Search results for: fundamentals-of-space-biology

Fundamentals of Space Biology

Author : Gilles Clément
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This book examines the effects of spaceflight at cellular and organism levels. Research on the effects of gravity - or its absence - and ionizing radiation on the evolution, development, and function of living organisms is presented in layman's terms. The book describes the benefits of space biology for basic and applied research to support human space exploration and the advantages of space as a laboratory for scientific, technological, and commercial research.

Fundamentals of Space Medicine

Author : Gilles Clément
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Investigations in space have led to fundamental discoveries of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has conducted extensive research in this field. This readable text presents the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. About 1200 human space flights have been completed to date, including more than 500 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of about 90 years. The first edition of this title was published in 2005 (written in 2003 – 2004), and new data is now available from crewmembers participating in long-duration flights on board the International Space Station (ISS). The number of astronauts who have spent six months in orbit has doubled since 2004. On board the ISS, the astronauts use newly developed pharmaceutical countermeasure for bone loss (such as biophosphonates) and state-of-the-art exercise resistive devices against muscle atrophy and cardiovascular deterioration. The ISS life support systems now use advanced closed-loop systems for meeting the needs of a 6-person crew, including recycling urine to water. Some of these new technologies have potential spin-offs for medical (i.e., sedentary life style, obesity) and environmental issues here on Earth. And finally, there are new space research opportunities with the Orion space vehicle that will soon replace the Space Shuttle, the Moon, and Mars space exploration program that is slowly but surely taking shape, and the space tourism sector that has become a reality. The focus on this edition is the ISS, Orion and planetary exploration, and space tourism. This edition also includes more than 20% new material, along with photographs, data, and video clips for Springer Extras!

Fundamentals of Space Biology

Author : Makoto Asashima
File Size : 61.39 MB
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Foundations of Space Biology and Medicine Space medicine and biotechnology

Author : Melvin Calvin
File Size : 39.91 MB
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Foundations of Space Biology and Medicine Ecological and physiological bases of space biology and medicine 2 v

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File Size : 76.8 MB
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Foundations of Space Biology and Medicine

Author : Melvin Calvin
File Size : 55.11 MB
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Artificial Gravity

Author : Gilles Clément
File Size : 72.48 MB
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This book reviews the principle and rationale for using artificial gravity during space missions, and describes the current options proposed, including a short-radius centrifuge contained within a spacecraft. Experts provide recommendations on the research needed to assess whether or not short-radius centrifuge workouts can help limit deconditioning of physiological systems. Many detailed illustrations are included.

Foundations of space biology and medicine v 3 1975

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Return to the Moon

Author : Harrison Schmitt
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Former NASA Astronaut Harrison Schmitt advocates a private, investor-based approach to returning humans to the Moon—to extract Helium 3 for energy production, to use the Moon as a platform for science and manufacturing, and to establish permanent human colonies there in a kind of stepping stone community on the way to deeper space. With governments playing a supporting role—just as they have in the development of modern commercial aeronautics and agricultural production—Schmitt believes that a fundamentally private enterprise is the only type of organization capable of sustaining such an effort and, eventually, even making it pay off.

Fundamentals of Space Life Sciences

Author : Susanne Elaine Churchill
File Size : 52.11 MB
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Foundations of Space Biology and Medicine Ecological and physiological bases of space biology and medicine

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File Size : 31.13 MB
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Foundations of Space Biology and Medicine Volume 2 Book 1 Ecological and Physiological Bases of Space Biology and Medicine

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Biology in Space and Life on Earth

Author : Enno Brinckmann
File Size : 28.40 MB
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This concise yet comprehensive treatment of the effects of spaceflight on biological systems includes issues at the forefront of life sciences research, such as gravitational biology, immune system response, bone cell formation and the effects of radiation on biosystems. Edited by a leading specialist at the European Space Agency (ESA) with contributions by internationally renowned experts, the chapters are based on the latest space laboratory experiments, including those on SPACELAB, ISS, parabolic flights and unmanned research satellites. An indispensable source for biologists, medical researchers and astronautics experts alike. The results of Space flight experiments, ground controls and flight simulations pave the way for a better understanding of gravity reactions in various organisms down to molecular mechanisms. This publication marks also the beginning of a new Space flight era with the construction and exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) which provides a platform for an in-depth continuation of experiments under weightlessness in Low Earth Orbit and beyond.

Foundations of space biology and medicine v 2 pt 1 1975

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File Size : 52.13 MB
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Developmental Biology Research in Space

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In this volume of ASPA, devoted to developmental biology research, 9 authors from different fields of developmental biology present their investigations on various developing plant and animal models. An a priori concern in mind that weightlessness might have negative effects on developmental processes, it is encouraging to know that the overall development of various organisms tested so far is essentially correct under spaceflight conditions, leading to viable individuals with viable offspring. On the other hand, particular studies on specifically neurophysiological aspects in developing organisms reveal important flight or postflight disturbances; however it is encouraging to know that they appear to be transient only. The book contains ten chapters, giving details on how, in technical terms, experiments for spaceflights are prepared, performed and analysed and on how, in scientific terms, the available results have to be interpreted. One contribution is devoted to plant systems, five consider the overall aspects of embryonic development in invertebrates and vertebrates, two focus on neurophysiological aspects and one reports on the "mother-offspring system" in weightlessness in a mammalian model, the last chapter presents new ESA facilities and instruments to be integrated into the European research Laboratory "Columbus" of the ISS.

