Search results for: gut-microbiome-related-diseases-and-therapies

Gut Microbiome Related Diseases and Therapies

Author : Maria Gazouli
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This book reviews recent knowledge of the role of gut microbiome in health and disease. It covers extensive topics for several diseases, including metabolic-related diseases, allergies, gastrointestinal diseases, psychiatric diseases, and cancer, while also discussing therapeutic approaches by microbiota modification. Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Gut Microbiome-Related Diseases and Therapies deepens a reader’s theoretical expertise in gut microbiome. Graduate and postdoctoral students, medical doctors, and biomedical researchers will benefit from this book.

Gut Microbiome Related Diseases and Therapies

Author : Maria Gazouli
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This book reviews recent knowledge of the role of gut microbiome in health and disease. It covers extensive topics for several diseases, including metabolic-related diseases, allergies, gastrointestinal diseases, psychiatric diseases, and cancer, while also discussing therapeutic approaches by microbiota modification. Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Gut Microbiome-Related Diseases and Therapies deepens a reader’s theoretical expertise in gut microbiome. Graduate and postdoctoral students, medical doctors, and biomedical researchers will benefit from this book.

Gut Microbiome and Its Impact on Health and Diseases

Author : Debabrata Biswas
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This book provides a comprehensive examination of the role of gut microbiome/microflora in nutrition, metabolism, disease prevention and health issues, including farm animal health and food value, and human gastrointestinal health and immunity. Indigenous microbiotas, particularly the gut microflora/microbiome, are an essential component in the modern concept of human and animal health. The diet and lifestyle of the host and environment have direct impact on gut microflora and the patterns of gut microbial colonization associated with health and diseases have been documented. Contributing authors cover the impact of gut microbiome in farm animal health, and explore the possibility of modulating the human gut microbiome with better animal products to prevent human diseases, including endemic and emerging diseases such as obesity, cancer and cardiac diseases. Dieting plan and control methods are examined, with attention paid to balance dieting with natural food and drink components. In addition, the role of gut microbiota in enteric microbial colonization and infections in farm animals is also discussed. The volume also explores the possibility of improving human health by modulating the microbiome with better food, including bio-active foods and appropriate forms of intake. Throughout the chapters, authors examine cutting edge research and technology, as well as future directions for better practices regarding emerging issues, such as the safety and production of organic food.

The Gut Microbiome Exploring the Connection between Microbes Diet and Health

Author : Ana Maria R. Moise
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This accessibly written, comprehensive summary of research findings on the gut microbiome and its implications for health and disease—a topic of growing interest and concern—serves as an essential resource for teachers and students. • Presents the most recent gut microbiome research in a way that is accessible to students interested in biological sciences and nutrition studies • Includes engaging sidebars and case studies that serve to better illustrate the connections between gut microbiota, human physiology, and chronic disease • Provides insight into the role of nutrition in shaping the gut microbiota and suggestions for improving human health

Bugs as Drugs

Author : Robert A. Britton
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Examining the enormous potential of microbiome manipulation to improve health Associations between the composition of the intestinal microbiome and many human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, and cancer, have been elegantly described in the past decade. Now, whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics, and precision gene-editing techniques are being combined with centuries-old therapies, such as fecal microbiota transplantation, to translate current research into new diagnostics and therapeutics to treat complex diseases. Bugs as Drugs provides a much-needed overview of microbes in therapies and will serve as an excellent resource for scientists and clinicians as they carry out research and clinical studies on investigating the roles the microbiota plays in health and disease. In Bugs as Drugs, editors Robert A. Britton and Patrice D. Cani have assembled a fascinating collection of reviews that chart the history, current efforts, and future prospects of using microorganisms to fight disease and improve health. Sections cover traditional uses of probiotics, next-generation microbial therapeutics, controlling infectious diseases, and indirect strategies for manipulating the host microbiome. Topics presented include: How well-established probiotics support and improve host health by improving the composition of the intestinal microbiota of the host and by modulating the host immune response. The use of gene editing and recombinant DNA techniques to create tailored probiotics and to characterize next-generation beneficial microbes. For example, engineering that improves the anti-inflammatory profile of probiotics can reduce the number of colonic polyps formed, and lactobacilli can be transformed into targeted delivery systems carrying therapeutic proteins or bioengineered bacteriophage. The association of specific microbiota composition with colorectal cancer, liver diseases, osteoporosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The gut microbiota has been proposed to serve as an organ involved in regulation of inflammation, immune function, and energy homeostasis. Fecal microbiota transplantation as a promising treatment for numerous diseases beyond C. difficile infection. Practical considerations for using fecal microbiota transplantation are provided, while it is acknowledged that more high-quality evidence is needed to ascertain the importance of strain specificity in positive treatment outcomes. Because systems biology approaches and synthetic engineering of microbes are now high-throughput and cost-effective, a much wider range of therapeutic possibilities can be explored and vetted.

