Search results for: frugivores-and-seed-dispersal

Seed Dispersal and Frugivory

Author : Douglas John Levey
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This book provides information on the historical and theoretical perspectives of biodiversity and ecology in tropical forests, plant and animal behaviour towards seed dispersal and plant-animal interactions within forest communities, consequences of seed dispersal, and conservation, biodiversity and management.

Frugivores and seed dispersal

Author : Alejandro Estrada
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A wide variety of plants, ranging in size from forest floor herbs to giant canopy trees, rely on animals to disperse their seeds. Typical values of the proportion of tropical vascular plants that produce fleshy fruits and have animal-dispersed seeds range from 50-90%, depending on habitat. In this section, the authors discuss this mutualism from the plant's perspective. Herrera begins by challenging the notion that plant traits traditionally interpreted as being the product of fruit-frugivore coevolution really are the outcome of a response-counter-response kind of evolutionary process. He uses examples of congeneric plants living in very different biotic and abiotic environments and whose fossilizable characteristics have not changed over long periods of time to argue that there exists little or no basis for assuming that gradualistic change and environmental tracking characterizes the interactions between plants and their vertebrate seed dispersers. A common theme that runs through the papers by Herrera, Denslow et at. , and Stiles and White is the importance of the 'fruiting environment' (i. e. the spatial relationships of conspecific and non-conspecific fruiting plants) on rates of fruit removal and patterns of seed rain. Herrera and Denslow et at. point out that this environment is largely outside the control of individual plant species and, as a result, closely coevolved interactions between vertebrates and plants are unlikely to evolve.

Nonrandom Seed Dispersal by Lemur Frugivores

Author : Onja Harinala Franckline Eva Razafindratsima
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Frugivores act as seed-dispersal agents in many ecosystems. Thus, understanding the roles and impacts of seed dispersal by frugivores is important to understand the structure and diversity maintenance of plant communities. Frugivore-mediated seed dispersal is behaviorally driven, generating nonrandom patterns of seed dispersion; but, we know relatively little about how this might affect plant populations or communities. I examined how frugivores affected plants from the individual level to the population and community levels. To do this, I used modeling, trait-based and phylogenetic approaches combined with field observations and experiments, focusing on seed dispersal by three frugivorous lemur species in the biodiverse rainforest of Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. An analysis of traits suggested that 84% of trees in Ranomafana are adapted for animal dispersal, of which more than 70% are dispersed by these three lemur species indicating their role as generalist dispersers. The distribution of fruit and seed size of bird-dispersed species was nested within the wide spectrum of size distribution associated with lemur dispersal. Nonrandom seed dispersal by these three frugivores increased per capita recruitment of the seeds of a long-lived canopy tree, Cryptocarya crassifolia, by four-fold compared with no dispersal, even though it was not an overall advantage compared to random dispersal. The three frugivores not only dispersed seeds away from parent and conspecific adult-trees, but also biased seed dispersal toward certain microhabitats. By using fruiting trees as seed dispersal foci, lemur frugivores structure the spatial associations between dispersed seeds and adult-trees nonrandomly, in terms of fruiting time, dispersal mode and phylogenetic relatedness. However, lemur-dispersed tree species were not more likely to be each other’s neighbors as adults. Interestingly, co-fruiting neighboring trees sharing lemur dispersers were more phylogenetically distant than expected by chance despite a phylogenetic signal in lemur dispersal mode, although there was no phylogenetic signal in the timing of fruiting among lemur-dispersed tree species. Results suggest an important link between frugivore foraging behavior and the spatial, temporal and phylogenetic patterning of seed dispersal. The critical role of frugivores in structuring seed dispersion and seed-adult plant associations has critical implications for plant-plant interactions, biodiversity patterns and community structure.

Seed Dispersal

Author : David R. Murray
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Seed Dispersal focuses on the mechanics and processes involved in seed dispersal, including its implications in ecology, animal behavior, plant and animal biogeography, speciation, and evolution. The selection first elaborates on the aerial motion of seeds, fruits, spores, and pollen and seed dispersal by water. Discussions focus on seed dispersal by rain, river, and flood, effective seed dispersal by ocean currents compared to other vectors, aerodynamic forces and their effects, and launching and release mechanisms. The text then takes a look at seed dispersal syndromes in Australian Acacia, including inference of dispersal syndromes, seed dispersal syndromes, ecological consequences of seed dispersal, and evolutionary derivation of dispersal syndromes. The publication ponders on seed dispersal by fruit-eating birds and mammals, rodents as seed consumers and dispersers, and seed dispersal in relation to fire. Topics include fire as a dispersal vector, long distance dispersal, granivorous rodents and the fates of seeds, determinants of the fate path, population ecology of seed dispersal, and foraging for fruits. The selection is a valuable reference for researchers interested in the factors involved in seed dispersal.

Seed Dispersal

Author : Andrew J. Dennis
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Fresh concepts in the study of seed dispersal are spurring a host of exciting new questions, new answers to old questions, new methods and approaches, and a reinvigoration of the field.Seed Dispersal: Theory and its Application in a Changing World presents both recent advances and reviews of current knowledge demonstrating the vigour and vibrancy of the field. It provides new perspectives and directions at a time when efforts to meet growing environmental challenges threatening natural systems are of utmost importance.

