Search results for: gardens-in-the-modern-landscape

Gardens in the Modern Landscape

Author : Christopher Tunnard
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Between 1937 and 1938, garden designer Christopher Tunnard published a series of articles in the British Architectural Review that rejected the prevailing English landscape style. Inspired by the principles of Modernist art and Japanese aesthetics, Tunnard called for a "new technique" in garden design that emphasized an integration of form and purpose. "The functional garden avoids the extremes both of the sentimental expressionism of the wild garden and the intellectual classicism of the 'formal' garden," he wrote; "it embodies rather a spirit of rationalism and through an aesthetic and practical ordering of its units provides a friendly and hospitable milieu for rest and recreation." Tunnard's magazine pieces were republished in book form as Gardens in the Modern Landscape in 1938, and a revised second edition was issued a decade later. Taken together, these articles constituted a manifesto for the modern garden, its influence evident in the work of such figures as Lawrence Halprin, Philip Johnson, and Edward Larrabee Barnes. Long out of print, the book is here reissued in a facsimile of the 1948 edition, accompanied by a contextualizing foreword by John Dixon Hunt. Gardens in the Modern Landscape heralded a sea change in the evolution of twentieth-century design, and it also anticipated questions of urban sprawl, historic preservation, and the dynamic between the natural and built environments. Available once more to students, practitioners, and connoisseurs, it stands as a historical document and an invitation to continued innovative thought about landscape architecture.

Modern Landscape Architecture

Author : Jory Johnson
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Modern Landscape Architecture

Author : Marc Treib
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These 22 essays assess the tenets, accomplishments and limits of modernism in landscape architecture and formulate ideas about possible directions for the future of the discipline. The historical and cultural framework within which modern landscape designers have worked is also explored.

Gardens in the Modern Landscape

Author : Christopher Tunnard
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Modern Gardens and the Landscape

Author : Elizabeth Bauer Kassler
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"This volume, which accompanies a major exhibition at The Museum of Modern Art, provides a comprehensive overview of Munch's work. Its color plates illustrate the full range of his art, including his many extraordinary self-portraits; intensely emotional motifs such as The Kiss and Puberty, Anxiety and Melancholy, The Sick Child and The Dance of Life; one of the modern era's most famous and quintessential images, The Scream; and the mutable series called the Frieze of Life, in which Munch attempted to chronicle "the modern life of the soul.""--BOOK JACKET.

The Midcentury Modern Landscape

Author : Ethne Clarke
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The Midcentury Modern Landscape explores the origins of midcentury modern garden design for the home, revealing how designers at the time blurred the divisions between indoors and outdoors, creating gardens that were for living, a style that went on to inspire contemporary gardens around the world. The Midcentury Modern Landscape is a fresh guide for those seeking bold approaches to redefine their outdoor space, or wishing to learn more about the history of mid century modern aesthetics. Ethne Clarke is an award-winning journalist, former garden editor of Traditional Home, and contributing editor for House & Garden. Well-known as the author of a number of best-selling books on practical gardening, design and landscape history, she holds a Master of Philosophy from the faculty of Fine Art, De Montfort University, England. Her research has involved a close study of architectural history between the Arts and Crafts period and early Modernism, and this has been a guiding influence on the renovation of her house and garden in Colorado--a small midcentury modern ranch built in 1958.

Making the Modern Garden

Author : Christopher Bradley-Hole
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A superlative analysis of contemporary gardens as well as a fascinating collection of landscapes around the world, Making the Modern Garden is a definitive study of the philosophy and practice of garden design at the outset of the twenty-first century. Author Christopher Bradley-Hole, himself a landscape designer of note, discusses the process of garden design in a presentation of modern landscapes at all sizes and locations. Among the designers in the book are Fernando Caruncho, Peter Walker, Kathryn Gustafson, and Vladamir Sitta; different types of gardens include roof gardens, courtyards, urban and country gardens, and dramatic landscapes. Bradley-Hole also reviews the ever-changing palette of plants used in the modernist garden as well as materials and landscape features. A point of reference throughout is the modern art, design, and landscape architecture of the twentieth century, represented by artists and architects including Carl Andre, Dan Flavin, Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe, and Roberto Burle Marx.

