Search results for: epistemic-logic-for-ai-and-computer-science

Epistemic Logic for AI and Computer Science

Author : J.-J. Ch. Meyer
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A broad introduction to the subject; many exercises with full solutions are provided.

Dynamic Epistemic Logic

Author : Hans van Ditmarsch
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Dynamic Epistemic Logic is the logic of knowledge change. This book provides various logics to support such formal specifications, including proof systems. Concrete examples and epistemic puzzles enliven the exposition. The book also offers exercises with answers. It is suitable for graduate courses in logic. Many examples, exercises, and thorough completeness proofs and expressivity results are included. A companion web page offers slides for lecturers and exams for further practice.

Logic Epistemology and the Unity of Science

Author : Shahid Rahman
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The first volume in this new series explores, through extensive co-operation, new ways of achieving the integration of science in all its diversity. The book offers essays from important and influential philosophers in contemporary philosophy, discussing a range of topics from philosophy of science to epistemology, philosophy of logic and game theoretical approaches. It will be of interest to philosophers, computer scientists and all others interested in the scientific rationality.

Logics for Artificial Intelligence

Author : Raymond Turner
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In Logics for Artificial Intelligence, Raymond Turner leads us on a whirl-wind tour of nonstandard logics and their general applications to Al and computer science.

Philosophical Logic and Artificial Intelligence

Author : Richmond H. Thomason
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cians concerned with using logical tools in philosophy have been keenly aware of the limitations that arise from the original con centration of symbolic logic on the idiom of mathematics, and many of them have worked to create extensions of the received logical theories that would make them more generally applicable in philosophy. Carnap's Testability and Meaning, published in 1936 and 1937, was a good early example of this sort of research, motivated by the inadequacy of first-order formalizations of dis 'This sugar cube is soluble in water'. positional sentences like And in fact there is a continuous history of work on this topic, extending from Carnap's paper to Shoham's contribution to the present volume . . Much of the work in philosophical logic, and much of what has appeared in The Journal of Philosophical Logic, was mo tivated by similar considerations: work in modal logic (includ ing tense, deontic, and epistemic logic), intensional logics, non declaratives, presuppositions, and many other topics. In this sort of research, sin.ce the main point is to devise new formalisms, the technical development tends to be rather shallow in comparison with mathematical logic, though it is sel dom absent: theorems need to be proved in order to justify the formalisms, and sometimes these are nontrivial. On the other hand, much effort has to go into motivating a logical innovation.

Justification Logic

Author : S. N. Artemov
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Classical logic is concerned, loosely, with the behaviour of truths. Epistemic logic similarly is about the behaviour of known or believed truths. Justification logic is a theory of reasoning that enables the tracking of evidence for statements and therefore provides a logical framework for the reliability of assertions. This book, the first in the area, is a systematic account of the subject, progressing from modal logic through to the establishment of an arithmetic interpretation of intuitionistic logic. The presentation is mathematically rigorous but in a style that will appeal to readers from a wide variety of areas to which the theory applies. These include mathematical logic, artificial intelligence, computer science, philosophical logic and epistemology, linguistics, and game theory.

Computers and Artificial Intelligence

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Epistemology Context and Formalism

Author : Franck Lihoreau
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The main purpose of the present volume is to advance our understanding of the notions of knowledge and context, the connections between them and the ways in which they can be modeled, in particular formalized – a question of prime importance and utmost relevance to such diverse disciplines as philosophy, linguistics, computer science and artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Bringing together essays written by world-leading experts and emerging researchers in epistemology, logic, philosophy of language, linguistics and theoretical computer science, the book examines the formal modeling of knowledge and the knowledge-context link at one or more of three intersections - context and epistemology, epistemology and formalism, formalism and context – and presents a novel range of approaches to the current discussions that the connections between knowledge, language, action, reasoning and context continually enlivens. It develops powerful ideas that will push the relevant fields forward and give a sense of the new directions in which mainstream and formal research on knowledge and context is heading.

