Search results for: genetics-of-the-evolutionary-process

Genetics of the Evolutionary Process

Author : Theodosius Dobzhansky
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The world's foremost geneticist surveys the major developments in what is emerging as the most important single area of scientific inquiry in the twentieth century: biological theory of evolution.

Population Genetics and Evolution

Author : Gerdina de Jong
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At least since the 1940s neo-Darwinism has prevailed as the consensus view in the study of evolution. The mechanism of evolution in this view is natural selection leading to adaptation, working on a substrate of adapta tionally random mutations. As both the study of genetic variation in natural populations, and the study of the mathematical equations of selec tion are reckoned to a field called population genetics, population genetics came to form the core in the theory of evolution. So much so, that the fact that there is more to the theory of evolution than population genetics became somewhat obscured. The genetics of the evolutionary process, or the genetics of evolutionary change, came close to being all of evolutionary biology. In the last 10 years, this dominating position of population genetics within evolutionary biology has been challenged. In evolutionary ecology, optimization theory proved more useful than population genetics for interesting predictions, especially of life history strategies. From develop mental biology, constraints in development and the role of internal regula tion were emphasized. From paleobiology, a proposal was put forward to describe the fossil record and the evolutionary process as a series of punc tuated equilibria; thus exhorting population geneticists to give a plausible account of how such might come about. All these developments tend to obscure the central role of population genetics in evolutionary biology.

Epistasis and the Evolutionary Process

Author : Lecturer Faculty of Life Sciences Jason B Wolf
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Over the last two decades, research into epistasis has seen explosive growth and has moved the focus of research in evolutionary genetics from a traditional additive approach. We now know the effects of genes are rarely independent, and to reach a fuller understanding of the process of evolution we need to look at gene interactions as well as gene-environment interactions. This book is an overview of non-additive evolutionary genetics, integrating all work to date on all levels of evolutionary investigation of the importance of epistasis in the evolutionary process in general. It includes a historical perspective on this emerging field, in-depth discussion of terminology, discussions of the effects of epistasis at several different levels of biological organization and combinations of theoretical and experimental approaches to analysis.

Evolutionary Biology

Author : Michael T. Clegg
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After volume 33, this book series was replaced by the journal "Evolutionary Biology." Please visit www.springer.com/11692 for further information. The nature of science is to work on the boundaries between the known and the unknown. These boundaries shift as new methods are developed and as new concepts are elaborated (e.g., the theory of the gene, or more recently, the coalescence framework in population genetics). These tools allow us to address questions that were previously outside the realm of science, and, as a consequence, the boundary between the knowable and unknowable has shifted. A study of limits should reveal and clarify the boundaries and make sharper the set of questions. This book examines and analyzes these new limits as they are applied to evolutionary biology and population genetics. It does this by framing the analysis within four major classes of problems - establishing the fact of evolution; understanding the evolutionary pathways that led to today's biological world; mechanisms of evolutionary change (e.g., models of social behavior, sexual selection, macro evolution); and, finally, prediction.

On Certain Aspects of the Evolutionary Process from the Standpoint of Modern Genetics

Author : Sergeĭ Sergeevich Chetverikov
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Evolutionary Biology

Author : John S. Torday
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An integrative view of the evolution of genetics and the naturalworld Even in this advanced age of genomics, the evolutionary processof unicellular and multicellular organisms is continually indebate. Evolutionary Biology, Cell–Cell Communication, andComplex Disease challenges current wisdom by using physiology topresent an integrative view of the nature, origins, and evolutionof fundamental biological systems. Providing a deeper understanding of the way genes relate to thetraits of living organisms, this book offers useful informationapplying evolutionary biology, functional genomics, and cellcommunication studies to complex disease. Examining the 4.5billion-year evolution process from environment adaptations tocell-cell communication to communication of genetic information forreproduction, Evolutionary Biology hones in on the "why and how" ofevolution by uniquely focusing on the cell as the smallest unit ofbiologic structure and function. Based on empirically derived data rather than associationstudies, Evolutionary Biology covers: A model for forming testable hypotheses in complex diseasestudies The integrating role played by the evolution of metabolism,especially lipid metabolism The evolutionary continuum from development to homeostasis Regeneration and aging mediated by signaling molecules Ambitious and game-changing Evolutionary Biology suggests thatbiology began as a mechanism for reducing energy within the cell,defying the Second Law of Thermodynamics. An ideal text for thoseinterested in forward thinking scientific study, the insightspresented in Evolutionary Biology help practitioners effectivelycomprehend the evolutionary process.

Evolutionary Genetics

Author : Charles W. Fox
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The diverse field of evolutionary genetics is unified by two goals: to understand the impact that evolutionary processes have on genetic variation, and to understand the consequences of these patterns for various evolutionary process. Research in evolutionary genetics stretches across a continuum of scale, from studies of DNA sequence evolution (Ch. 7 and 9), to studies of multivariate phenotypic evolution (Ch. 20), across a continuum of time, from ancient events that lead to current species diversity (Ch. 28), to rapid evolution seen over relatively short time scales in experimental evolution studies (Ch. 31).