Invisible Gardens

Author : Peter Walker
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Invisible Gardens is a composite history of the individuals and firms that defined the field of landscape architecture in America from 1925 to 1975, a period that spawned a significant body of work combining social ideas of enduring value with landscapes and gardens that forged a modern aesthetic. The major protagonists include Thomas Church, Roberto Burle Marx, Isamu Noguchi, Luis Barragan, Daniel Urban Kiley, Stanley White, Hideo Sasaki, Ian McHarg, Lawrence Halprin, and Garrett Eckbo. They were the pioneers of a new profession in America, the first to offer alternatives to the historic landscape and the park tradition, as well as to the suburban sprawl and other unplanned developments of twentieth-century cities and institutions. The work is described against the backdrop of the Great Depression, the Second World War, the postwar recovery, American corporate expansion, and the environmental revolution. The authors look at unbuilt schemes as well as actual gardens, ranging from tiny backyards and play spaces to urban plazas and corporate villas. Some of the projects discussed already occupy a canonical position in modern landscape architecture; others deserve a similar place but are less well known. The result is a record of landscape architecture's cultural contribution - as distinctly different in history, intent, and procedure from its sister fields of architecture and planning - during the years when it was acquiring professional status and struggling to define a modernist aesthetic out of the startling changes in postwar America.

Gardens of the High Line

Author : Piet Oudolf
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“If you can't get to the High Line. . . this is the next best thing.” —The Washington Post Before it was restored, the High Line was an untouched, abandoned landscape overgrown with wildflowers. Today it’s a central plaza, a cultural center, a walkway, and a green retreat in a bustling city that is free for all to enjoy. This beautiful, dynamic garden was designed by Piet Oudolf, one of the world’s most extraordinary garden designers. Gardens of the High Line, by Piet Oudolf and Rick Darke, offers an in-depth view into the planting designs, plant palette, and maintenance of this landmark achievement. It reveals a four-season garden that is filled with native and exotic plants, drought-tol­erant perennials, and grasses that thrive and spread. It also offers inspiration and advice on recreating its iconic, naturalistic style. Featuring stunning photographs by Rick Darke and an introduction by Robert Hammond, the founder of the Friends of the High Line, this large-trim, photo-driven book is a must-have gem of nature of design.

The History of Landscape Design in 100 Gardens

Author : Linda A. Chisholm
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“Rich with photographs and descriptions of how landscape design has shaped and reflected culture over time.” —The American Gardener The History of Landscape Design in 100 Gardens explores the defining moments in garden design. Through profiles of 100 of the most influential gardens, Linda Chisholm explores how social, political, and economic influences shaped garden design principles. The book is organized chronologically and by theme, starting with the medieval garden Alhambra and ending with the modern naturalism of the Lurie Garden. Sumptuously illustrated, The History of Landscape Design in 100 Gardens is a comprehensive resource for garden designers and landscape architects, design students, and garden history enthusiasts.

100 20th Century Gardens and Landscapes

Author : Twentieth Century Society
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A showcase of Britain's most extraordinary gardens and landscapes from the twentieth century to present day. 100 20th-Century Gardens and Landscapes highlights the evolution of gardens and landscapes over the past century, tracing how these distinctive creations complemented buildings of their period. Entries in this book are grouped in chronological periods, documenting changing styles and techniques in a visual timeline. The examples chosen take the story from the Arts and Crafts garden and the garden city, through the landscapes created for mid-century housing and the new towns, to the low-maintenance gardens of the 1980s and contemporary trends for community and wildlife gardens. Designed landscapes were often integral to the conception of twentieth-century developments; the inclusion of a handful of particularly successful landscapes for memorial gardens, offices, industry, transport and parks demonstrate a changing attitude to public green space during the century and its increasing importance as private gardens have become ever smaller. Designers and architects such as Piet Oudolf, Charles Jencks, Frederick Gibberd, Geoffrey Jellicoe, Vita Sackville-West and Gertrude Jekyll are all featured, alongside more detailed essays on the history of gardens, planting styles, the importance of modern landscapes, and the career of Geoffrey Jellicoe. The text is written by architectural, landscape and garden historians including Elain Harwood, Barbara Simms and Alan Powers. Beautifully illustrated throughout with photography, illustrations and garden plans, this book is ideal for gardeners and landscape lovers alike.

Meaning in Landscape Architecture and Gardens

Author : Marc Treib
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While we all live our lives in designed landscapes of various types, only on occasion do we consider what these landscapes mean to us and how they have acquired that significance. Can a landscape architect or garden designer really imbue new settings with meaning, or does meaning evolve over time, created by those who perceive and use these landscapes? What role does the selection and arrangement of plants and hard materials play in this process and just where does the passage of time enter into the equation? These questions collectively provide the core material for Meaning in Landscape Architecture and Gardens, a compendium of four landmark essays written over a period of twenty years by leading scholars in the field of landscape architecture. New commentaries by the authors accompany each of the essays and reflect on the thinking behind them as well as the evolution of the author’s thoughts since their original publication. Although the central theme of these writings is landscape architecture broadly taken, the principal subject of several essays and commentaries is the garden, a subject historically plentiful in allusions and metaphors. As a whole Meaning in Landscape Architecture and Gardens offers the general reader as well as the professional a rich source of ideas about the designed landscape and the ways by which we perceive, consider, react, and dwell within them – and what they mean to us. The essays have been perennial favorites in landscape courses since their original publication in Landscape Journal. Bringing them together – bolstered by the new commentaries – creates a book valuable to all those creating gardens and landscapes, as well as those teaching and studying these subjects.