Logic Thought and Action

Author : Daniel Vanderveken
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This second volume in the series Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science brings a pragmatic perspective to the discussion of the unity of science. Contemporary philosophy and cognitive science increasingly acknowledge the systematic interrelation of language, thought and action. The principal function of language is to enable speakers to communicate their intentions to others, to respond flexibly in a social context and to act cooperatively in the world. This book will contribute to our understanding of this dynamic process by clearly presenting and discussing the most important hypotheses, issues and theories in philosophical and logical study of language, thought and action. Among the fundamental issues discussed are the rationality and freedom of agents, theoretical and practical reasoning, individual and collective attitudes and actions, the nature of cooperation and communication, the construction and conditions of adequacy of scientific theories, propositional contents and their truth conditions, illocutionary force, time, aspect and presupposition in meaning, speech acts within dialogue, the dialogical approach to logic and the structure of dialogues and other language games, as well as formal methods needed in logic or artificial intelligence to account for choice, paradoxes, uncertainty and imprecision. This volume contains major contributions by leading logicians, analytic philosophers, linguists and computer scientists. It will be of interest to graduate students and researchers from philosophy, logic, linguistics, cognitive science and artificial intelligence. There is no comparable survey in the existing literature.

Handbook of Knowledge Representation

Author : Frank van Harmelen
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Handbook of Knowledge Representation describes the essential foundations of Knowledge Representation, which lies at the core of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The book provides an up-to-date review of twenty-five key topics in knowledge representation, written by the leaders of each field. It includes a tutorial background and cutting-edge developments, as well as applications of Knowledge Representation in a variety of AI systems. This handbook is organized into three parts. Part I deals with general methods in Knowledge Representation and reasoning and covers such topics as classical logic in Knowledge Representation; satisfiability solvers; description logics; constraint programming; conceptual graphs; nonmonotonic reasoning; model-based problem solving; and Bayesian networks. Part II focuses on classes of knowledge and specialized representations, with chapters on temporal representation and reasoning; spatial and physical reasoning; reasoning about knowledge and belief; temporal action logics; and nonmonotonic causal logic. Part III discusses Knowledge Representation in applications such as question answering; the semantic web; automated planning; cognitive robotics; multi-agent systems; and knowledge engineering. This book is an essential resource for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in knowledge representation and AI. * Make your computer smarter * Handle qualitative and uncertain information * Improve computational tractability to solve your problems easily

Deontic Logic in Computer Science

Author : Ron van der Meyden
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This volume presents the papers contributed to ?EON 2008, the 9th Inter- tional Conference on Deontic Logic in Computer Science, held in Luxembourg, July 16–18, 2008. This biennial conference series is designed to promote int- national cooperation amongst scholars who are interested in deontic logic and its use in computer science. The scope of the conference is interdisciplinary, and includes research that links the formal-logical study of normative concepts and normative systems with computer science, arti?cial intelligence, philosophy, - ganization theory, and law. The ?EON website, http://www.deonticlogic.org, contains links to previous conferences and their papers. This history reveals a vibrant interdisciplinary research program. Papers for these conferences might address such general themes as the - velopment of formal systems of deontic logic and related areas of logic, such as logics of action and agency, or the formal analysis of all sorts of normative concepts, such as the notions of rule, role, regulation, authority, power, rights, responsibility, etc., or the formal representation of legal knowledge. They might also be concerned with applications, such as the formal speci?cation of n- mative multiagent systems, the speci?cation of systems for the management of bureaucratic processes in public or private administration, or the speci?cation of database integrity constraints or computer security protocols, and more. Of particular interest is the interaction between computer systems and their users.

Many Dimensional Modal Logics Theory and Applications

Author : A. Kurucz
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Modal logics, originally conceived in philosophy, have recently found many applications in computer science, artificial intelligence, the foundations of mathematics, linguistics and other disciplines. Celebrated for their good computational behaviour, modal logics are used as effective formalisms for talking about time, space, knowledge, beliefs, actions, obligations, provability, etc. However, the nice computational properties can drastically change if we combine some of these formalisms into a many-dimensional system, say, to reason about knowledge bases developing in time or moving objects. To study the computational behaviour of many-dimensional modal logics is the main aim of this book. On the one hand, it is concerned with providing a solid mathematical foundation for this discipline, while on the other hand, it shows that many seemingly different applied many-dimensional systems (e.g., multi-agent systems, description logics with epistemic, temporal and dynamic operators, spatio-temporal logics, etc.) fit in perfectly with this theoretical framework, and so their computational behaviour can be analyzed using the developed machinery. We start with concrete examples of applied one- and many-dimensional modal logics such as temporal, epistemic, dynamic, description, spatial logics, and various combinations of these. Then we develop a mathematical theory for handling a spectrum of 'abstract' combinations of modal logics - fusions and products of modal logics, fragments of first-order modal and temporal logics - focusing on three major problems: decidability, axiomatizability, and computational complexity. Besides the standard methods of modal logic, the technical toolkit includes the method of quasimodels, mosaics, tilings, reductions to monadic second-order logic, algebraic logic techniques. Finally, we apply the developed machinery and obtained results to three case studies from the field of knowledge representation and reasoning: temporal epistemic logics for reasoning about multi-agent systems, modalized description logics for dynamic ontologies, and spatio-temporal logics. The genre of the book can be defined as a research monograph. It brings the reader to the front line of current research in the field by showing both recent achievements and directions of future investigations (in particular, multiple open problems). On the other hand, well-known results from modal and first-order logic are formulated without proofs and supplied with references to accessible sources. The intended audience of this book is logicians as well as those researchers who use logic in computer science and artificial intelligence. More specific application areas are, e.g., knowledge representation and reasoning, in particular, terminological, temporal and spatial reasoning, or reasoning about agents. And we also believe that researchers from certain other disciplines, say, temporal and spatial databases or geographical information systems, will benefit from this book as well. Key Features: • Integrated approach to modern modal and temporal logics and their applications in artificial intelligence and computer science • Written by internationally leading researchers in the field of pure and applied logic • Combines mathematical theory of modal logic and applications in artificial intelligence and computer science • Numerous open problems for further research • Well illustrated with pictures and tables

