Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact

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Author: Ludwik Fleck

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022619034X

Category: Science

Page: 222

View: 7512

Originally published in German in 1935, this monograph anticipated solutions to problems of scientific progress, the truth of scientific fact and the role of error in science now associated with the work of Thomas Kuhn and others. Arguing that every scientific concept and theory—including his own—is culturally conditioned, Fleck was appreciably ahead of his time. And as Kuhn observes in his foreword, "Though much has occurred since its publication, it remains a brilliant and largely unexploited resource." "To many scientists just as to many historians and philosophers of science facts are things that simply are the case: they are discovered through properly passive observation of natural reality. To such views Fleck replies that facts are invented, not discovered. Moreover, the appearance of scientific facts as discovered things is itself a social construction, a made thing. A work of transparent brilliance, one of the most significant contributions toward a thoroughly sociological account of scientific knowledge."—Steven Shapin, Science

Hermeneutic Philosophy of Science, Van Gogh’s Eyes, and God

Essays in Honor of Patrick A. Heelan, S.J.

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Author: B.E. Babich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401717672

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 1237

This richly textured book bridges analytic and hermeneutic and phenomenological philosophy of science. It features unique resources for students of the philosophy and history of quantum mechanics and the Copenhagen Interpretation, cognitive theory and the psychology of perception, the history and philosophy of art, and the pragmatic and historical relationships between religion and science.

Cognition and Fact

Materials on Ludwik Fleck

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Author: Robert S. Cohen,Thomas Schnelle

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400944985

Category: Science

Page: 468

View: 8091

Within the last ten years, the interest of historians and philosophers of science in the epistemological writings of the Polish medical microbiologist Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961), who had up to then been almost completely unknown, has advanced with great strides. His main writings on epistemological questions were published in the mid-1930's, but they remained almost unnoticed. Today, however, one may rightly call Fleck a 'classical' figure both of episte mology and of the historical sociology of science, one whose works are comparable with Popper's Logic of Scientific Discovery or Merton's pioneer ing study of the relations among economics, Puritanism, and natural science, both also originally published in the mid-1930's. The story of this book of 'materials on Ludwik Fleck' is also the story of the reception of Ludwik Fleck. In this volume, some essential materials which have been produced by that reception have been gathered together. We will sketch both the reception and the materials.

Organism and the Origins of Self

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Author: A.I. Tauber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401134065

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 2117

"De la vaporisation et de la centralisation du Moi. Tout est la. " Charles Baudelaire (journal entry) This anthology is my visit to Oz. On sabbatical in 1988, I chose to reeducate myself in general biology, first broadening my erudition as an immunologist, and then extending that horizon into evolutionary biology and embryology. I was particularly attracted to reflections on the nature of the self as an organ ismic concept. I went in search of reorientation as a confused physician scientist, and came back with this book. Baum's Wizard of Oz presented opportunities for growth, and herein lies the purpose of this volume: in providing updated statements concerning the nature of the organism from both scientific and metaphysical perspectives, we might ponder the philo sophical basis of our research in the hope of gaining insight into our endeavor, not to mention the possibility of its enrichment; it is this contem plative view of our research which offers a unique dimension to this anthology. To that end, the project follows my idiosyncratic prejudices. The anthology derives in large measure from the symposium, "Organism and the Origin of Self' held at Boston University, April 3-4, 1990, under the auspices of the Boston University Center for the Philosophy and History of Science, with generous support of Robert Cohen and Jon Westling, and the organizational skills of Deborah Wilkes. The Symposium presented three ver sions of the Self from the vantages of embryology, evolution and medicine.

AIDS and Contemporary History

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Author: Virginia Berridge,Philip Strong

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521521147

Category: History

Page: 300

View: 5846

A collection of essays on the 'pre-history' of the impact of AIDS, and its subsequent history.

Textbook of Psychiatric Epidemiology

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Author: Ming T. Tsuang,Mauricio Tohen,Peter Jones

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047097740X

Category: Medical

Page: 664

View: 7295

The new edition of this critically praised textbook continues to provide the most comprehensive overview of the concepts, methods, and research advances in the field; particularly the application of molecular genomics and of neuroimaging. It has been revised and enhanced to capitalize on the strengths of the first and second editions while keeping it up-to-date with the field of psychiatry and epidemiology. This comprehensive publication now includes chapters on experimental epidemiology, gene-environment interactions, the use of case registries, eating disorders, suicide, childhood disorders and immigrant populations, and the epidemiology of a number of childhood disorders. As in the first and second editions, the objective is to provide a comprehensive, easy to understand overview of research methods for the non-specialist. The book is ideal for students of psychiatric epidemiology, psychiatric residents, general psychiatrists, and other mental health professionals. The book features a new editor, Peter Jones, from the University of Cambridge, who joins the successful US team of Ming Tsuang and Mauricio Tohen.