21st Century Residential Landscape Design

Author : Dean Herald
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This beautifully illustrated book takes the reader on a journey through a number of outstanding gardens that have been landscaped by one of Australias leading landscape designers, Dean Herald of Rolling Stone Landscapes. 21ST CENTURY RESIDENTIAL LANDSCAPE DESIGN showcases over 20 designs produced by Dean, who specializes in integrating garden design with the living space of the modern home and includes projects for the mediterranean and for cold climate. The modern residential landscape has changed so dramatically over the last 20 years with the indoor-outdoor concept becoming a living space of the family home. Mixed with entertaining areas for alfresco cooking/dining and the added excitement of a swimming pool design, you have a relaxing atmosphere and a private retreat in your own backyard - this is 21ST CENTURY RESIDENTIAL LANDSCAPE DESIGN.

A World of Gardens

Author : John Dixon Hunt
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A Japanese garden is immediately distinct to the eye from the traditional gardens of an English manor house, just as the manicured topiaries of Versailles contrast with the sharp cacti of the American Southwest. Though gardening is beloved the world over, the style of gardens themselves varies from region to region, determined as much by culture as climate. In this series of illustrated essays, John Dixon Hunt takes us on a world tour of different periods in the making of gardens. Hunt shows here how cultural assumptions and local geography have shaped gardens and their meaning. He explores our continuing responses to land and reworkings of the natural world, encompassing a broad range of gardens, from ancient Roman times to early Islamic and Mughal gardens, from Chinese and Japanese gardens to the invention of the public park and modern landscape architecture. A World of Gardens looks at key chapters in garden history, reviewing their significance past and present and tracing the recurrence of different themes and motifs in the design and reception of gardens throughout the world. A World of Gardens celebrates the idea that similar experiences of gardens can be found in many different times and places, including sacred landscapes, scientific gardens, urban gardens, secluded gardens, and symbolic gardens. Featuring two hundred images, this book is a treasure trove of ideas and inspiration, whether your garden is a window box, a secluded backyard, or a daydream.

Mirei Shigemori Rebel in the Garden

Author : Christian Tschumi
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The first profound depiction of the great reformer of Japanese garden design in the twentieth century Mirei Shigemori decisively shaped the development of Japanese landscape architecture in the twentieth century. He founded the Kyoto Garden Society in 1932 and published the 26-volume Illustrated Book on the History of the Japanese Garden in 1938. One year later he designed his own first masterwork, the garden of the main hall of Tôfuku-ji Temple. Between then and his death in 1975, he went on to design 240 gardens throughout Japan. Among the most famous are the Tenrai-an tea garden (1969) and the Matsuo Taisha garden (1975). All of his gardens are distinguished by the fact that they honor tradition while at the same time – through their openness to Western modernity – they free themselves from its weight and develop a language of their own. The first part of the book will deal with Shigemori’s life and influences, including his interest in ikebana and tea ceremonies. The second part will offer detailed presentations of some seventeen different gardens. Mirei Shigemori prägte maßgeblich die Entwicklung der japanischen Landschaftsarchitektur im 20. Jahrhundert. Seit den 1920er Jahren tätig, gründete er 1932 die Kyotoer Gartengesellschaft und publizierte 1938 das 26-bändige Werk Illustrated Book on the History of the Japanese Garden. Ein Jahr später entwarf er sein erstes eigenes Meisterwerk, den Garten bei der Haupthalle des Tôfuku-ji Tempels. Von da an gestaltete er 240 Gärten in ganz Japan bis zu seinem Tod 1975; zu den berühmtesten gehören der Teegarten Tenrai-an (1969) und der Matsuo Taisha-Garten (1975). Kennzeichen seiner Gärten ist, dass sie die Tradition ehren und sich zugleich – in der Öffnung gegenüber den Einflüssen der westlichen Moderne – von dem Althergebrachten durch eine eigene Sprache lösen. Der erste Teil des Buches wird sich mit dem Leben Shigemoris und den Einflüssen auf sein Werk auseinandersetzen. Dabei wird auch seine Auseinandersetzung mit Ikebana und Teezeremonien eine Rolle spielen. Der zweite Teil wird etwa 17 Gärten ausführlich darstellen.