The Interplay of Microbiome and Immune Response in Health and Diseases

Author : Gwendolyn Barcel´o-Coblijn
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[Increasing evidence suggests that microbiota and especially the gut microbiota (the microbes inhabiting the gut including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi) plays a key role in human physiology and pathology. Recent findings indicate how dysbiosis—an imbalance in the composition and organization of microbial populations—could severely impact the development of different medical conditions (from metabolic to mood disorders), providing new insights into the comprehension of diverse diseases, such as IBD, obesity, asthma, autism, stroke, diabetes, and cancer. Given that microbial cells in the gut outnumber host cells, microbiota influences human physiology both functionally and structurally. Microbial metabolites bridge various—even distant—areas of the organism by way of the immune and hormone system. For instance, it is now clear that the mutual interaction between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain (gut–brain axis), often involves gut microbiota, indicating that the crosstalk between the organism and its microbial residents represents a fundamental aspect of both the establishment and maintenance of healthy conditions. Moreover, it is crucial to recognize that beyond the intestinal tract, microbiota populates other host organs and tissues (e.g., skin and oral mucosa). We have edited this eBook with the aim of publishing manuscripts focusing on the impact of microbiota in the development of different diseases and their associated treatments.]

The Gut Microbiome

Author : David A. Johnson
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The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to trillions of microorganisms and contains more genetic information than that which exists in the human genome. It is, in fact, the largest immune system in the body. Study of the GI tract microbiome and its influence on both health and disease states have demonstrated the importance in maintaining health. The microbiome has a significant role in the assembly of micronutrients and vitamins and immune system processing. Recently, there has been a focus on the cross-talk between gut immunity and the host microbiome and the subsequent effect of this interaction on a broad range of diseases. The application of next-generation sequencing technologies to the study of human-associated microbial communities has markedly advanced our understanding of these effects. Changes in human-associated microbial communities have been implicated in the etiology and increased incidence of ever growing chronic conditions including obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease. Although recognizably understanding the full spectrum of the role of the gut microbiome in health and disease is still in a relative infant states, it is clear that our bacterial flora play a much larger role in systemic diseases than previously appreciated. Healthcare for disease management has typically focused on specific therapy with pharmacologic, device or surgical intervention. As we further expand our understanding of the importance of gut microbiome, it is certain that we will see major changes to disease management strategies. Presently, we can see footprints of specific bacterial shifts in healthy ones versus those with a disease. Whether shifting the bacteria colonization away from the perceived imbalance in disease, will modify the disease expression remains to be seen. Clearly in the next decade, we will see profound changes in the way we approach current disease intervention/prevention. The intent of the authors of this book is to provide the most current assessment and analysis of what will likely in the coming decade to be the most exciting expansion in a new understanding of complex relationships of disease pathophysiology as well as therapeutic options for therapy. Additionally, it is the intent not to provide specific answers, but rather hopefully push clinicians to think outside of the box and raise great questions to direct research and/or translational therapies for redefining and optimizing best practice treatment strategies for our patients!