Tropical Fruits and Frugivores

Author : J. Lawrence Dew
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In this book we undertake one of the first global-scale comparisons of the relationships between tropical plants and frugivorous animal communities, comparing sites within and across continents. In total, 12 primary contributors, including noted plant and animal ecologists, present newly-analyzed long-term datasets on the floristics and phenological rhythms of their study sites, identifying important seed dispersers and key plant taxa that sustain animal communities in Africa, Madagascar, Australasia, and the Neotropics.

Phytocoenologia

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Human Disturbance and Seed Dispersal by Understory Avian Frugivores

Author : Kurt A. Kristensen
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Life in the Cerrado Pollination and seed dispersal

Author : Gerhard Gottsberger
File Size : 38.12 MB
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Seeds

Author : Michael Fenner
File Size : 90.54 MB
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Reproductive allocation and reproductive effort in plants; Maternal effects on seeds during development; The ecology of seed dispersal; Animals as seed dispersers; Fruits and frugivory; Seed predators and plant populations dynamics; Longevity, viability and dormancy; The functional ecology of seed banks; Seed responses to light; The role of temperature in germination ecophysiology; Effect of chemical environment on seed germination; The contribution of seedling regeneration to the structure and dynamics of plant communities and larger units of landscape.

Insect Ecology

Author : Timothy D. Schowalter
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Insect Ecology: An Ecosystem Approach, Fourth Edition, follows a hierarchical organization that begins with relatively easy-to-understand chapters on adaptive responses of insect populations to various environmental changes, disturbances, and anthropogenic activities, how insects find food and habitat resources, and how insects allocate available energy and nutrients. Chapters build on fundamental information to show how insect populations respond to changing environmental conditions, including spatial and temporal distribution of food and habitat. The next section integrates populations of interacting species within communities and how these interactions determine structure of communities over time and space. Other works in insect ecology stop there, essentially limiting presentation of insect ecology to evolutionary responses of insects to their environment, including the activities of other species. The unique aspect of this book is its four chapters on ecosystem structure and function, and how herbivores, pollinators, seed predators, and detritivores drive ecosystem dynamics and contribute to ecosystem stability. Provides the most advanced synthesis of insect ecology, with updated material throughout and new chapters Presents the roles of insects in delivery of ecosystem services and applications to pest management and conservation Features full coverage of ecosystem structure and function balanced with essential background on evolutionary aspects Includes case studies highlighting practical and theoretical applications for topics covered in each chapter

Tropical Ecosystems

Author : K. N. Ganeshaiah
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The tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, comprising extremely fragile ecosystems, support more than 70 per cent of the world's biota in a complex labyrinth of ecological interactions. These regions are also home to nearly half of the world's human population and thus experience tremendous pressure on their natural resources. In the recent past, there has been a growing concern over the accelerating rate of deforestation in the tropics and the consequent loss of biodiversity. Reflecting these concerns, and seeking to review the threats and to arrive at possible solutions, an international conference on Tropical Ecosystems: Structure, Diversity and Human Welfare was organized in Bangalore, India from July 15-18, 2001. The contributions to this conference are compiled in this volume and reflect the most current scholarship on the patterns and processes underlying tropical ecosystems.

Ardea

Author :
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Reproductive Biology and Evolution of Tropical Woody Angiosperms

Author : Gerhard Gottsberger
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This collection of papers is from a symposium held in conjunction with the XIVth International Congres in Berlin in 1987. It includes contributions on evolution in primitive angiosperms, sexual dimorphisms, & family & generic treatments.

Ecology

Author :
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Chiroptera Neotropical

Author :
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Seeds

Author : Carol C. Baskin
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Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination differs from all other books on seed germination. It is an all-encompassing volume that provides a working hypothesis of the ecological and environmental conditions under which various kinds of seed dormancy have developed. It also presents information on the seed germination of more than 3500 species of trees, shrubs, vines and herbaceous species, making this a valuable reference for anyone studying germination. This book delivers information on characteristics of each type of seed dormancy, how each type of dormancy is broken in nature, and what environmental conditions are required for germination after dormancy is broken. It explains how studies should be done to distinguish persistent from transient seed banks, and covers which species should be controlled, propagated, and conserved. Seeds gives the reader insight and guidelines for doing ecologically meaningful studies on the biogeography and evolution of seed dormancy and germination in order to better understand plant reproductive strategies, life history traits, adaptations to habitats, and physiological processes. Key Features * Evolutionary/phylogenetic origins and relationships of various kinds of seed dormancy * A world biogeographical perspective on seed dormancy and germination * Ecophysiology of seeds with each type of dormancy * Critical evaluation of methodology used in soil seed bank studies * Germination ecology of plants with specialized habitat and life cycle types * Genetic and maternal preconditioning effects on seed dormancy and germination * Guidelines for doing ecologically-meaningful germination studies

Canadian Journal of Botany

Author :
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Canadian Journal of Zoology

Author :
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Acta

Author : National Museum of Natural Sciences (Canada)
File Size : 43.81 MB
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