Garrett Eckbo

Author : Marc Treib
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A beautifully illustrated consideration of the life and career of modernist landscape architect Garrett Eckbo.

Landscape Modernism Renounced

Author : David Jacques
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Before the Second World War landscape architect Christopher Tunnard was the first author on Modernism in Landscape in the English language, but later became alarmed by the destructive forces of Post-war reconstruction. Between the 1950s and the 1970s he was in the forefront of the movement to save the city, becoming an acclaimed author sympathetic to preservation. Ironically it was the Modernist ethos that he had so fervently advocated before the war that was the justification for the dismemberment of great cities by officials, engineers and planners. This was not the first time that Tunnard had to re-evaluate his principles, as he had done so in the 1930s in rejecting Arts-and-Crafts in favour of Modernism. This book tracks his changing ideology, by reference to his writings, his colleagues and his work. Christopher Tunnard is one of the most influential figures in Landscape Architecture and his journey is one that still resonates in the discipline today. His leading role in first embracing the tenets of Modernism and then moving away from to embrace a more conservationist approach can be seen in the success and impact on the profession of those with whom he worked and taught.

The Modern Landscapes of Ted Smyth

Author : Rod Barnett
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The modern period in landscape architecture is enjoying the fascinated appreciation of scholars and historians in Europe and the Americas, and new themes, new subjects and new appraisals are appearing. This book contributes to the conversation by focusing on the work of a singular designer who spent his entire career in a province of the North Island of New Zealand. Ted Smyth practiced an assured landscape modernism without ever seeing the designs of his forebears or his contemporaries working in the UK, Europe and the United States. Designing in isolation from the mainstream of modernism, and a little after its high tide, Smyth produced a series of gardens that provoke a revaluation of the diffusionist model of influence. The book explains and describes the evolution of Smyth’s design vocabulary and relates it to the development of tropical landscape modernism in other Asia-Pacific sites. It shows how a culture of garden modernism can be generated from within a particular locale, and highlights Smyth’s engagement with Māori design traditions in search of a specific expression of the high modern essentialism of place.

Performance and Appropriation

Author : Catherine Benoit
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Breaking with the idea that gardens are places of indulgence and escapism, these studies of ritualized practices reveal that gardens in Europe, Asia, the United States, and the Caribbean have in fact made significant contributions to cultural change. This book demonstrates methods and the striking results of garden reception studies. The first section explores how cultural changes occur, and devotes chapters to public landscapes in the Netherlands, seventeenth-century Parisian gardens, Freemason gardens in Tuscany, nineteenth-century Scottish kitchen gardens, and the public parks of Edo and modern Tokyo. The second part provides striking examples of construction of self in vernacular gardens in Guadeloupe and American Japanese-style gardens in California. Finally, the third section analyzes struggles for political change in gardens of Yuan China and modern Britain.