Gut Reloaded

Author : Paul Froomes
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How important is your gut to overall health? What do probiotics do? What happens when gut bacteria go wrong? Are you really what you eat? Dr Paul Froomes tells you everything you need to know about the gut and gut microbiome in Gut Reloaded, a thorough and at times amusing look at how to fix your gut for overall health and wellbeing.

Probiotic Research in Therapeutics

Author : Sandip V. Pawar
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Human Microbiota in Health and Disease

Author : Bryan Tungland
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Human Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease: From Pathogenesis to Therapy is a comprehensive discussion on all the aspects associated with the early colonization of gut microbiota, its development and maintenance, and its symbiotic relationship with the host in promoting health. Chapters illustrate the complex mechanisms and metabolic signaling pathways related to how the gut microbiota maintain proper regulation of glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis and immune response, all while mediating inflammatory processes involved in the etiology of many chronic disease conditions. With today's common use of pharmaceutical medicine in treating symptoms and frequent overuse of antibiotics in chronic disease within mainstream medical practice, our understanding of the etiological mechanisms of dysbiosis-induced chronic disease and natural approaches to prevention and potential cures for these diseases is of vital importance to overall human health. Details the complex relationship between human microbiota in the gut, oral cavity and skin as well as their colonization, development and impact of factors that influence the relationship Illustrates the mechanisms associated with dysbiosis-associated inflammation and its role in the onset and progression in chronic disease Provides the primary mechanisms and comprehensive scientific evidence for the use of dietary modification and pro- and prebiotics in preventing chronic disease

The Microbiome in Rheumatic Diseases and Infection

Author : Gaafar Ragab
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This book discusses the role of the microbiome in rheumatic diseases and details its implications for patient treatment. Recently, with technological advances, there has been significant research into the microbiome. This has enabled us to more profoundly understand its role in our immune system maturation as well as the role played by microorganisms in autoimmunity and the deeply related rheumatic diseases. This book comprehensively explains the emerging microbiome research through the interrelationships of biomedical sciences, including: immunology, microbiology, bioinformatics, and, with special emphasis, the clinical aspect of rheumatology. It examines the interplay between infectious organisms and major autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, juvenile arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and vasculitis, and explains how to apply that knowledge to diagnostic techniques and treatment decisions. The international team of expert authors provides insight into current therapies and future interventions specifically targeting the microbiota and explores the impact of our deeper understanding on enhancing personalized medicine. The Microbiome in Rheumatic Diseases and Infection is an essential resource for rheumatologists, pediatricians, internists, microbiologists, and critical care providers caring for children and adults with rheumatic diseases.

Investigating The Impact Of Host Genetic Variation On The Human Gut Microbiota Using Twin Pairs

Author : Julia Karen Goodrich
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The composition of the human gut microbiome differs markedly among individuals, and is increasingly viewed as a risk factor in chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and diabetes. The gut microbiome is a target for emerging therapies, but their development requires a deeper understanding of the factors shaping the microbiome, including host lifestyle, physiology, and health.!The influence of host genetics on the gut microbiome, and how host genetics interacts with the microbiome to alter disease risk, remain mostly unknown. To gauge the impact of human genetic variation on the composition of the gut microbiota, we used fecal 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the gut microbiota of 2,731 participants of the United Kingdom Adult Twin Registry (TwinsUK), including 489 dizygotic (DZ) and 637 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. Comparisons between MZ and DZ twin pairs allowed us to estimate the effect of genotype and early shared environment on the gut microbiota. We found that components of the gut microbiota, particularly Firmicutes, are clearly heritable.! Our results revealed that the most heritable taxon, the bacterial family Christensenellaceae, forms a co-occurrence consortium with other heritable taxa including methanogenic Archaea. Interestingly, the Christensenellaceae consortium is significantly enriched in individuals with low body mass index. We! supplemented a fecal sample from an obese individual with Christensenella minuta, a cultured member of the Christensenellaceae family, and transplanted this sample into germ-free mice. C. minuta supplementation reduced weight gain and altered the microbiota of recipient mice. Together these findings indicate that host genetics modulate components of the gut microbiome that have a direct effect on body weight. Finally, we used available genotype data to test for associations between host genetic variation and gut microbiota composition. A candidate gene approach uncovered associations between heritable taxa and genes related to diet, metabolism and olfaction. We also replicated a previously reported association between the abundance of the genus Bifidobacterium and genetic variants within the LCT gene region, which is linked to lactase persistence. Our findings indicate that while an individual's microbiota composition is largely influenced by environmental factors, host genetics plays an appreciable role for specific taxa.