Biological and Medical Research in Space

Author : David Moore
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Life Science studies in space were initially driven by the need to explore how man could survive spaceflight conditions; the effects of being launched un der high accelerations, exposed to weightlessness and radiation for different periods of time, and returned to Earth in safety. In order to substantiate the detailed knowledge of potentially adverse effects, many model experiments were launched using organisms which ranged from bacteria, plants, inverte brates, rodents and primates through to man. Although no immediate life threatening effects were found, these experiments can be considered today as the precursors to life science research in space. Many unexplained effects on these life forms were attributed to the condition of weightlessness. Most of them were poorly recorded, poorly published, or left simply with anecdotal information. Only with the advent of Skylab, and later Spacelab, did the idea emerge, and indeed the infrastructure permit, weightlessness to be considered as an ex tended tool for research into some fundamental mechanisms or processes as sociated with the effect of gravity on organisms at all levels. The initial hy pothesis to extrapolate from hypergravity through 1 x g to near 0 x g effects could no longer be retained, since many of the experiment results were seen to contradict the models or theories in the current textbooks of biology and physiology. The past decade has been dedicated primarily to exploratory research.

Biology Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR

Author : Akademii\U+0361\a nauk SSSR.
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Fundamentals of Biophysics

Author : Andrey B. Rubin
File Size : 72.68 MB
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Biophysics is a science that comprises theoretical plotting and models based on contemporary physicochemical conceptions. They mirror physical specificity of the molecular organization and elementary processes in living organisms, which in their turn form the molecular basis of biological phenomena. Presentation of a complete course in biophysics requires vast biological material as well as additional involvement of state-of-the-art concepts in physics, chemistry and mathematics. This is essential for the students to “perceive” the specific nature and peculiarity of molecular biological processes and see how this specificity is displayed in biological systems. This is the essence of the up-to-date biophysical approach to the analysis of biological processes. Fundamentals of Biophysics offers a complete, thorough coverage of the material in a straightforward and no-nonsense format, offering a new and unique approach to the material that presents the appropriate topics without extraneous and unneeded filler material.

Advances in Space Biology and Medicine

Author : S.L. Bonting
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During the past several years there has been a shortage of flight opportunities for biological and medical projects. And those that were available usually had severe restrictions on instrumentation, number of subjects, duration, time allotted for performing the experiments, a possibility for repetition of experiments. It is our hope and expectation that this will change once the international Space Station is in full operation. The advantages of a permanent space station, already demonstrated by the Russian Mir station, are continuous availability of expert crew and a wide range of equipment, possibility of long-term experiments where this is waranted, increased numbers of subjects through larger laboratory space, proper controls in the large 1-G centrifuge, easier repeatability of experiments when needed. The limited number of flight opportunities during recent years probably explains why it has taken so long to acquire a sufficient number of high quality contributions for this seventh volume of Advances in Space Biology and Medicine. While initially the series wassailed at annually appearing volumes, we are now down to a biannual appearance. Hopefully, it will be possible to return to annual volumes in the future when results from space station experimentation at beginning to pour in. The first three chapters of this volume deal with muscle. Fejtek and Wassersug provide a survey of all studies on muscle of rodents flown in space, and include an interesting demography of this aspect of space research. Riley reviews our current knowledge of the effects of long-term spaceflight and re-entry on skeletal muscle, and considers the questions still to be answered before we can be satisfied that long-term space missions, such as on the space station, can be safely undertaken. Stein reviews our understanding of the nutritional and hormonal aspects of muscle loss in spaceflight, and concludes that the protein loss in space could be deleterious to health during flight and after return. Strollo summarizes our understanding of the major endocrine systems on the ground, then considers what we know about their functioning in space, concluding that there is much to be learned about the changes taking place during spaceflight. The many problems of providing life support (oxygen regeneration and food supply) during extended stay on the Moon, on Mars, or in space by means of plant cultivation are discussed by Salisbury. The challenges of utilizing electrophoresis in microgravity for the separation of cells and proteins are illustrated and explained by Bauer and colleagues. Finally, the chapter on teaching of space life sciences by Schmitt shows that this field of science has come of age, but also that its multidisciplinary character poses interesting challenges to teaching it.

A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century

Author : National Research Council
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Construction of the international space station, scheduled to start in late 1998, ushers in a new era for laboratory sciences in space. This is especially true for space life sciences, which include not only the use of low gravity as an experimental parameter to study fundamental biological processes but also the study of the serious physiological changes that occur in astronauts as they remain in space for increasingly longer missions. This book addresses both of these aspects and provides a comprehensive review of ground-based and space research in eleven disciplines, ranging from bone physiology to plant biology. It also offers detailed, prioritized recommendations for research during the next decade, which are expected to have a considerable impact on the direction of NASA's research program. The volume is also a valuable reference tool for space and life scientists.