Garden History Reference Encyclopedia

Author : Tom Turner
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The Garden History Reference Encyclopedia is in pdf format with over 10,000 hyperlinks both internal and external, to sites of garden history interest. The text is twice as long as the Bible and is fully searchable using the free Adobe Reader found on most computers. For full details of the contents please see GHRE page on Gardenvisit.com. The Enclycopedia was available as a CD from 2002 to 2012 and is now supplied as a pdf file. It received an American Society of Landscape Architects ASLA Merit Award in 2003 and a UK Landscape Institute award in 2004. Contents of the Garden History Reference Encyclopedia eTEXTS: The 100+ eTexts in the Encyclopedia are listed below BIOGRAPHY: there is an alphabetical index with links to biographies of famous designers, writers and patrons who have guided the course of garden design history GLOSSARY: there are explanations of garden history terms, with links to examples of their use in the eTexts STYLES: there are diagrams of 24 key garden types and styles TIMELINE: a combination of the 24 style diagrams with links to key persons and key examples General histories of garden design Garden History Guide. An overview of garden history from 2000 BC to 2000 AD (by Tom Turner). It introduces the subject and serves as a guide to the other resources in the Encyclopedia (approx 2,500 pages, 1.5m words and 2,000 illustrations). Tom Turner Garden Design in the British Isles: History and styles since 1650 (1986, 2000) The Encyclopedia edition has been revised, with additional illustrations and hyperlinks to garden descriptions. Marie-Luise Gothein History of garden art (English edition, 1928) Gothein's book, originally published in German (Geschichte der Gartenkunst, 1914 ), provides by far the best and by far the most comprehensive account of garden history from antiquity up to the start of the twentieth century. eTexts relating to Ancient Egypt Egyptian Book of the Dead (excerpts) Herodotus journeyed to Egypt and down the Nile in the 5th century BC and included valuable information on sanctuaries, gardens, groves and statues. A journey down the Nile in 1902, with romantic paintings of the people and the landscape A visit to the Estate of Amun in 1909, with paintings capturing the mood of the ancient monuments A journey down the Nile in 1914, with photographs of the monuments before they were restored and details of how the author's family hired a house boat and 'sailed away into a lotus land of sunshine and silent waters for five or six months' eTexts relating to Ancient West Asia The Song of Solomon from Old Testament of The Bible (also known as the Song of Songs). The greatest erotic love song in Western literature, making the association of gardens and love. It has been a profound influence on western thinking about gardens. 'The entire world, all of it, it not equal in worth to the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel.' Excerpts from The Bible relating to gardens. The Garden of Eden was thought to have been in West Asia. Excerpts from The Koran relating to gardens. Because gardens were so often used as a symbol of paradise, there are more references to gardens in The Koran than in The Bible. eTexts relating to Ancient Greece Plato's discussion of 'imitation' (mimesis) is explained and discussed. Book X of The Republic (c370 BC) is in the Encyclopedia . Plato's Theory of Forms led to the aesthetic principle that 'Art should Imitate Nature' which had a profound influence on western art in general and garden design in particular. Homer, excerpts from the Iliad and Odyssey relating to gardens Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough (1890). The chapter in the Encyclopedia describes 'The Ritual of Adonis'. It is written by the founder of modern anthropology and helps to explain the Adonis Cult, which provides evidence of plants being grown in Greek courtyard gardens, and of the spirit in which sacred groves were made in Ancient Greece. eTexts relating to The Roman Empire Vitruvius Pollio on landscape architecture and garden design (27 BC) from de Architectura. Vitruvius was a Roman and wrote the oldest western book on design to have survived. It lays down the principle that places should have 'commodity, firmness and delight'. Book 1, Chapters 1-7, are in the Encyclopedia . Excerpts from Ovid's Metamorphosis (1-8 AD) and Art of Love (1 BC). Ovid's poetry provided a rich source of imagery for garden designers and for the artists who made garden sculpture. Pliny the Younger's letters describing his own gardens (c100 AD). These letters are the best surviving descriptions of Roman gardens and of how their owners used them. Pliny owned many gardens and 500 slaves. Cicero, excerpts from his letters relating to gardens Virgil's Aenead, sections relating to gardens Life of St Martin The first outstanding monastic leader in France was St Martin of Tours (c316-397). His account of how he destroyed the sacred groves of the pagan religion does much to explain why Europe has such scanty remains of this type of outdoor space. Ibn Battuta's account of Constantinople c1300 eTexts relating to Medieval Gardens Charlemagne's 'chapter' (capitulary) on gardens gave detailed instructions for the plants to be used in the royal gardens and for the management of his lands. They are key texts for the study of medieval gardens, c800 AD. A note on 'Irminsul.' , the sacred tree of the Saxons, destroyed by the Christians. Guillaume de Lorris' Romance of the Rose or Roman de la Rose (c1250). This is an allegorical poem, inspired by Ovid, in which gardens and roses are associated with romantic love ('Full many a time I smote and struck the door and listened for someone to let me in') Excerpts from Boccaccio's Decameron (1353), with classical descriptions of medieval garden scenes. The tales are famed for their sexual intrigue and this aspect is more prominent than garden scenery in the illustrations in the Encyclopedia . Albertus Magnus advice on how to make a pleasure garden (1206) Walafried Strabbo's poem Hortulus. This is the literary classic of medieval garden literature, celebrating the delight of plants in monastic life and giving detailed information on the culture and uses of plants. The Life of St Anthony, relating to the origin of monastic gardening The Life of St Philbert, relating to the origin of the European monastic cloister. He was Abbot of Jumièges in France c750. A set of quotations from The Bible which make reference to gardens.