The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology

Author : Martin H. Floch
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The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology: Implications for Human Health, Prebiotics, Probiotics and Dysbiosis is a one-stop reference on the state-of-the-art research on gut microbial ecology in relation to human disease. This important resource starts with an overview of the normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach, Ileum, and colon. The book then identifies what a healthy vs. unhealthy microbial community looks like, including methods of identification. Also included is insight into which features and contributions the microbiota make that are essential and useful to host physiology, as is information on how to promote appropriate mutualisms and prevent undesirable dysbioses. Through the power of synthesizing what is known by experienced researchers in the field, current gaps are closed, raising understanding of the role of the microbiome and allowing for further research. Explains how to modify the gut microbiota and how the current strategies used to do this produce their effects Explores the gut microbiota as a therapeutic target Provides the synthesis of existing data from both mainstream and non-mainstream sources through experienced researchers in the field Serves as a ‘one-stop’ shop for a topic that’s currently spread across a number of various journals

Local and Global Variation in the Human Gut Microbiome

Author : Fiona Blair Tamburini
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We increasingly appreciate the role of microbes that live in our gut, collectively referred to as the gut microbiome, in modulating human health and disease. However, translating findings to the clinic has presented challenges, as many studies of the microbiome in health and disease are associational and therefore difficult to translate to meaningful therapies. This thesis focuses on using high-throughput whole-genome sequencing of our gut microbes and computational genomic tools to understand host-microbe dynamics on the strain-specific level, identify opportunities for concrete clinical interventions, investigate the efficacy of existing interventions, and turn our attention to populations who have not been comprehensively studied to establish a baseline for further inquiry toward the microbiome in health and disease. The work herein contributes to our understanding of the microbiome as an influencer of disease outcome and both suggests and informs future microbiome-targeted therapies.

The Human Microbiome Handbook

Author : Jason Tetro
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Critical reference explains strategies of microbiome research in humansSummarizes the microbiome's effects on immunity, metabolism, genetics and psychologyEvaluates medical and nutritional therapies for modifying the microbiomeFor healthcare researchers, nutritionists, microbiologists, and medical professionals Written by a team of leading scientists, this book offers a concise technical reference covering human microbiome research and its ramifications for medicine and nutrition. The initial chapters furnish a scientific explanation of the microbiome in general and its ecology. The book then provides a detailed investigation of microbial populations as these pertain to physiology, metabolism and immunology. The final portions are devoted to exploration of the microbiome's effects on chronic and autoimmune diseases and include assessments of clinical therapies and nutritional interventions designed to alter the microbiome to mitigate chronic health conditions.

The Gut Microbiome and Its Relationship to Colorectal Cancer

Author : Elizabeth Shultes
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Humans are "supraorganisms" composed of human and microbial components. The microbial community, living in and on humans, along with their genome, is called the microbiome. The microbiome is essential to human health because it can play a role in the development of many diseases, including cancer. The gut microbiome contains the highest density of bacteria in the body. Changes in the composition of the gut microbiome are related to colorectal cancer, specifically through the production of metabolites that affect transcription of cancer suppressor genes. `Manipulation of the microbiome through diet and probiotics may lead to new cancer therapies.