Handbook of Epistemic Logic

Author : Hans van Ditmarsch
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Epistemic logic and, more generally, logics of knowledge and belief, originated with philosophers such as Jaakko Hintikka and David Lewis in the early 1960s. Since then, such logics have played a significant role not only in philosophy, but also in computer science, artificial intelligence, and economics. This handbook reports significant progress in a field that, while more mature, continues to be very active. This book should make it easier for new researchers to enter the field, and give experts a chance to appreciate work in related areas. The book starts with a gentle introduction to the logics of knowledge and belief; it gives an overview of the area and the material covered in the book. The following eleven chapters, each written by a leading researcher (or researchers), cover the topics of only knowing, awareness, knowledge and probability, knowledge and time, the dynamics of knowledge and of belief, model checking, game theory, agency, knowledge and ability, and security protocols. The chapters have been written so that they can be read independently and in any order. Each chapter ends with a section of notes that provides some historical background, including references, and a detailed bibliography.

Logics in Artificial Intelligence

Author : Farinas Luis Del Cerro
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This volume contains the papers selected for presentation at the conference and two abstracts from invited speakers. The programme committee selected these 25 papers from 12 countries out of 65 submissions from 17 countries. The rst JELIA meeting was in Rosco , France, ten years ago. Afterwards, it took place in the Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom, Portugal, and now again in Germany. The proceedings of the last four meetings appeared in the Springer-Verlag LNCS series, and a selected series of papers of the English and the Portuguese meeting appeared as special issues in the Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics and in the Journal of Automated Reasoning, respectively. The aim of JELIA was and still is to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and results in the domain of foundations of AI, focusing on rigorous descriptions of some aspects of intelligence. These descriptions are promoted by applications, and produced by logical tools and methods. The papers contained in this volume cover the following topics: 1. Logic programming 2. Epistemic logics 3. Theorem proving 4. Non-monotonic reasoning 5. Non-standard logics 6. Knowledge representation 7. Higher order logics We would like to warmly thank the authors, the invited speakers, the m- bers of the program committee, and the additional reviewers listed below. They all have made these proceedings possible and ensured their quality.

Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence

Author : Allan Ramsay
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This book on AI research and development presents a wide range of topics of interest, including automated reasoning: theorem proving, reasoning about action and change, reasoning about time and space, constraint satisfaction, reasoning on uncertainty and with fuzzy sets, analogy and induction, machine learning. Logics for AI: logics for knowledge, belief and intention, multi-valued logics, modal and temporal logics, epistemic logics, fuzzy logics. Languages, structures and algorithms for AI: logic programming, inductive logic programming, constraint programming, multi-agent systems, connectionist systems, genetic algorithms, parallel processing for AI. Knowledge-based systems: languages and systems for representing knowledge, object-based knowledge representation systems, knowledge acquisition, validation of knowledge-based systems. Natural language processing: syntax, semantics, discourse, speech recognition and understanding, natural language generation, natural language front ends. Perception and action: computer vision, object recognition, stereo vision, active vision, robotics systems, robot programming, robot motion planning, mobile robotics, behavior-based reactive robots. Principles of AI applications: AI for decision systems, AI in education, AI in engineering design, AI in manufacturing control, AI in medicine, AI in molecular biology, AI in environmental sciences.

Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge

Author : Ronald Fagin
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Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge contains the proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge (TARK 1994) held in Pacific Grove, California, on March 13-16, 1994. The conference provided a forum for discussing the theoretical aspects of reasoning about knowledge and tackled topics ranging from the logic of iterated belief revision and backwards forward induction to information acquisition from multi-agent resources, infinitely epistemic logic, and coherent belief revision in games. Comprised of 23 chapters, this book begins with a review of situation calculus and a solution to the frame problem, along with the use of a regression method for reasoning about the effect of actions. A novel programming language for high-level robotic control is described, along with a knowledge-based framework for belief change. Subsequent chapters deal with consistent belief reasoning in the presence of inconsistency; an epistemic logic of situations; an axiomatic approach to the logical omniscience problem; and an epistemic proof system for parallel processes. Inductive learning, knowledge asymmetries, and convention are also examined. This monograph will be of interest to both students and practitioners in the fields of artificial intelligence and computer science.

Many dimensional Modal Logics

Author : Dov M. Gabbay
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Modal logics, originally conceived in philosophy, have recently found many applications in computer science, artificial intelligence, the foundations of mathematics, linguistics and other disciplines. Celebrated for their good computational behaviour, modal logics are used as effective formalisms for talking about time, space, knowledge, beliefs, actions, obligations, provability, etc. However, the nice computational properties can drastically change if we combine some of these formalisms into a many-dimensional system, say, to reason about knowledge bases developing in time or moving objects. To study the computational behaviour of many-dimensional modal logics is the main aim of this book. On the one hand, it is concerned with providing a solid mathematical foundation for this discipline, while on the other hand, it shows that many seemingly different applied many-dimensional systems (e.g., multi-agent systems, description logics with epistemic, temporal and dynamic operators, spatio-temporal logics, etc.) fit in perfectly with this theoretical framework, and so their computational behaviour can be analyzed using the developed machinery. We start with concrete examples of applied one- and many-dimensional modal logics such as temporal, epistemic, dynamic, description, spatial logics, and various combinations of these. Then we develop a mathematical theory for handling a spectrum of 'abstract' combinations of modal logics - fusions and products of modal logics, fragments of first-order modal and temporal logics - focusing on three major problems: decidability, axiomatizability, and computational complexity. Besides the standard methods of modal logic, the technical toolkit includes the method of quasimodels, mosaics, tilings, reductions to monadic second-order logic, algebraic logic techniques. Finally, we apply the developed machinery and obtained results to three case studies from the field of knowledge representation and reasoning: temporal epistemic logics for reasoning about multi-agent systems, modalized description logics for dynamic ontologies, and spatio-temporal logics. The genre of the book can be defined as a research monograph. It brings the reader to the front line of current research in the field by showing both recent achievements and directions of future investigations (in particular, multiple open problems). On the other hand, well-known results from modal and first-order logic are formulated without proofs and supplied with references to accessible sources. The intended audience of this book is logicians as well as those researchers who use logic in computer science and artificial intelligence. More specific application areas are, e.g., knowledge representation and reasoning, in particular, terminological, temporal and spatial reasoning, or reasoning about agents. And we also believe that researchers from certain other disciplines, say, temporal and spatial databases or geographical information systems, will benefit from this book as well. Key Features: • Integrated approach to modern modal and temporal logics and their applications in artificial intelligence and computer science • Written by internationally leading researchers in the field of pure and applied logic • Combines mathematical theory of modal logic and applications in artificial intelligence and computer science • Numerous open problems for further research • Well illustrated with pictures and tables

Knowledge Proof and Dynamics

Author : Fenrong Liu
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This volume gathers selected papers presented at the Fourth Asian Workshop on Philosophical Logic, held in Beijing in October 2018. The contributions cover a wide variety of topics in modal logic (epistemic logic, temporal logic and dynamic logic), proof theory, algebraic logic, game logics, and philosophical foundations of logic. They also reflect the interdisciplinary nature of logic – a subject that has been studied in fields as diverse as philosophy, linguistics, mathematics, computer science and artificial intelligence. More specifically. The book also presents the latest developments in logic both in Asia and beyond.

Deontic Logic in Computer Science

Author : Guido Governatori
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This volume presents the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Deontic Logic in Computer Science, DEON 2010, held in Fiesole, Italy, in July 2010. The 18 revised papers included in the volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 34 submissions. Topics covered include connections preferences, deontic logic and contrary-to-duties, the use of input/output logic, the study of norm dynamics, models of agents and institutions, argumentation, compliance, and various alternative analyses of deontic notions.