(61 No) eTexts relating to Islamic Gardens A set of quotations from The Koran which make reference to gardens (151 No) The Spanish Ambassador's visit to Samarkand, in 1404, with his descriptions of Mughal gardens Babur's Memoir, Babur admired the gardens he had seen and, after founding a Mughal Empire, made gardens he made in India Persian gardens were in better condition in 1900 than in 2000, and better still in 1700. This gives a particular importance to past travellers descriptions of their use and form. There sections from the following accounts of visits to Persian gardens in the Encyclopedia (and engravings, to capture the flavour of Persian gardens as they were) Montesquieu's Persian letters (1721) contained little information on Pesian gardens but did much to awaken interest in seraglios and the 'romance of the East'. Washington Irving, the 'father of American literature' published a famous account of the Alhambra in 1832. He was a friend of Sir Walter Scott and has the same interest in welding history with imagination. This provides a glimpse of the Alhambra and Generalife when they were, beyond question, the finest gardens in Europe. eTexts relating to Renaissance Gardens Plotinus The Enneads Eighth Tractate: 'On the Intellectual Beauty'. Plotinus (205-270AD) was 'rediscovered' during the renaissance, in the Platonic Academy founded at Careggi, and came to have a profound influence on renaissance design methods St Augustine's conversion took place in a garden in Milan (described in his Confessions) and was often chosen as a frontispiece to editions of his work. Augustine is regarded as the greatest Christian thinker of antiquity, the transmitter of Plato and Aristotle to medieval and renaissance Christianity. Leon Battista Alberti On Garden Design (1485) from De re aedificatoria libri X (Ten Books on Architecture). Drawing from Pliny and Vitruvius, the humanist scholar set forth the principles for the design of renaissance villas. They were taken up by Donato Bramante and guided the course of garden design for two centuries. Vasari's biographical note on Leon Battista Alberti describes his multi-faced genius. Leonardo da Vinci note on the design of a water garden (from his Notebooks) with a reference to his interpretation of Vitruvius Andrea Palladio's I Quattro Libri dell'Architecttura (The Four Books of Architecture) (1570) is one of the most influential design works ever published. The quotations in the Encyclopedia relate to the placing of buildings and Neoplatonism. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne's diary accounts of Italian Gardens (1580-1) let us view many still-famous Italian gardens through the eyes of a French renaissance traveller and writer. Montaigne invented the 'essay form'. William Shakespeare's mention of gardens (30 No.) tell much of the gardens he knew. Despite his dates (1564-1616) these gardens are medieval, with only the slightest renaissance accent. Francis Bacon's Essay 'On Gardens' (1625). This famous essay, by a philosopher and scientist, in Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe's words 'magisterially lays down the fundamental principles of gardening'. It begins with the words 'God Almighty first planted a garden' and praises wildness in gardens. John Evelyn's diary accounts of gardens in France and Italy visited between 1644 and 1685. As with Montaigne's diary, they provide contemporary descriptions of French and Italian parks and gardens. Andrew Marvell's The Garden (c1650) celebrates the delights in the symbolism of seventeenth century enclosed gardens. Marvell's Upon Appleton House, to my Lord Fairfax contains some garden description. The Garden by Abraham Cowley 'I never had any other desire so strong, and so like to covetousness, as ....that I might be master at last of a small house and large garden Sir Thomas Browne's essay on The Garden of Cyrus deals with the history of gardens, as viewed from 1658 (an extract is in the Encyclopedia ) eTexts relating to Enlightenment Gardens René Descartes Descartes did not write either on aesthetics or on garden design, but historians continue to speak of the 'Cartesian Garden', by which they mean a geometrical garden. The Encyclopedia contains the text and a comment on his Discourse on the method of rightly conducting the reason, and seeking truth in the sciences.