The GUT Microbiome

Author : David A. Johnson
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The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to trillions of microorganisms and contains more genetic information than that which exists in the human genome. It is, in fact, the largest immune system in the body. Study of the GI tract microbiome and its influence on both health and disease states have demonstrated the importance in maintaining health. The microbiome has a significant role in the assembly of micronutrients and vitamins and immune system processing. Recently, there has been a focus on the cross-talk between gut immunity and the host microbiome and the subsequent effect of this interaction on a broad range of diseases. The application of next-generation sequencing technologies to the study of human-associated microbial communities has markedly advanced our understanding of these effects. Changes in human-associated microbial communities have been implicated in the etiology and increased incidence of ever growing chronic conditions including obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease. Although recognizably understanding the full spectrum of the role of the "gut microbiome" in health and disease is still in a relative infant states, it is clear that our bacterial flora play a much larger role in systemic diseases than previously appreciated. Healthcare for disease management has typically focused on specific therapy with pharmacologic, device or surgical intervention. As we further expand our understanding of the importance of gut microbiome, it is certain that we will see major changes to disease management strategies. Presently, we can see "footprints" of specific bacterial shifts in healthy ones versus those with a disease. Whether shifting the bacteria colonization away from the perceived imbalance in disease, will modify the disease expression remains to be seen. Clearly in the next decade, we will see profound changes in the way we approach current disease intervention/prevention. The intent of the authors of this book is to provide the most current assessment and analysis of what will likely in the coming decade to be the most exciting expansion in a new understanding of complex relationships of disease pathophysiology as well as therapeutic options for therapy. Additionally, it is the intent not to provide specific answers, but rather hopefully push clinicians to "think outside of the box" and raise great questions to direct research and/or translational therapies for redefining and optimizing "best practice" treatment strategies for our patients!

Probiotics the Natural Microbiota in Living Organisms

Author : Hesham Ali El-Enshasy
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Beneficial microbes called probiotics exist naturally in our bodies and play a vital role in our health. Probiotics have been known to produce important microbiota of antimicrobial compounds that enhance our immunity to counter the harmful effects of pathogenic organisms. These microbes are also used in the treatment of diseases and in negating the side effects of chemically synthesized medicines. The study of probiotic organisms and their wide applications in industrial products for human and animal uses has thus gained momentum. This book provides a comprehensive review on the research and applications of probiotics. It serves as a reference and resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students, researchers, companies, and policy makers who are active in fields related to functional food and feed, industrial biotechnology, nutraceuticals, and medicine. All chapters in this book have been written and edited by leading experts in the respective fields from academia, industry, or government.

Mechanisms and Therapy of Liver Cancer

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Mechanisms and Therapy of Liver Cancer, Volume 149, presents the latest information on the incidence and mortality of liver cancer research and how it has gained significant momentum because of its direct causative association with obesity-induced fatty liver disease. The literature on liver cancer is moving fast with exciting, novel findings, providing new insights reflected in the following updated chapters: Introduction and molecular classification of HCC, Signaling Pathways in Liver Cancer, HCV and HCC, NASH and HCC, Microbiome and Metabolic Abnormalities in HCC, Systemic Therapy of Liver Cancer, Immunotherapy of Liver Cancer, and Desmoplastic Tumor Microenvironment and Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Progression: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications. Provides the latest information on liver cancer research Offers outstanding and original reviews on a range of topics focused on liver cancer Serves as an indispensable reference on liver cancer for researchers and students alike

The Gut Microbiome An Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America E Book

Author : Eamonn M.M. Quigley
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Dr. Quigley has created a must-have reference on the gut microbiome for the practicing gastroenterologist. A leader in the field of human physiology and digestive disorders, he has laid out the basics on this increasingly important topic, devoting articles to the organization and biology of the human gut microbiome as well as its diagnostic potential. Top international authors have presented articles that discuss the intersection of the gut microbiome and diet and the gut-brain axis. Clinical implications of the gut microbiome are discussed with disease states like IBD, GI cancer, and liver diseases. Finally, the issue ends with the cutting-edge clinical innovation of fecal microbial transplantation. This issue bridges the gap between science and clinical practice and should be an important reference to practicing gastroenterologists.