Search results for: exploring-randomness


Author : Gregory J. Chaitin
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This essential companion to Chaitin's successful books The Unknowable and The Limits of Mathematics, presents the technical core of his theory of program-size complexity. The two previous volumes are more concerned with applications to meta-mathematics. LISP is used to present the key algorithms and to enable computer users to interact with the authors proofs and discover for themselves how they work. The LISP code for this book is available at the author's Web site together with a Java applet LISP interpreter. "No one has looked deeper and farther into the abyss of randomness and its role in mathematics than Greg Chaitin. This book tells you everything hes seen. Don miss it." John Casti, Santa Fe Institute, Author of Goedel: A Life of Logic.'

A Computable Universe

Author : Hector Zenil
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This volume, with a Foreword writer Sir Roger Penrose, discusses the foundations of computation in relation to nature. It focuses on two main questions: What is computation?How does nature compute? The contributors are world-renowned experts who have helped shape a cutting-edge computational understanding of the universe. They discuss computation in the world from a variety of perspectives, ranging from foundational concepts to pragmatic models to ontological conceptions and philosophical implications. The volume provides a state-of-the-art collection of technical papers and non-technical essays, representing a field that assumes information and computation to be key in understanding and explaining the basic structure underpinning physical reality. It also includes a new edition of Konrad Zuse's “Calculating Space” (the MIT translation), and a panel discussion transcription on the topic, featuring worldwide experts in quantum mechanics, physics, cognition, computation and algorithmic complexity. The volume is dedicated to the memory of Alan M Turing — the inventor of universal computation, on the 100th anniversary of his birth, and is part of the Turing Centenary celebrations. Contents:Foreword (R Penrose)PrefaceAcknowledgementsIntroducing the Computable Universe (H Zenil)Historical, Philosophical & Foundational Aspects of Computation:Origins of Digital Computing: Alan Turing, Charles Babbage, & Ada Lovelace (D Swade)Generating, Solving and the Mathematics of Homo Sapiens. E Post's Views on Computation (L De Mol)Machines (R Turner)Effectiveness (N Dershowitz & E Falkovich)Axioms for Computability: Do They Allow a Proof of Church's Thesis? (W Sieg)The Mathematician's Bias — and the Return to Embodied Computation (S B Cooper)Intuitionistic Mathematics and Realizability in the Physical World (A Bauer)What is Computation? Actor Model versus Turing's Model (C Hewitt)Computation in Nature & the Real World:Reaction Systems: A Natural Computing Approach to the Functioning of Living Cells (A Ehrenfeucht, J Kleijn, M Koutny & G Rozenberg)Bacteria, Turing Machines and Hyperbolic Cellular Automata (M Margenstern)Computation and Communication in Unorganized Systems (C Teuscher)The Many Forms of Amorphous Computational Systems (J Wiedermann)Computing on Rings (G J Martínez, A Adamatzky & H V McIntosh)Life as Evolving Software (G J Chaitin)Computability and Algorithmic Complexity in Economics (K V Velupillai & S Zambelli)Blueprint for a Hypercomputer (F A Doria)Computation & Physics & the Physics of Computation:Information-Theoretic Teleodynamics in Natural and Artificial Systems (A F Beavers & C D Harrison)Discrete Theoretical Processes (DTP) (E Fredkin)The Fastest Way of Computing All Universes (J Schmidhuber)The Subjective Computable Universe (M Hutter)What Is Ultimately Possible in Physics? (S Wolfram)Universality, Turing Incompleteness and Observers (K Sutner)Algorithmic Causal Sets for a Computational Spacetime (T Bolognesi)The Computable Universe Hypothesis (M P Szudzik)The Universe is Lawless or “Pantôn chrêmatôn metron anthrôpon einai” (C S Calude, F W Meyerstein & A Salomaa)Is Feasibility in Physics Limited by Fantasy Alone? (C S Calude & K Svozil)The Quantum, Computation & Information:What is Computation? (How) Does Nature Compute? (D Deutsch)The Universe as Quantum Computer (S Lloyd)Quantum Speedup and Temporal Inequalities for Sequential Actions (M Żukowski)The Contextual Computer (A Cabello)A Gödel-Turing Perspective on Quantum States Indistinguishable from Inside (T Breuer)When Humans Do Compute Quantum (P Zizzi)Open Discussion Section:Open Discussion on A Computable Universe (A Bauer, T Bolognesi, A Cabello, C S Calude, L De Mol, F Doria, E Fredkin, C Hewitt, M Hutter, M Margenstern, K Svozil, M Szudzik, C Teuscher, S Wolfram & H Zenil)Live Panel Discussion (transcription):What is Computation? (How) Does Nature Compute? (C S Calude, G J Chaitin, E Fredkin, A J Leggett, R de Ruyter, T Toffoli & S Wolfram)Zuse's Calculating Space:Calculating Space (Rechnender Raum) (K Zuse)Afterword to Konrad Zuse's Calculating Space (A German & H Zenil) Readership: Graduate students who are specialized researchers in computer science, information theory, quantum theory and modern philosophy and the general public who are interested in these subject areas. Keywords:Digital Physics;Computational Universe;Digital Philosophy;Reality Theories of the Universe;Models of the World;Thring Computation RandomnessKey Features:The authors are all prominent researchersNo competing titlesState-of-the-art collection of technical papers and non-technical essays