(1637) This short book laid the foundation for the philosophy of the Enlightenment and for Neoclassical aesthetics. John James Theory and Practice of Gardening was published in 1712, based on A J Dezallier d'Arganville and Le Blond. It became the standard book on laying out a French baroque garden and provides a fascinating insight into how this was done. James also 'introduced the concept of the ha-ha and anticipated Pope's famous dictum on the genius of the place'. The Encyclopedia has 3 chapters, 4 plates and a discussion of James' book. Alexander Pope's and his Essay on Criticism (1711) Epistle to Lord Burlington (1731). The former summarises contemporary attitudes to gardens and the latter summarises contemporary (rationalist-Neoclassical) aesthetic theory: based on Reason, Nature and the Genius of the Place. John Serle's plan of Alexander Pope's garden at the time of his death, and his description of Pope's grotto (+ photographs of the grotto and its setting) Sir Joshua Reynolds Discourses were delivered at the Royal Academy in London between 1769 and 1790 embody 'The basic ideas of neoclassical theory in the fine arts were set forth in definitive form, with clarity and grace'. The Encyclopedia contains relevant quotations. eTexts relating to Romantic Gardens William Temple's essay 'Upon the Gardens of Epicurus: or Of Gardening' (1685) is extravagantly praised by Nicholas Pevsner. He claims this essay 'started a line of thought and visual conceptions which were to dominate first England and then the World for two centuries.' The full text is in the Encyclopedia . Jospeh Addison's Essay 161 made the key association of natural scenery with liberty and freedom. Essay 37 describes a perfect garden in which reason and nature go hand in hand. Essay 414 sees the works of nature as more delightful than artificial arrangements. Essay 417 supports Locke's theory of knowledge. Essay 477 describes Addison's own garden at Bilton. William Shenstone A description of The Leasowes. This was one of the landscape gardens most admired in continental Europe, partly because it was the work of a poet and partly because it combined use and beauty - a ferme orneé. The full text of his publisher's description is in the Encyclopedia . William Shenstone 'Unconnected thoughts on gardening'. The invention of the term 'landskip gardening' is attributed to Shenstone. Edmund Burke An essay on the sublime and beautiful (1757). Taking an empiricist approach, Burke attacks Vitruvian and rationalist aesthetics. He also discusses garden design, praising Hogarth's 'line of beauty' (which Brown followed) and comparing 'smooth streams in the landscape' with ' in fine women smooth skins'. Quotations from Lancelot 'Capability' Brown, describing the principles on which he worked. Horace Walpole's essay 'On Gardening' (1780). The most brilliant and influential essay ever written on the development English park and garden design. Thomas Jefferson's descriptions of English gardens John Claudius Loudon's biography of Humphry Repton (1840). After Repton's own writings, this is the primary source of information on Humphry Repton's life and work. Jean-Jacques Rousseau one of the letters from La Nouvelle Héloise deal's with Julie's garden. It is a romantic treatment of an ancient theme, making the association between women, sex and gardens (see above references the Song of Solomon, the Romance of the Rose and Boccaccio. Also the reference below to Goethe). Uvedale Price On the Picturesque (1794) Excerpt from Chapter 1 and Chapter 4. Price was a widely respected authority on picturesque taste in gardens. Humphry Repton 'A letter to Mr Price' (1795) Humphry Repton Sketches and Hints (1795) This is Repton's first theoretical statement on his chosen professional (Introduction and Chapter 1 on Encyclopedia ) Humphry Repton Fragments on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1816) The Fragment reproduced (No 27) comes from the Red Book for Ashridge - a favourite project and the occasion for Repton's advocacy of what became the Mixed Style of garden design. eTexts relating to Nineteenth Century Gardens Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Elective Affinities (1809). Like Rousseau, Goethe admired 'natural' gardens. He also drew gardens and designed gardens. The section reproduced in the Encyclopedia deals with the design of a romantic garden. Jane Loudon's life of her husband John Claudius Loudon (1843). Jane was a novelist and her memoir is as touching as it is important as the key source of information on her husband - who was the most influential garden writer of the nineteenth century. Loudon's influence was particularly important in America. Edward Kemp How to lay out a garden (1864 edn). Excerpts giving his views on styles of garden design and describing two gardens which he designed. It presents a somewhat depressing picture of the confusion which reigned in the mid-nineteenth century garden aesthetics - and continues to reign in many of the world's municipal parks departments.. Sir Walter Scott, excerpt from Waverly and from The Quarterly Review on gardens. Scott's remarks can be read in conjunction with those of his friends, Gilbert Laing Meason and Washington Irving. They introduced a romantic-historical dimension to garden design and appreciation. Gustave Flaubert Bouvard and Pécuchet. Flaubert satirizes the bourgeois taste in garden design displayed by the characters whose names form the title of his last novel. Famous Parks and Gardens of the World - the book was published anonymously and provides a good illustration of European gardening opinion in 1880. The Preface and Chapter 10 are in the Encyclopedia . Ludwig II of Bavaria: the romantic gardens of the 'Mad King' were rich in historical associations. eTexts relating to the History of Landscape Architecture Guide to the History of Landscape Architecture, by Tom Turner Gilbert Laing Meason. The full text of Meason's On the Landscape Architecture of the Great Painters of Italy (London 1828). Meason was the 'inventor' of the term Landscape Architecture, which has since come to be used by a world-wide profession, represented by the International Federation of Landscape Architects, by the American Society of Landscape Architects, by the UK Landscape Institute and numerous other national associations. Only 150 copies of his book were printed and its contents are not well known. This is the first time the book has been re-published. It is accompanied with an analysis of the text by Tom Turner. A clear appreciation of how landscape architecture began is regarded as