The Growth of Medical Knowledge

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Author: H.A. Ten Have,G.L Kimsma,S.F. Spicker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400920253

Category: Medical

Page: 196

View: 7154

The growth of knowledge and its effects on the practice of medicine have been issues of philosophical and ethical interest for several decades and will remain so for many years to come. The outline of the present volume was conceived nearly three years ago. In 1987, a conference on this theme was held in Maastricht, the Netherlands, on the occasion of the founding of the European Society for Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care (ESPMH). Most of the chapters of this book are derived from papers presented at that meeting, and for the purpose of editing the book Stuart Spicker, Ph. D. , joined two founding members of ESPMH, Henk ten Have and Gerrit Kimsma. The three of them successfully brought together a number of interesting contribu tions to the theme, and ESPMH is grateful and proud to have initiated the production of this volume. The Society intends that annual meetings be held in different European countries on a rotating basis and to publish volumes related to these meetings whenever feasible. In 1988, the second conference was held in Aarhus, Denmark on "Values in Medical Decision Making and Resource Allocation in Health Care". In 1989, a meeting was held in Czestochowa, Poland, on "European Traditions in Philosophy of Medicine. From Brentano to Bieganski". It is hoped that these conferences and the books to be derived from them, will initiate a new European tradition, lasting well into the 21 st century! P. J.

Science and Emotions after 1945

A Transatlantic Perspective

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Author: Frank Biess,Daniel M. Gross

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022612651X

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 3975

Through the first half of the twentieth century, emotions were a legitimate object of scientific study across a variety of disciplines. After 1945, however, in the wake of Nazi irrationalism, emotions became increasingly marginalized and postwar rationalism took central stage. Emotion remained on the scene of scientific and popular study but largely at the fringes as a behavioral reflex, or as a concern of the private sphere. So why, by the 1960s, had the study of emotions returned to the forefront of academic investigation? In Science and Emotions after 1945, Frank Biess and Daniel M. Gross chronicle the curious resurgence of emotion studies and show that it was fueled by two very different sources: social movements of the 1960s and brain science. A central claim of the book is that the relatively recent neuroscientific study of emotion did not initiate – but instead consolidated – the emotional turn by clearing the ground for multidisciplinary work on the emotions. Science and Emotions after 1945 tells the story of this shift by looking closely at scientific disciplines in which the study of emotions has featured prominently, including medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience, and the social sciences, viewed in each case from a humanities perspective.

Plagues and Epidemics

Infected Spaces Past and Present

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Author: D. Ann Herring,Alan C. Swedlund

Publisher: Berg

ISBN: 1847887554

Category: Social Science

Page: 416

View: 6153

Until recently, plagues were thought to belong in the ancient past. Now there are deep worries about global pandemics. This book presents views from anthropology about this much publicized and complex problem. The authors take us to places where epidemics are erupting, waning, or gone, and to other places where they have not yet arrived, but where a frightening story line is already in place. They explore public health bureaucracies and political arenas where the power lies to make decisions about what is, and is not, an epidemic. They look back into global history to uncover disease trends and look ahead to a future of expanding plagues within the context of climate change. The chapters are written from a range of perspectives, from the science of modeling epidemics to the social science of understanding them. Patterns emerge when people are engulfed by diseases labeled as epidemics but which have the hallmarks of plague. There are cycles of shame and blame, stigma, isolation of the sick, fear of contagion, and end-of-the-world scenarios. Plague, it would seem, is still among us.

Conditions of Comparison

Reflections on Comparative Intercultural Inquiry

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Author: Ming Xie

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1441166831

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 224

View: 3075

How do we know the other culture? How do such inquiries impact on our knowledge of our own culture? These questions lie at the heart of comparative intercultural studies. As a theoretical inquiry into how conceptual resources of cultures (such as explicit and implicit categories of thought) may pre-figure our perspectives, this book re-conceives and reorients comparative intercultural inquiry by arguing for the importance of an epistemological approach and for its potential to transform current critical paradigms, in contrast to approaches that emphasize primarily the political and the ethical. By critically engaging with and developing the insights of scholars and thinkers from both Anglo-American and Continental traditions, the book makes a significant meta-critical contribution to a rethinking of comparative intercultural studies and literary theory. It will be of interest to students and scholars in comparative literature, English, world literature, and global and translation studies.