Mastering Unity 2D Game Development

Author : Simon Jackson
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If you have C# knowledge but now want to become truly confident in creating fully functional 2D RPG games with Unity, then this book will show you everything you need to know.

Information and Randomness

Author : Cristian S. Calude
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The first edition of the monograph Information and Randomness: An Algorithmic Perspective by Crist ian Calude was published in 1994. In my Foreword I said: "The research in algorithmic information theory is already some 30 years old. However, only the recent years have witnessed a really vigorous growth in this area. . . . The present book by Calude fits very well in our series. Much original research is presented. . . making the approach richer in consequences than the classical one. Remarkably, however, the text is so self-contained and coherent that the book may also serve as a textbook. All proofs are given in the book and, thus, it is not necessary to consult other sources for classroom instruction. " The vigorous growth in the study of algorithmic information theory has continued during the past few years, which is clearly visible in the present second edition. Many new results, examples, exercises and open prob lems have been added. The additions include two entirely new chapters: "Computably Enumerable Random Reals" and "Randomness and Incom pleteness". The really comprehensive new bibliography makes the book very valuable for a researcher. The new results about the characterization of computably enumerable random reals, as well as the fascinating Omega Numbers, should contribute much to the value of the book as a textbook. The author has been directly involved in these results that have appeared in the prestigious journals Nature, New Scientist and Pour la Science.

Art and Innovation

Author : Craig Harris
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Exploring a radical combination of research, art and new media. The idea behind Xerox's interdisciplinary Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) is simple: if you put creative people in a hothouse setting, innovation will naturally emerge. PARC's Artist-in-Residence Program (PAIR) brings artists who use new media to PARC and pairs them with researchers who often use the same media, though in different contexts. This is radically different from most corporate support of the arts, where there is little intersection between the disciplines. The result is both interesting art and new scientific innovations. Art and Innovation explores the unique process that grew from this pairing of new media artists and scientists working at the frontier of developing technologies. In addition to discussing specific works created during several long-term residencies, the artists and researchers reveal the similarities and differences in their approaches and perspectives as they engage each other in a search for new methods for communication and creativity. Contributors Marshall Bern, David Biegelsen, Michael Black, Jeanette Blomberg, John Seely Brown, Margaret Crane, Paul De Marinis, Jeanne C. Finley, Rich Gold, Craig Harris, Steve Harrison, David Levy, Constance Lewallen, Dale MacDonald, Judy Malloy, Cathy Marshall, Scott Minneman, John Muse, Susan Newman, Joel Slayton, Lucy Suchman, Randy Trigg, Stephen Wilson, Jon Winet, Pamela Z

The Creation Hypothesis

Author : James Porter Moreland
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P.J. Moreland and a panel of scholars examine arguments and evidence from astronomy, physics, bio-chemistry, paleontology, and linguistics as they evaluate the creation hypothesis.

Graven Images

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Algorithmic Randomness and Complexity

Author : Rodney G. Downey
File Size : 20.1 MB
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Computability and complexity theory are two central areas of research in theoretical computer science. This book provides a systematic, technical development of "algorithmic randomness" and complexity for scientists from diverse fields.

Controllability Identification and Randomness in Distributed Systems

Author : Marzieh Nabi-Abdolyousefi
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This interdisciplinary thesis involves the design and analysis of coordination algorithms on networks, identification of dynamic networks and estimation on networks with random geometries with implications for networks that support the operation of dynamic systems, e.g., formations of robotic vehicles, distributed estimation via sensor networks. The results have ramifications for fault detection and isolation of large-scale networked systems and optimization models and algorithms for next generation aircraft power systems. The author finds novel applications of the methodology in energy systems, such as residential and industrial smart energy management systems.