central to comprehension of the modern profession. Notes on the Top twenty theorists and designers in the history of landscape architecture and on the question What is landscape architecture? John Claudius Loudon's included comments on Meason in his Gardener's Magazine (1828) and in his Encyclopedia of Architecture (1833). These comments transmitted the term to Andew Jackson Downing and, later, to Frederick Law Olmsted - setting the course of American landscape architecture. Andrew Jackson Downing's Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening. (Section 1, Section 2 and Section 9). Downing was 'the first American writer on landscape architectural topics' (Norman T Newton in Design on the Land) and an 'incalcuable' influence on American garden design and landscape architecture (Oxford Companion to Gardens). Loudon's writings were his starting point. Frederick Law Olmsted's description of his winning design for the Central Park, New York, competition (1858). Olmsted 'the father of American landscape architecture' entered the profession as a result of the Greensward Plan for Central Park, done in partnership with the English architect Calvert Vaux. Norman T Newton's account of the scope of landscape architecture, from Design on the land. Geoffrey Jellicoe's account of the scope of landscape design, from the Landscape of Man Ian McHarg: notes and links on the twentieth century's outstanding landscape planner. eTexts relating to Arts and Crafts Gardens William Morris' essay on Hopes and fears for art in which he criticises carpet bedding and makes the point that gardens should be works of art and of craft. Thomas Huxley's discussion of Evolution and ethics (1859), in which he views his own garden as a 'work of art' in contrast to the 'state of nature' which existed before it was made. William Robinson The Wild Garden (1881 edn Chapters 1-5, originally published by John Murray and reproduced with their permission). Robinson is described by Jekyll (in the reference below) as 'our great champion of hardy flowers'. He urged the use of hardy plants, instead of subtropical plants and carpet bedding, in garden design. He had a sharp dispute with Blomfield (below). John D Sedding Garden craft old and new (1891) introduced his book with a chapter on The Theory of the Garden. There are 2 chapters in the Encyclopedia . Reginald Blomfield's The Formal garden in England (1901 edn, originally published by MacMillan and reproduced with their permission). A contemporary review in The Times said 'Mr. Blomfield's historical sketch of the art of gardening in England is full of interest and instruction, and his polemic against the so-called landscape gardeners is vigorous, incisive, and to our mind convincing.' The book is undoubtedly polemical, but commendably scholarly. Blomfield was the son of a bishop and had a hatred of modernism. Gertrude Jekyll's account of garden design (from Wall water and woodland gardens, 1901, originally published by Country Life and reproduced with their permission). Jekyll was the most influential writer on planting design in the twentieth century. This chapter is the clearest statement of her views on the history and theory of garden design. eTexts relating to Design Methods Design methodology: an overview by Tom Turner Surface water drainage and management (from Landscape Design October 1985) arguing for 'privileging' water in the design procedure Wilderness and plenty: construction and deconstruction (from Urban Design Quarterly September 1992) arguing that the professional structure of the construction industry would benefit from deconstruction. 'Feminine' landscape design: a tale of two tragedies (from a Sheffield Spring School lecture, April 1993) arguing for the 'way of the hunter' to be balanced by the 'way of the nester' Postmodern landscapes (from Landscape Design May 1993) arguing for landscape and garden designers to take account of postmodern ideas and theories in their work Pattern analysis (from Landscape Design October 1991) arguing for a design method based on pattern analysis, instead of the modernist Survey-Analysis-Design (SAD) method taught in most of the world's landscape and garden design schools. Revolutions in the garden (from Tom Turner's City as landscape, Spons 1996). After looking at the design revolutions which have taken place in the 1690s, 1790s, and 1890s this essay finds the seeds of a fourth design revolution in the work of Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe, Charles Jencks, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. The flowers of garden design theory (from Garden Design Journal Autumn 1999, published as 'Timeless with delight') this article suggests a design method which integrates knowledge drawn from various fields, including the fine arts, philosophy, the natural and social sciences. PAKILDA: Pattern Assisted Knowledge Intensive Landscape Design Approach (from Landscape Design May 2001). Developing the method outlined in the Garden Design Journal, this article the recommends a design method for landscape design and planning. Design history and theory (from a lecture delivered at the University of Uppsala in April 2002) this article relates the PAKILDA method to the set of design objectives outlined by Vitruvius in the first century: utilitas (Commodity), firmitas (Firmness) and venustas (Delight). eTexts relating to Twentieth Century Gardens There are histories of American Garden Design in the Encyclopedia , written in 1834, 1928 and 2001. Geoffrey Jellicoe: a collection of information on his work, including an essay by Tom Turner on: Geoffrey Jellicoe, the subconscious and landscape design (1998) Garden Revolutions: an essay in which it is argued that 'structuralism can infuse gardens with post-Postmodern ideas and beliefs. It is a layered approach to garden making. '