote sensing, ground and aircraft observations, numerical simulation techniques, and the investigations of global climate change, the relationship between global warming and tropical storms and, furthermore, their related disasters are making progress. Under these situations, our group planned to conduct a project, entitled Study on extreme weather events and water-related disasters as a result of climate variability and changes, to make use of projecting a long-term change of water-related disasters from 2002 to 2004. Based on our group s recent research and the related studies of other institute researchers in Japan, we prepared the results of tropical cyclones as recent reviews for publication as a book, Water-Related Disasters; Climate Variability and Change: Results of Severe Tropical Storms in East Asia. In this work, we introduce new numerical and data-analysis research concerning the relationship between East Asia s climate variability and changes and tropical storms, the storms by themselves, and the water-related disasters they cause. The first paper, Climate Changes and Tropical Storms in the Western North Pacific, reviews the general overview of typhoon classifications, developing mechanisms, structures, climatologies, and their disasters. The second paper, The Structure of Tropical Cyclones, addresses three stages: developing stage in general, mature stage, and developing stage in detail. The third paper, Extratropical Response to Typhoon-Induced Convective Heating over the Western North Pacific in Summer, is a new insight into how the typhoons are generated over the tropics and how they affect the midlatitude area through teleconnection. Paper number four, The Relationship Between ENSO and a Tropical Cyclone Simulated in a CGCM, deals with the characteristics of typhoon activity during the El Niño and La Niña periods. The fifth paper, Global Warming and Tropical Storms. Simulations Using General Circulation Models, presents the hot topic of tropical storm activity when global warming occurs. Paper number six, Potential Hydrologic Change Resulting from Greenhouse Warming, is a downscaling result of CGCM to a regional atmospheric model for global warming simulation. The seventh paper, The Influences of Climate Change in the Frequencies of Storm Rainfalls and Flood Disasters, addresses the particularly heavy rain caused by ENSO and typhoons in Japan. This paper also describes the impacts of global warming on heavy precipitation frequency and the flood risk of the Tama River Basin in Japan. The final paper in the book, Changes in Wave Climate in the Western North Pacific, presents a study of interannual variability and a future projection of summertime wave heights in the western North Pacific. We hope this book will be read and referred to not only by researchers of tropical cyclones and by climatologists, but also by the wider scientific community of researchers, science managers, and graduate students.