New Scientist

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Philosophia naturalis

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Knowledge and Belief

Author : Winfried Löffler
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Book Review Index

Author : Dana Ferguson
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Unstable Singularities and Randomness

Author : Joseph P. Zbilut
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Traditionally, randomness and determinism have been viewed as being diametrically opposed, based on the idea that causality and determinism is complicated by “noise. Although recent research has suggested that noise can have a productive role, it still views noise as a separate entity. This work suggests that this not need to be so. In an informal presentation, instead, the problem is traced to traditional assumptions regarding dynamical equations and their need for unique solutions. If this requirement is relaxed, the equations admit for instability and stochasticity evolving from the dynamics itself. This allows for a decoupling from the “burden of the past and provides insights into concepts such as predictability, irreversibility, adaptability, creativity and multi-choice behaviour. This reformulation is especially relevant for biological and social sciences whose need for flexibility a propos of environmental demands is important to understand: this suggests that many system models are based on randomness and nondeterminism complicated with a little bit of determinism to ultimately achieve concurrent flexibility and stability. As a result, the statistical perception of reality is seen as being a more productive tool than classical determinism. The book addresses scientists of all disciplines, with special emphasis at making the ideas more accessible to scientists and students not traditionally involved in the formal mathematics of the physical sciences. The implications may be of interest also to specialists in the philosophy of science. · Presents the ideas in an informal language. · Provides tools for exploring data for singularities.

Kaleidoscopic Randomness

Author : Amaresh Nath
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Common Randomness Efficiency and Actions

Author :
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The source coding theorem and channel coding theorem, first established by Shannon in 1948, are the two pillars of information theory. The insight obtained from Shannon's work greatly changed the way modern communication systems were thought and built. As the original ideas of Shannon were absorbed by researchers, the mathematical tools in information theory were put to great use in statistics, portfolio theory, complexity theory, and probability theory. In this work, we explore the area of common randomness generation, where remote nodes use nature's correlated random resource and communication to generate a random variable in common. In particular, we investigate the initial efficiency of common randomness generation as the communication rate goes down to zero, and the saturation efficiency as the communication exhausts nature's randomness. We also consider the setting where some of the nodes can generate action sequences to influence part of nature's randomness. At last, we consider actions in the framework of source coding. The tools from channel coding and distributed source coding are combined to establish the fundamental limit of compression with actions.

Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 16

Author : Sebastian Thrun
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Papers presented at the 2003 Neural Information Processing Conference by leading physicists, neuroscientists, mathematicians, statisticians, and computer scientists. The annual Neural Information Processing (NIPS) conference is the flagship meeting on neural computation. It draws a diverse group of attendees -- physicists, neuroscientists, mathematicians, statisticians, and computer scientists. The presentations are interdisciplinary, with contributions in algorithms, learning theory, cognitive science, neuroscience, brain imaging, vision, speech and signal processing, reinforcement learning and control, emerging technologies, and applications. Only thirty percent of the papers submitted are accepted for presentation at NIPS, so the quality is exceptionally high. This volume contains all the papers presented at the 2003 conference.

The British National Bibliography

Author : Arthur James Wells
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Randomness Undecidability in Physics

Author : Karl Svozil
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Recent findings in the computer sciences, discrete mathematics, formal logics and metamathematics have opened up a royal road for the investigation of undecidability and randomness in physics. A translation of these formal concepts yields a fresh look into diverse features of physical modelling such as quantum complementarity and the measurement problem, but also stipulates questions related to the necessity of the assumption of continua.Conversely, any computer may be perceived as a physical system: not only in the immediate sense of the physical properties of its hardware. Computers are a medium to virtual realities. The foreseeable importance of such virtual realities stimulates the investigation of an ?inner description?, a ?virtual physics? of these universes of computation. Indeed, one may consider our own universe as just one particular realisation of an enormous number of virtual realities, most of them awaiting discovery.One motive of this book is the recognition that what is often referred to as ?randomness? in physics might actually be a signature of undecidability for systems whose evolution is computable on a step-by-step basis. To give a flavour of the type of questions envisaged: Consider an arbitrary algorithmic system which is computable on a step-by-step basis. Then it is in general impossible to specify a second algorithmic procedure, including itself, which, by experimental input-output analysis, is capable of finding the deterministic law of the first system. But even if such a law is specified beforehand, it is in general impossible to predict the system behaviour in the ?distant future?. In other words: no ?speedup? or ?computational shortcut? is available. In this approach, classical paradoxes can be formally translated into no-go theorems concerning intrinsic physical perception.It is suggested that complementarity can be modelled by experiments on finite automata, where measurements of one observable of the automaton destroys the possibility to measure another observable of the same automaton and it vice versa.Besides undecidability, a great part of the book is dedicated to a formal definition of randomness and entropy measures based on algorithmic information theory.

Meta Math

Author : Gregory J. Chaitin
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Explores the enigmas, paradoxes, and random qualities that exist within the field of mathematics and discusses the author's groundbreaking discovery of the Omega number, a complex representation of unknowability.