Studies On Darwinism Genetics

Author : Giovanni Lo Presti
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The structure that supports the Universe is the Unicum: a unique phenomenon that reveals itself only once and in different forms, codified in the four Fundamental Laws of Nature, among which electromagnetism is the most meaningful expression for the living and the most qualifying one for our species. The Universe, which we are part of, is ruled by the uniqueness of its phenomena, for no event can repeat itself into other events, but only in its own uniqueness. Everyone is unique and different from other types of uniqueness. Different uniquenesses (cells) create an individual, who is, therefore, the product of various and different cellular uniquenesses that are mutually connected. Different individuals who have a unique protein structure give birth to a species that, as the product of protein uniquenesses, is unique itself. For this reason, its original uniqueness does not allow it to evolve into a different species. Reality is integrated in a conventional Time-Space dimension, which is equivalent to itself, hence an existing being, as inert (matter) and dynamic (life) electromagnetic energy cannot be subject to Darwinian evolutionary processes, integrated in a time that does not exist. The existing being has to be considered, indeed, as a transitory phase from the potential state to the dynamic one under different forms, because electromagnetic energy, which is the essence of the matter, dynamically expressed by life, always remains the same, even in materials of different forms. Form does not have an effect on substance, because it is nothing but a mental representation used to give a conventional identity to the matter. Since there is no intellect without life, intellect is a qualifying aspect of universal electromagnetic energy, which expresses itself through brain structures codified in the DNA of every individual. For this reason, an intelligent person is intelligent because he or she was born intelligent. One cannot become smart through evolutionary processes, which are not permitted in nature, where the Unicum rules.

Organizational Genetics

Author : Anthony Fedanzo
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The great insight of biological science in the last half of the 20th century is that life is a special kind of information. It is the information contained in the genetic program of each organism. Evolution is a continual process shaping the contents of the genetic program of countless species throughout the history of life on this planet. That process itself is now known to be essentially one of information processing. Viewing evolution as a kind of information processing opens the possibility that the laws of evolution operate to shape other kinds of information processing in systems other than those of organisms and their genetic programs. Business and industry as well as public agencies are the largest users of information processing technologies. If evolutionary processes are discoverable outside of strictly biological contexts it is reasonable to suppose that they'll be found among those systems that use information processing nearly as much, if not more, than does Nature. Indeed, the thesis of this work is that natural selection does operate over organizations that use so-called ‘Fourth Generation’ computerized database technologies. There are some basic conceptual hurdles that must be cleared before the vantage point of looking at evolutionary processes as information processes will reveal anything more than tantalizing analogies. The first hurdle is that compartmentalized thinking, putting the things of this world into pigeonholes, must be set aside in favor of a systems approach. By 'systems approach' nothing more complex is meant than being self-conscious about when and why it is sometimes convenient to compartmentalize thoughts, things and perceptions. It also means looking first at systems, at the organized complexity that constitutes not only life, but virtually all of humankind’s activity and physical reality. Using a systems approach, both organisms and organizations can be discussed from a common ground. The justification for adopting this outlook will appear more and more obvious as it is used to develop fruitful insights. A second conceptual hurdle that needs to be cleared is the frequent habit of thinking about information as some kind of passive "stuff" that gets manipulated, massaged, stored, and retrieved by computers. In the world of computer technology and business the phrase "data processing" is the traditional reference for all forms of information processing and technology. Note that at any given time other phrases such as “MIS” (management information systems) or “IT” (information technology) are more or less synonymous with “data processing.” For our purposes the latter phrase suffices. Unfortunately this phrase tends to solidify the mental habit of regarding information as a passive substance that people and machines manipulate as they see fit (or are directed). In reality, information has both a passive and an active role in systems. It is passive when we speak of communicating some particular item to another system, be it a person, machine or organization. Information is active when it takes the form of a program, plan, or goal. This includes all the important meanings of what "information" means as well. Thus, the second habit of thought to be put aside here is the belief that information is only acted upon. In fact, information in the human mind and in organizations is usually present just for the active role of shaping and directing their behavior. A third conceptual hurdle is the assumption that any attempt to generalize a law of biology is simply "transplanting" biology outside its proper domain and therefore is predestined to failure. In this work, biological laws, especially those of evolution, will be sought in the context of human organizations. However, they will not be transplanted there any more than a physical law of force, mass, and acceleration is "transplanted" to outer space when we discover that it desc

Divergence with Genetic Exchange

Author : Michael L. Arnold
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The study of genetic exchange resulting from natural hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, and viral recombination has long been marked by controversy between researchers holding different conceptual frameworks. Those subscribing to a doctrine of 'species purity' have traditionally been reluctant to recognise inferences suggesting anything other than a marginal role for non-allopatric divergence leading to gene transfer between different lineages. However, an increasing number of evolutionary biologists now accept that there is a growing body of evidence indicating the existence of non-allopatric diversification across many lineages and all domains of biological diversity. Divergence with Genetic Exchange investigates the mechanisms associated with evolutionary divergence and diversification, focussing on the role played by the exchange of genes between divergent lineages, a process recently termed 'divergence-with-gene-flow'. Although the mechanisms by which such divergent forms of life exchange genomic material may differ widely, the outcomes of interest - adaptive evolution and the formation of new hybrid lineages - do not. Successive chapters cover the history of the field, detection methodologies, outcomes, implications for conservation programs, and the effects on the human lineage associated with the process of genetic transfer between divergent lineages. This research level text is suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate level students taking related courses in departments of genetics, ecology and evolution. It will also be of relevance and use to professional evolutionary biologists and systematists seeking a comprehensive and authoritative overview of this rapidly expanding field.